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AXU 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



CATALOGUE OF ENGLISH COINS 
IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



A CATALOGUE 

OF 

ENGLISH COINS 

IN THE 

BKITISH MUSEUM. 

ANGLO-SAXON SERIES. 

Volume I. 

BY 

CHAKLES FEANCIS KEARY, M.A., F.S.A. 

EDITED BY 

REGINALD STUART POOLE, LL.D. 

CORRESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. 

WITH THIRTY PLATES. 



LONDON: 
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LONDON : 

PRINTED ny WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

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Bile 

EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



This volume of the Catalogue of English Coins contains 
the description of the earliest Anglo-Saxon money, and that of 
Mercia, Kent, East Anglia and Northumbria, including the 
coins of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the coins 
with the names of Saints struck in these different divisions of 
the country. 

The metal of each coin is stated and its size or average 
size in inches and tenths, and the weight of the gold and 
silver coins is given in English grains. 

Tables for converting grains into grammes and inches into 
millimetres, as well as into the measures of Mionnet's scale, 
are placed at the end of the volume. 

The work has been written by Mr. C. F. Keary, of the 
Department of Coins, and has been carefully revised by myself 
and Mr. B. V. Head, Assistant-Keeper of Coins, every coin 
being compared with the corresponding description. 

REGINALD STUART POOLE. 



2135431 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION— 

§ 1. Arrangement ......•• 

§ 2. Origin and history of the coinage. 

Relationship of English coinage to continental issues 
Finds of coins of Class i. (Early anonymous coins) 
Origin of the types of coins in Class i. . 
Coins struck in Loudon .... 

Earliest Northumbrian coinage . . . • 

Introduction of the penny into central and southeri 
England ....... 

Cessation of various Heptarchic currencies 
Introduction of the penny into Northumbria 

§ 3. Laws relating to coinage, Denominations, Values and Weights 
Laws ......... 

Denominations ....... 

Values .......•• 

Weiglits 

§ 4. Political History. 

Progress of English people towards unity 
Rivalry between Northumbria and Mercia 
Rivalry between Mercia and Wessex 
Decline of Mercia and final supremacy of Wessex . 
Coming of the Vikings ...... 

History of the Great Army in England 
Danish kingdoms after Peace of Wedmorc 
Decline of Danish power ..... 

§ 5. Biographical notices of persons whose coins are described. 
Kings of Mercia ....... 

Genealogy of Kings of Mercia .... 

Kings of Kent ....... 

Archbishops of Canterbury ..... 

Kings of East Anglia ...... 

Genealogy of Kings of Northumbria (Englisli) 



IV 

xii 
xviii 

XX 

xxi 

xsii 

xxviii 

xxix 

xxxi 

xxxiii 

xxxvii 

xxxviii 

xl 

xli 

xlv 

xlvi 

xlvii 

1 

li 

liii 

liv 
Iv 
Iviii 
lix 
Ixi 
Ixii 



CONTENTS, 



§ 5. Biogi'apliical uoticcs — co7itinue(l. 

Kings of Northumbria (English) 

Archbishops of York ..... 

Danish or Norse Kings in Northuiu1)ria . 

Genealogy of the House of Ivar . 
§ G. Component parts of the coin. 

Method of coining 

Classification of types .... 

Art . . • 

Classification of legends .... 

Proper names ...... 

Palajography 

Plate of runic inscriptions and alphabetic forms 

catalogue- 
Coins OF Uncertain Date 
Coins of the Kings of Mercia . 

Ptada .... 



^thelred .... 

Offa 

Cyuethry? .... 

Coenwulf .... 

Coelwulf i. . 

Beornwulf .... 

Ludican .... 

Wiglaf .... 

Berhtwulf .... 

Burgred .... 

Ccolwulf ii. . 
Coins of the Kinc.s of Kent . 

Ecgberht .... 

Eadberht I'rx7i . 

Cuthred .... 

Baldred .... 
Coins of the Aechbishops of Canterbury 

Jaenberht .... 

iEtlielhoard .... 

WuJfred .... 

Coelno'8 .... 

JSthered .... 

Plegmund .... 
Coins of the Kings of East Anglia 

Beonna .... 

.ffithelberht 



Ixiii 

Ixv 

Ixvi 

Ixviii 

Ixxii 
Ixxiii 
Ixxiv 
Ixxxi 
Ixxxii 
Ixxxi V 
Ixxxv 

1-22 

23-66 

23 

24 

25-33 

33 

34-39 

40-41 

42 

42 

42 

43-45 

46-65 

66 

67-70 

67 

67 

68-69 

70 

71-82 

71 

72 

73 

74-77 

78 

79-82 

83-96 

83 

83 



CONTENTS. 



CoiNr^ OF THE KiNGS OF East Anglia — continued. 

Eadwald 84 

.Ethelstan 84-86 

^thelweard 87-89 

Berhtric 89 

(St.) Eadmund 90-93 

Coins ascribed to uncertain King Oswald ... 94 

^thelstan ii. (Guthorm) 95-96 

Memorial COINAGE OF St. Eadmund 97-137 

Coin of St. Martin (Lincoln) 138 

Coins of the English Kings of Northumbria .... 139-188 

EcgfriS 1^^ 

Aldfri^ 139 

Eadberht 140-141 

Alchred l'*^ 

.Elfwaldi 142 

Eardwulf 1*3 

Eanred 1-14-158 

.Ethelredii 159-183 

Redwulf 184-186 

Osberht 187-188 

Coins of the Archbishops of York 189-199 

Ecgberht • 189 

Eanbaldii 190-192 

Wigmund 193-198 

Wulfhere 199 

Uncertain coins of NorthumVn-ia 199-200 

Coins OF the Danish or Norse Kings of Xouthimbria. . . 201-238 

Halfdan 203 

Cnut(Gu«r.d) 204-220 

Cnut and Siefred 221 

Siefred 222-226 

Cnut or Siefred 227-229 

Earl Sihtric 230 

Alvaldus 230 

Sihtric (Gflie ?) 231 

Begnald {Godfredsson !) 232-233 

Anlaf(Quar«7»?) 234-236 

Eric (jB/odox 237-238 

Coins -with the name of St. Petek 239-244 

Indexes 245 

278 
Corrigenda 

Tables .... 2<9 



INTRODUCTION. 



The coins described in the present volume are the earliest § l- 
struck by the English in this country, and are arranged in jjenx^^^" 
the following classes : — 

I. A single coin which stands apart from any other series. t!opy of 
It is a barbarous copy of a Eoman solidus, the Latin in- soMus. 
scriptions being blundered and rendered unintelligible ; but 

it has a legend in Eunic letters added on the reverse (PI. i. 1). 
The date of it is pronounced, upon palseographical evidence, 
to be about a.d. 600. Whether it is to be looked upon as a 
coin, i.e. struck for circulation as money, or merely as an 
ornament, must be considered doubtful.* 

II. A large series of small coins in both gold and silver, but Sceat 
by a very great majority in the latter metal, which unquestion- '-^^^'^■'^■ 
ably represent the first distinctly English coinage. These 
pieces are almost wholly anonymous, and those that are so 
afford no direct evidence as to their date. A very few have 
intelligible inscriptions, of which one is in Eoman and two 

or three are in Eunic characters. Among the latter we have 
apparently the names of two kings of Mercia who reigned in 
the latter half of the seventh century.t The silver coins are 
probably those known through some of the Anglo-Saxon 
laws and by a few passages in Anglo-Saxon literature as 
sceattas (sing, sceat, or sceatt), and they have always been 
known to numismatists under that name. On account of the 

* See below, pp. vi, viii. 

t Mcrciti, Nos. 1-G; pi. iv. 21-25. The identification of tlie names on 
thcso coins (Pada and ^S^tliiliiicd) with those of the two sons of Penda, kiuj^ 
of Mercia, P;cda or Peada and iEthelred, has been questioned ; but, as it seems 
to me, without reason. Beside tliis coincidence of the names of two brothers 
who rcif:;ned near to one another (Beda iii., c. 24, iv., c. 12), we have the evi- 
(U'nce afforded by the copying of the type of No. 1 (pi. iv. 21 ) on a coin of OllU 
fpl. vii. f)'. wliich is a btron<;- argument thai (he runic coin is a Mmiaii scent. 



11 INTRODUCTION. 

immense preponderance of these ' sccattas ' in tlie series, it 
has been tleseribeil as the Seeat Series. 

iMercia. jjj_ "jl^g coinage of Mercia, which, after the sceattas of 

the two kings just referred to, goes on with a continuous 
series of pennies beginning with Offa (757-796), and ending 
with Ceolwulf II. (874-875 or 877), the puppet set upon the 
throne by the Danes after the expulsion of Burgred. 

Ketit. IV. The coinage of Kent, consisting of two series of 

pennies, (i.) The regal series beginning with the coins of 
Ecgberht (765-791 ?) — a king unknown to history — and 
ending with those of Baldred (806 ?-825), upon whose 
expulsion Kent became an appanage of the kingdom of 
Wessex. (ii.) The archiepiscopal series beginning with 
Jaenberht (Archbishop of Canterbury, 766-790) and ending 
with Plegmund (Archbishop 890-914). 

i:ast Aiiglia. V. The coinage of East Anglia, consisting likewise of two 
series, (i.) A regal series of eight kings, only three of 
whom are known to history. The series begins with Beonna 
(circa 760) and ends with the Danish king Guthorm-iEthel- 
stan, who received the kingdom of East Anglia and part of 
Mercia after the Peace of Wedmore in 878, and died in 890. 
(ii.) A non-regal and quasi-ecclesiastical series of coins 
bearing the name of the martyred king ' St. Eadmund.' 
These memorial pennies were jDrobably struck at the end of 
the ninth century and during the earliest years of the 
tenth. 

The classes III.-V. consist of silver pennies, the sole 
coinage of England south of the Humber after the sceattas 
went out of use. 

Xortliunil.rin. YI. The Coinage of Northumbria. This is divided 
first of all into two sections. (i.) A coinage of copper 
coins struck by the Anglian kings of Northumbria and 
Archbishops of York, (ii.) The silver coinage (of pennies) 
introduced after the Danish occupation. 

(i.) The copper coins are known to numismatists as stycas. 
The word was undoubtedly applicable to the Northumbrian 
copper coins, how far specially so can hardly be determined. 
The Northumbrian stycas consist of, 1. A regal series which 
begins with l•]cgfri^ the sun oT Oswiu (a.d. 670 685), and 



INTRODUCTION. HI 

without being at all continuous except under the last three 
or four kings, ends with Osberht (a.d. 849-8G7) who perished 
fighting against the Danes at York, 2. A non-continuous 
archiepiscopal series from Ecgberht (Archbishop of York, 
A.D. 734-766) to Wulfhere (Archbishop, a.d. 854-900*). 

(ii.) The Dano-Norse penny coinage consists of, 1. a non- 
continuous series of coins of Danish or Norse kings from 
Halfdan (a.d. 875-877) to Eric (Blo^ox ?) who was finally 
expelled from Northumbria in a.d. 954. 2. A quasi-eccle- 
siastical coinage, somewhat similar to the East Anglian 
coinage of * St. Eadmund.' It bears the name of ' St. Peter,' 
and was undoubtedly struck at York during the Danish rule, 
probably about the middle of the tenth century. "We may 
suppose it to have been issued more or less under the 
direction of the Archbishops of York, and thus to represent 
the archiepiscopal coinage of the styca period. 

The above series constitute the coinages of all the Hep- Wes>ex not 
tarchic kingdoms of which coins are known, with the "^''^"^^^■^*- 
exception of Wessex ; many of the lesser kingdoms having 
decayed f or been amalgamated t before the beginning of 
any signed coinage. The coinage of Wessex, which merges 
into that of the kings of all England, has been reserved for 
the next volume. 

Exception may perhaps be taken to the beginning of the 
penny series with the coinage of Mercia rather than with 
that of the older kingdom of Kent. The reason for this 
arrangement is that, at the date of the introduction of the 
penny, Kent had sunk into a secondary position as compared 
with Mercia, which was at that moment by far the most im- 
portant among the Heptarchic kingdoms ; and that there is 
every reason to believe that it was in Mercia that the new 
coinage was first introduced.§ Many of the coins of the 
earlier Mercian kings were probably struck in Kent, and the 

* All the coins of this archbishop were probably struck in or before tlie 
the year 867. See p. 109. 

t Sussex, Essex. 

X Bernicia and Deira. 
• § It will be observed also, that the unly sceattas wliich can be attributed to 
any king are Merciau. 

b 2 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

earliest of the arcliiepiscopal coins of Canterbury ( Jaenberht, 
iEtlielheard) bear the names of IMercian kings (Oifa, 
Coeuwulf). 

More exception may be taken to the classing of a single 
coin struck at Lincoln with the name of ' St. Martin ' 
(p. 138) after the ' St. Eadmund ' coins, instead of at the end 
of the ]\[ercian series. The isolated character of the piece 
and the want of any substantial relationship between it and 
the regal series of Mercia may be mentioned among the 
reasons for this arrangement. 

It will be found that the period of history embraced by 
the different series extends from soon after the re-introduc- 
tion of Christianity into this island (a.d. 597), until the fall 
of the Danish-Norse kingdom in the north (a.d. 954). But 
as the coinage of Wessex is omitted, it does not comprise the 
history of the whole island, and comprises a continually 
smaller portion as the lesser kingdoms become either sup- 
pressed or amalgamated with Wessex. From the year 825 
it is only connected with the history of England north of 
the Thames, and from the death of Guthorm-iEthelstan 
(a.d. 890) only with the history of England north of the 
Humber. The relationship of the different series to one 
another will be best understood after a ijreliminary sketch of 
the numismatic history of the country within the limits of 
time and space indicated above. 

§ 2. Origin As the English coinage was only one among many 
OK THE * barbaric coinages which arose one by one after the fall of the 
Coinage. Western Empire, we cannot consider its origin and history 
quite apart from those of the other barbarian coinages of 
Northern Europe. On the contrary, we find that there is 
the closest analogy possible between the history of money in 
this country and its history in some of the continental 
countries nearest to England ; * through many stages, the 
only difference is, that every change here has followed or 
preceded by a few years a corresponding change in one or 
other of these countries. 

* Franof (' Franoiii ') "^ the one side, the Scondinavian (.•outitrics on tlicfitlior. 



INTRODUCTION. V 

Almost all the barbaric coinages of Europe, after the fall Imitations of 
of the Western Empire, began in mere imitations of the 
Roman money, in imitations which were at first meant to 
approach as near as possible to the originals, and were only 
differenced from them by want of skill on the part of the 
copiers. Later, some slight distinguishing signs (mono- 
grams, &c.) were added ; finally some new legends and types. 
These last (the new types) were at first confined to the 
reverses of the coins ; the head or bust, which is found in 
most cases upon the obverse, being intended for a copy of the 
head or bust upon the Eoman prototypes. 

It would be reasonable to expect, that the more precious 
the metal of the Eoman coins, the more extensive would be 
their circulation, and therefore the wider the area over 
which the barbarous imitations of them extended. And this 
rule — though a good deal modified by another influence * — ^^ 
generally holds good. Thus we find, that the currency of 
the Eoman solidus aureus was large enough to gain for this 
coin a place in the monetary system of most of the Germanic 
peoples, as a permanent measure of value (or money of 
account f), even in days before these peoples had any coinage 
of their own. Eoman gold coins of the time of Theodosius 
and Honorius acquired, at a pretty early date, a wide currency 
in the Scandinavian lands and on the southern shores of the 
Baltic ; and they produced in time a series of imitations in 
a descending order of degradation, ending with those pieces 
— ornaments rather than coins— called hradeates : broad thin 
discs of metal, specially characteristic of the Scandinavian 
countries, in the designs on which we can still faintly trace 
the Eoman prototypes. Of the same species are, no doubt, 
the Eoman coins and imitations of Eoman coins which are 

* Tba/German nations had a long standing preference for the Roman 
silver ./Currency, dating at any rate from the days of Tacitus. (Germ. c. 5; 
see Mommsen, Hist, de la Mon. rom. (Blacas tr.), iii. p. 132, for confirmation 
of this fact.) This was the connteractiiig infUienco. It was felt by jjeople 
{I'.cj. the Franks) who had been for some generations in contact with Ilonian 
civilization ; but not by the Baltic nations. 

t The solidus was a money of account among tlie Franks (both Sulic and 
Ripnarian), the Burgundians, tlie Alomanni, the Bavarians, and the Frisians, 
and appears as such in the laws of all these nations of Nortlieru Europe. 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

frequently met with in Anglo-Saxon graves,* and which are, 
of course, earlier in date than the Scandinavian imitations, 
but later than the imitations of the same class made in France, 
Italy, or Spain. f In the case of the pieces of this class, it 
is impossible accurately to distinguish between those which 
were designed for currency and those which were intended 
merely for ornament, because immediately before the intro- 
duction of a regular coinage ornaments themselves formed 
a sort of currency, t 

This is the currency which is represented by the first 
coin in the present Catalogue. We should not have been 
justified in including in a catalogue of English coins mere 
imitations of Eoman money, even if we had a well-grounded 
suspicion that these imitations were made by the English. 
But the accident, that the coin in question bears an inscrip- 
tion in Anglian runes, allows us to place it in the present 
series. And it stands as the representative of a certain 
stage in the history of the use of mouey in England. On 
a later page (Ixxxiv) I have repeated the remarks upon the 
character of the runes upon this coin, with which I have 
been favoured by Dr. L. Wimmer, of the Royal University, 
Copenhagen. And from these observations it will appear 
that, on palaeographical grounds, this coin is one of the most 
interesting in the Catalogue. The date which Dr. Wimmer, 
from palcTBographical considerations, assigns to this coin is 
about A.D. 600. 
Ornaments. Even the use of the solidi (original or imitated) as media 

of exchange is only a development of a still earlier condition 

* Discs of metal very Bimilar to the f^candiimviiiu Irartcatcs are also found 
in AiiprloSiixon ^ravct^. 

t Wi; must distingui.sh the cases of those naiions, who (1) occupied countries 
ill whicli the Iloniiin civilization hiid V)ecn long ostuhlished, and thus suc- 
ceeded to all its benefits, among otiiers the use of u coinage; and (2) tiioso 
who merely obtained the benefits of lioman civilization, and the knowledge 
of coins, through the slower influence of commerce and of peaceful inter- 
course. As regards tiio use of imitative gold coins of the class of our No. I, 
it will be seen from what follows tliat Iho English are to be pliK-ed in the 
second class — with f.ij. the Scandinavian nations — and not in tiie first. liut 
it will also be seen, tliat the regular Euglibh coinuge was not a developmeut 
from the.-ic early imitative pieces. 

i See below. 



INTRODUCTION, VH 

of things, in which ornaments — generally gold armlets — 
formed the recognised objects of value among the northern 
nations, and as such supplied the place of a currency. We 
have abundant historical evidence of this condition of things 
among the Scandinavian nations ; and we have philological 
evidence, scarcely less strong, that the English preceded the 
Scandinavians in the same path. The changes in the meaning 
of the Anglo-Saxon word hedgi (and in some degree also of 
living) exactly reflect the changes in the meaning of the Old 
Norse words haugr (and liring). Both hedg and haugr meant 
originally a ring or armlet ; both came in time to stand for 
treasure in the precious metals. The term hedgabrytta, 
which we meet with so often in Anglo-Saxon poetry, cor- 
responds exactly to the Old Norse haughrota or hringhrota ; 
and neither are usually to be interpreted in their etymo- 
logical sense of ' ring-breaker,' but in the more general 
sense of ' distributor of treasure,' * an attribute especially 
given to princes. 

Two of the earliest English words for treasure are hedg 
(of which we have just spoken) and sceat] The latter, as it 
is usually employed in literature, % has an even more general 
significance than the former. Nevertheless, it came to have 
a much more exact meaning also, as the denomination of a 
particular species of coin. 



* Bedgahrytta, Beowulf, 1. 35, 352, 1487. pser he folc ahte, Burg and 
beagas, 1. 522; Beagas and brcgostol, 1. 2370; Bamjhrota (or Urimjbrota). 
Helgakv. Hund. I. 17, 45 (Edda. Bugge). For Norse ring-money sec 
ViJlundarkviSa, passim and Corp. Pod. Bur. Index s.v. Money, vol. ii. 
p. 703. The only reference given for coined money in tliis index is to the 
concluding verse of the jPrymskvicSa. It is not probable that tlie scilling was 
known to the Northern nations till it had become merely a money of 
account; therefore the skill inga in this passage are not actual coins. 

t A third is ma^ma, which never had any but a general sense. 

X It is needless to cite all the passages of early Anglo-Saxon literature in 
which the words hedg and sceat are used in the general sense of treasure. 
The following lines in Beowulf, in addition to those given above, are the 
most important : — hedh liord, 894, 921. 

hedh gijfa, 1102 ; cf. 1719, 1750, 2G35. 
The passage, 2172-2178, gives a sort of technical meaning to bcdg in its sense 
of ' treasure.' Gif-sceattas, 378. 

sceat tits didde 1G86. 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

Old Norse literature obtained subsequently, and used for 
greater exactness, a general term for coined money — or 
treasure in money. This word was aura (eijrir), derived 
from the Latin aurum, and thus clearly showing whence the 
Scandinavian people first derived their notion of treasure in 
coins. "When aura was used in this more distinctive sense, 
hauf/r came to signify treasure in ornaments rather than in 
coins.* Finally aura came to stand for a definite money of 
account. But we may be sure that there was originally no 
clear line of demarcation between Koman gold coins used as 
ornaments and the same used as a medium of exchange. 

We see, then, that the first advances of the English 
towards the use of a coinage had (at a little later date) 
a close parallel among the Scandinavian peoples. The 
stages of this advance were, first, the use of their own 
ring money ; secondly, the use of Eoman gold coins, both 
as ornaments and as media of exchange. It is known 
that at one time the custom obtained of breaking por- 
tions from the rings or armlets (beagas) ; and when the 
second medium began to influence the first, it is highly 
probable that these portions were made equal in weight 
to a Koman solidus. The portions of a beag would be 
called the scillingas or (little) cuttings from it ; f and when 
these were adjusted to a fixed scale upon the weight 
of the solidus, the scilling (shilling) would become (1) a 
definite division of a ring ; (2) a division or a piece of 
gold equal in weight to a solidus ; (3) the English equi- 
valent of the Latin solidus; (4) a money of account which 
had originalhj been of the value of a solidus. The second 
of these stages — or the transition from the first to the 
second — seems to be reflected in a remarkable passage in 
WidsiS, 1. 89. 

)?a;r me Gntcna cyning . . 

. . })eug forgpiif . . 
On Jjiiin sitx huiid wica snwclce gitlilrs 
Gescyred sccatta scilling-rimc. 



* Baiifjr and aura, in fact, preserve tlie uninnry of the hnmc-madc and tlie 
imported media of cxcliango. 

t SriJIiiifj is allie<l to the Icel. at xhilja, to cut. It is ti double diminutive 
according to Skeat, Etym. Diet. «.i;. 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

Which should be translated (cf. G-rein, iv. p. 408) 

There me the Goth king ... a ring gave, 
On which six hundred was of beaten gold 
Treasure scored, in scillings reckoned.* 

Or, more plainly, a ring of pure gold marked as icorth six 
hundred scillings or solidi. 

Although at this point new influences came to bear upon 
the growth of the English coinage, this stage has, as we 
have seen, left its traces in the language and on some of 
the monetary denominations which continued in use.f 

The influence, which may have produced the circulation of Roman coins 
Eoman solidi either as ornaments or coins among the English, ^^ " '^^"" 
was that influence of Eoman civilization common to all 
northern Europe, and one which had doubtless begun to be 
felt even before the migration of the Angle and Saxon tribes. 
But when our forefathers were settled in this country, they 
became gradually subjected to two fresh influences ; first, 
that of the Koman civilization {i.e. for our present purpose 
the Koman currency), which remained in use among the 
conquered Britons ; secondly, that of the more advanced 
civilization (currency) of the neighbouring country of the 
Franks. 

1. It is reasonable to suppose that the Eoman coinage in 
all its varieties — which under the Lower Empire were 
chiefly either gold or copper | — had not gone out of cir- 

* Not as Thorpe (and after iiim Robertson, Ilist. Essays) — translate : 
On which were scored six hundred sceattas reckoned in shillings. 
We may compare with this passage one cited by Du Cange, s.v. mancus, 
' Annillam ameam qua3 habet 80 mancos.' Will of Beriitric, ap. Hicks, 
p. 52 ; also in Proc. of Falnocjr. Soc. 

t The Scandinavians did not, any more than the English, develope a 
coinage out of their imitations of the Roman solidi, their hracteates, &c. They 
owed tiie beginnings of tlieir coinage to the influence of more soutlurn 
nations, especially of England. Tliis began during the Viking Age, at 
a time when largo hoards of English, Prankish, &c. pennies (and even Arabic 
dirhcms), were accumulated in the north. Thus the people became accus- 
tomed to a silver coinage. 'I'liey did not institute a coinage of their own in 
Denmark, Sweden, or Norway, till tlie beginning of the eleventh ctntury. 

J Copper slightly washed with silver. When this money was melted down 
to be coined into the Northumbrian copper coinage (^sfijras), a certain number 
of silver pieces were producd from the melting-pot. (See later, p. xxvii, and 
p. 139, note J.) 



X INTRODUCTION. 

culation at the time of the English invasion. Tlie copper 
coins especially, of which snch vast quantities are being 
continually dug up, * must, one may believe, have con- 
tinued in circulation and formed a sort of small change 
even in the days of the Anglo-Saxon coinage. There is 
nothing improbable in such a supposition when we reflect 
that, even at the present day, Eoman copper coins serve 
such a purpose in Spain, as do likewise the Arabic copper 
coins — those of the Amawi Emirs of Cordova and their 
successors.! We may suppose that in this manner the 
Eoman coinage w'as distributed between the two nationalities ; 
the Saxons using chiefly the solidi (as ornaments or coins) 
the Britons, and the lower orders generally, making use of 
the copper for the commoner purposes of life. In this way 
only can we account for the strong influence which the 
Eoman coinage evidently exercised upon the tyj^es of the 
earliest Anglo-Saxon currency ; or for the fact that, before 
the general adoption of an Anglo-Saxon coinage, the use of 
money was evidently familiar to the English. There was, as 
we shall presently see, no wide-spread English coinage before 
the days of Offa, king of Mercia — possibly not before those 
of his successor Coenwulf (a.d. 79G). But there is nothing 
in the historians before that date, in Beda, for instance, to 
suggest that the use of money was unknown in his day or 
even in much earlier days of which he writes.J 



* Far cxccGcling in number the fiiula of Anglo-Saxon coins in our days. 

t The (lirliems of the hiter Spaaish dynasties arc of very base silver, 
scarcely to be diatinguished from the copper coinage. 

X There arc however certain passages in I3cda which seem to point to the 
circulation of ornaments (i.e. beagas) as a sort of currency. For instance, 
wlien Ka'dwald, king of the East Angles, was tempted by the tlircals and 
promises of iE<5elfri<5 king of Northimibria (copio.sa auri ct argenli dond 
oflVrons) to betray the fugitive Eadwine, his wife dissuaded him from this act 
of treachery. " Admonens quia nulla ratione convenint tanto rcgi amicum 
suum optimum in necessitate positum miro vendere, imo fidem suam, quro 
(iinnihns ornamentiH pretiosior erat, amorc pecnnia: perdere." (ii. 12.) This 
passage suggests, though it does not necessitate the conclusion, that the 
pecunia offered as a bribe consisted in ornaments, i.e. rings. 

IMore important is the jjassngc in which Oswiu, before the battle of 
Winwidfeld (a.d. (JoS), is described rb offering to jauchase peace from 
IViida. Such a transaction iis that would, if any, be likely to be made in 



INTRODUCTION. 







The actual introduction of an English coinage, however, English Coin- 

n*^c clcrivGQ. 

was not due to the influence of the Roman currency, but to from 
the other influence just spoken of, that of the Frankish Frankish. 
currency upon the other side of the Channel. 

2. Among the barbarian coinages which developed out of 
the Eoman, the only one which had any duration north of 
the Alps and Pyrenees wasJUiat of the Franks under their 
Merovingian kingsl? Beginning like all the other barbarian 
coinages, in mere imitation of the Eoman money, the 
Merovingian very soon diverged from its prototype. It was 
from the beginning a coinage in gold. The first important 
change consisted in the general abandonment by the Franks 
of the larger gold coin of the Romans, the solidus aureus, 
in favour of the smaller piece the triens or tremissis, which 
was also in use in the Roman coinage but not in so 
large a proportion as in France. Other changes were 
made by (1) a more barbarous rendering of the bust upon 
the obverse, (2) by the introduction of several new reverse 
types, generally some form of cross, and (3) by the substitu- 
tion for the inscriptions on the Roman coins, sometimes of 
the name of the Merovingian king on the obverse and the 
name of the town at which the coin was struck on the 
reverse ; later on, in more anarchical times, of the names of 
the moneyer (or striker of the piece) and the town alone, 
one upon the obverse and the other on the reverse. At first, 
tlien, the Merovingian coinage consisted wholly of gold pieces. 
No doubt the Roman copper coins, as (or much more than) 
in England, continued to circulate as small change.* At the 
end of about the first hundred years of Merovingian rule, a 
silver Frankish coinage began to spring up in the north, f 
in the region of the lower Rhine, the country of the 
Ripuarian Franks and of the Frisians. This we may guess 

coin, yet we are told : ' Oswiu promisit ci [Pendsc] iiiuumera ot mnjora quaiu 
iiudi potest ornamenta regia vel douaria in pretium pads largiturum,' iii. 24. 

The passages which seem most to imply the familiar use of money in 
England in Beda's time are iii. 2(J, iv. 5, 10, 19, 21, 22. 

* Tills is the view of M. J. 15. A. Bartholemy, Manuel de Numistnatinue, 

t i^ec (.«ariel, MmnKtien raijiduf dc la race Cadoriiujiennc, p. D. 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

was a concession, partly to the greater poverty of these 
districts, partly also to the long established prejudice which 
many of the German peoples retained in favour of a silver 
currency, a feeling which was probably shared, in a certain 
degree, by our forefathers.* It was from the Merovingian 
coins, in the first instance from the gold, later on from the 
silver, that the earliest English coinage was derived. 

In comparing as a class our earliest anonymous coins (the 
Sceat Series) with the whole scries of Merovingian trientes 
and silver coins, we are at once struck by the general resem- 
blance of the two. The likeness is too great to admit of tlie 
supposition of independent developments. The antecedent 
probabilities of the case again, and the well-known history of 
the introduction of a coinage into Britain, are all in favour 
of the theory, that the earliest English coinage was derived 
from the Merovingian ; and finally such evidence as is 
afi'orded us by finds of coins, points in the same direction. 
Finds of coins One or two finds of coins throw considerable light upon the 
relationship of the gold and silver coinage of England to the 
gold and silver coinage of the Continent. But before we 
speak of these larger hoards, we may mention one piece which 
is of the greatest value as a connecting link between the 
Merovingian and the English coinage. This coin is un- 
fortunately not in the National Collection, but in that of the 
Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. The description of it is as 
follows : — 

Obv. Profile Merovingian bust! to r. evsebii monita 
Rev. Cross moline.+DOROVERNis CIVITAS J (Canterbury). 

* See al)Ove, p. v, note*, and Coinages of Western Europe, &c. (the present 
writer), p. 112 [Num. Chr. N. S. vol. xix. p. 32.] 

This feeling would not interfere with tlie use of the solidi in the way which 
hu8 been described above, because tlio solidi were first of all ornanicuifl, coiua 
only in a secondary degree; wlicreastlic old Ilouiau eilrrr denarii {the serrati 
hiijatiqve of Tac), of which tlic German tribes retained the recollection, were 
never anything but media of exchange. 

t I.e. a bust resembling that on the Merovingian-Frankif<h trientes. It ia 
not meant that tlio bust is a portrait of any Merovingian king. Indeed the 
notion of portraiture upon tlie coinage of this date niay be discarded. 

X Soo NumUmatir, JonruaJ, vol. ii. p. 2:52, A. de Longperier (this writer 
was the first to a.ssign any gold triens to England); also Iliv. Numin. 1841, 
p. 435, and Kenyon, (Johl Coins of EiKjIand, p. 7, Frontispiece, No. 7. 



INTKODUCTION. Xlll 

We come next to a remarkable find of coins made in 1828 Crnndale 
at Crondale, Hants. * It consisted of precisely 100 gold 
coins, together with two jewelled ornaments and chains. 
The latter are certainly Anglo-Saxon, and are pro- 
nounced to belong to a date earlier than the end of the 
seventh century. Part of this find consists of coins which 
are apparently genuine Frankish trientes ; the greater 
number are imitations of Frankish trientes made in this 
country. One or two look like direct copies from Eoman 
coins, viz. of coins of Licinius I. (a.d. 307-323). f Their 
obverse legend seems to show traces of the word LICINIVS, 
with profile bust copied from the bust on Eoman coins. 
The reverses have the letters "xx^ and ^xx^" surrounded by a 
triple circle of dots, the whole being a degraded form of the 
type ^x)^ enclosed in a laurel wreath, which is that of 
the Koman coins. This is a type scarcely to be found on 
Merovingian trientes, but, on the other hand, it is very 
similar to a type which occurs with great frequency upon 
the sceattas. (Comp. sceattas type 2, PI. i. 5-7, 10-13 
reverses.) A notable circumstance connected with this 
type is that, if derived from the coinage of Licinius, it must 
have been copied not from his gold but from his copper coins. | 

2. Another coin has been described as copied from the 
money of Leo I. (a.d. 457-474) (I.e. pi. xii. 4), and certainly 
the obverse legend as engraved seems to bear the traces of 
the inscription DN.LEON. The type, however, is a common 
Merovingian one, that of the Victory facing, head 1., holding 
an orb surmounted by a cross. And without the opportunity 
of examining the coin, I should not like to say that it was 
not really copied from a Merovingian triens. 

The rest of the coins are distinctly Frankish in type, 
though not in style. It is not necessary to describe them 
in detail. Nearly all bear some form of cross upon the 
reverse, and among these crosses we notice a peculiar form, 
the cross haussee upon one or more steps, and with two letters 
M A or c A &c., one at either side. This type is known as 



* See Ntim. Clir. vol. vi. p. 171 ; N. S. vol. x. 104, pll. xii. xiii. 

t Num. CItr. N. S. vol. x. pi. xii. 1, 2. 

X For the significnnco of this fact, see below, p. xviii. 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

tho ]\rarseillcs type. It was not iutroduced into France until 
nearly the end of the sixth century* (I.e. pi. xii. 3, 5, 6, 14- 
17, xiii. 22, IMarseillcs type and English imitations of this 
type). A modification of tho Marseilles type similar to the 
coin No. 8 of our catalogue (PI. I. No. 4) also occurs in the 
Crondale Hoard (I.e. pi. xii. nos. 9-11, pi. xiii. nos. 29, 32). 
The type of Nos. 6, 7 of this catalogue (PI. I. No. 3) also 
occurs among the Crondale coins (I.e. pi. xiii. 27). I believe it 
is not to be found in precisely the same form on any genuine 
Merovingian coin. In addition to the pieces mentioned there 
are two coins which merit a separate description. They are — 
1. Ohv. ]\Ierovingian bust (but very much degraded). 

ABBO MONET or MANET (somewhat blundered). 
Eev. Cruciform monogram of peculiar shape (1. c. 
pi. xii. 12). 
Abbo is the name of a known Merovingian moneyer, who 
\worked at Chalons circa a.d. 593, and again at Limoges 
ci^ca A.D. 604. The piece in question, however, does not 
sedm to have been the work of Abbo himself, but rather a 
ruderxoj)y of a coin by this moneyer.f 
2. The~~s^xt coin to be described is — 

Ohv. Bust^iaci^g (derived from the bust on Byzantine 

coins). 
Bev. Eoman cross enclosed in wreath (or circle). 
LONDVNIV^ (Londunium/or Londinium, London ; 
compare sceattas with legend lvndonia, Nos. 
88-93, pi. ii. 15-18). 

* Circa a.d. 583. Coinngai of Western Eunqw, &'C., p. 71 seqq. 

t LcVisconite Ponton d'Amecourt accepts the coin of tlu' CronflulcFind as 
evidence tliat Abbo worked as a monoytr in England, and siipgosts tlial he 
came hero in the train of St. Augustine, in a.d. 59U. (Queen Berchta would 
be a more likely person to bring a Prankish moneyer in her train.) See 
Annuaire de Num. vol. iii. p. 21)9, &c., Le Monetuire Alio. And this view is 
apparently accepted by Mr. Kenyon in his Gold Coins of Euijhind (]>. 6). It 
seems to tlic present writer more probable that these coins, which by general 
consent difler considerably from tho coins of Abbo executed in France, are 
merely imitations of Merovingian tricntcs made in this coimtry. 

X Num. Chr. N. S. pi. xiii. 28. We ouglit perhaps to class among the 
London coins, and witli this piece three other Crondale coins, which all 
bear a profde bust on the obverses and a dotted circle enclosing a cross on 
the reverties. In the case of one of the three, tlu' linib.s of tlic cross iMiss 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

Taking together all the coins above described, we see that 
they belong to the following classes : — 

1. A coin certainly made by a Merovingian moneyer in 
England. This is the coin reading ' Dorovernis Civitas.' 
Its workmanship is too good for an English moneyer. It 
would not perhaps be too much to assume, that the Eusebius 
who made this coin was a Frankish goldsmith who came 
over in the train of Queen Berchta on her marriage with 
-^thelberht, king of Kent. 

2. A certain number of Merovingian coins imported into 
this country. 

3. A larger (?) number of imitations of Merovingian coins, 
of which the ' Abbo ' coin is the most remarkable example. 

4. A number of coins which are more or less original 
(English) in design, or else are copied from Eoman coins 
without the intermediary of a Merovingian type. 

But all these four classes alike are derived, more or less 
directly, from the class of the Merovingian triens, or 
tremissis. The latter word tremissis became corrupted in 
English into the word trims or pirims (J^rymsa), which is a 
word we meet with as the name of a money of account, though 
when it had reached this condition the J^rymsa had entirely 
changed its value from that of the Merovingian tremissis. 

This is enough to establish the connection of the small 

through the sides of a square compartment. In the first paper on the 
Croudale Hoard, these three coins were described as too barbarous to bo 
read. In the Becoud paper, the legend was given as barbarous in the form 
OSUUNOOUNOU. In Mr. Kenyon's Gold Coins of Emjlaml, tlie most 
intelligible of these legends is given LUOONMONA. This, by substitut- 
ing D for O and Nl for M (cf. the sceattas with legend LVNDONIA, 
p. 10) becomes Ludonuioua. The readings of the sceattas with Lundunia 
(p. 10) are given by Kenyon (Hawkins, S. C. p. 29) ENOON, VNOONN 
ELVNOOIlll AELVNOOTIA which vary quite as much from the legend 
LVNDONIA (the real reading) as do the readings on the gold coins. 
Finally it is possible that another Crondale coin (xV. C. N. S. vol.x. pi. xiii 
no. 2:5) may be also a London coin. M. Ponton d'Ame'court writes (.V. C. N. S. 
vol. xii. p. 72), that he i)ossessea a similar specimen, whicli he reads on the 
obverse AVDVALD REGES and on the reverse AMBAL LONDENVS. 
He attributes it to king Eadwald of Kent (a.d. UIG-GIO). I doubt if tlare is 
not a good deal of imagination in the reading, especially in the word ' regcs.' 
A gold triens, reading VENTA on rev. and .supposed to have been struck 
at Winchester, is descrilted in Nmu. Chr. N. S. ix. 172, and Ann. <]<■ Xiiut. 

(I8s;i), p. :5:{r.. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

gold coins of our first class (anonymous coins) with the 
Merovingian trientcs or tremisses. 

The date of the introduction of this coinage is best given 
by the coin with the name of Abbo, which, even though a 
copy, was probably made not long subsequent to the time at 
which Abbo was working. It is fair therefore to assume, 
that the beginning of an English coinage may be referred 
to about the time of the introduction of Christianity into 
this country. That these coins were at first called tremisses 
O'rymsa) in this country we may also suppose. But a gold 
coinage, modelled upon that of the Merovingian Franks of 
Ncustria and the regions nearest our coast, was very soon 
exchanged for a silver currency (of sceattas) which was 
much more independent in its types than the gold coinage ; 
albeit this silver currency is not the less to be referred for 
its origin to the Frankish coinage. 
Finds of Some light is shed upon the connection of the English 

the Low" silver coinage with that of the Continent by four or five 
Countries. finds which have been made in the Low Countries between 
1837 and 1868, and which are described by Mr. Dirks in 
his work, Les Anglo-Saxons et leiirs petits denicrs dit sceattas* 
These finds were made at Domburg (Zeeland), 1837, Duer- 
stede or Wijk te Duerstede on the Waal in 1841-2 ; Tirwip- 
sel (Fricsland) 1863, Hallum (Friesland) 1866, Franecker 
(Friesland) 1868. It will be seen that they all took place 
in the region of the Lower Khine, in the country of the 
Austrasian Franks or of the Frisians. The most important 
feature in these finds, so far as regards our present inquiry, 
is the appearance in some of them, by the side of a great 
number of well-known sceat types, of a certain number of 
types which are rarely found in this country. 

Among these the two following were the commonest : — 

a. Ohv. Eude head r. 

Bev. What look like four V's arranged broad ends 
inwards, at equal distances round the coin ; in 
field, numerous dots. 

la reality these four V's are a degraded form of a design 

* C'omp. Van der C'liijs. Muntcu (hr Jr.- < u thiilsrh-tialrr). Vf>i-»liii. 



INTRODUCTION. XVll 

meant to represent two interlinked annulets, thus — ^P 

This type reappears upon the denarii of Pepin the Short.* 

b. Ohv. Cross with rays streaming from it. 

Rev, Hectagram (also called David's seal) enclosing 
a cross. 

This type also appears upon the denarii of Pepin the 
Short.f 

The great majority of the coins, described by Mr. Dirks, 
which have not English types, belong to one or other of 
the two types a and h, which have moreover the distinction 
of being among the very few Merovingian types which had 
any influence upon the later Carlovingian coinage. This 
fact points to the supposition, that these types were in use 
among the Austrasian Franks, whose country bordered upon 
Frisia. Heristal, the nursery of the Carlovingian House, 
was very near the country to which most of these finds 
belong. We see then that Frankish and English silver 
coins were interchangeable, and so fully recognised to be 
so as to be hoarded together. In weight there was no 
difference between them. The average weight of each was 
about 16 grains Troy = 20 grains Paris = 24 wheat grains. 
This was the weight of the Byzantine scruple, t Whether 
the weight of the Merovingian silver coin, and hence of 
the sceat, was derived from the Byzantine weight, must how- 
ever be considered doubtful. 

We may then take it as established, that the whole class 
of anonymous gold and silver coins (Nos. 1-200, Pll. i.-iv,), 
which constitute the earliest English coinage, was derived 
from the coinage of the Franks under their JMerovincrian 
kings. But, when we come to examine the individual ty2:>es 
throughout the whole class, the instances of copying of the 
Frankish series by the English are far from numerous. In 
the case of the gold coins indeed, as we see by the Crondale 
Hoard, examples of the copying of Frankish types are common 
enough. Two out of the three types of gold coins given in 

* Gariel, Mon. roy., &c., 2"» p''% pi. ii. 38, 39. f Tl'i>J. j>]. ii. 32. 

X Robertson, E. Wm., JIhioriral E^arnju. p. 40, 



xviii INTRODUCTIOX. 

the present Catalogue (PI. I. Nos. 3, 4) are probably derived, 
more or less directly, from Frankish types. In the case of 
the silver coins (sceattas), the instances of copying from 
Frankish types are not numerous, in proportion to the 
whole number of coins. We may attribute this fact to 
the influence of Eoman coins still in use in this country at 
the time that the English coinage was introduced.* If the 
engravers of the coins themselves were Britons (which at 
first they would very probably be), who were familiar with 
the use of the ' small change ' above spoken of, they would 
be very likely to take the Eoman coins as the models for 
their types. And this may account for the otherwise un- 
usual fact, of a number of types both on the gold f and 
silver I coins of this series, being copied from types upon 
coins of an inferior metal, namely, from Eoman copper 
coins. § 
Origin of tbe The fifty-four types of sceattas described in the body 
types of the £ ^j^^, (Catalogue are divided into three classes : — 

sceattas. o 

1. Types 1-23, PI. i. 5-Pl. iii. 5, are all connected, by the 
designs upon one side or the other, with Eoman proto- 
types. 

2. Types 24-28 (PI. iii. 6-iii. 13) can only be referred to 
Frankish prototypes, while types 29-31 (PI. iii. 14-18) may 
be partially derived from Frankish types. 

3. Types 32--54, the remainder (PI. iii. 19-iv. 20), seem 
to represent a native English art. 

This is of course only a rough division, because many 
coins which by their obverses are connected with the Eoman 
coinage, are connected with the Frankish by their reverses, 
or are on one side examples of native art merely. The notes 
prefixed to the difi'erent types, or classes of types, will enable 



* See above, p. x. 

t The coin from the Crondale Hoard, copied from the copper coinage of 
Licinius I. X "^ee below, p. xix. 

§ It is, for pretty obvious reasons, very rare to tind the type of a coin in an 
inferior metal copied ujwn a coin in a superior metal. The reverse process is 
frequent enough. When a new coinage is issued, it is often desired to make 
it recall some more valuable issue which has preceded it : it ia never desired 
to make a coin recall ouc of a lower denomination. 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

the reader to trace their origin, wherever it is possible to 
do so. 

On comparing classes 1 and 2 we cannot but be struck by 
the fact, that while the evidence of copying from Merovin- 
gian types is rather shadowy, the evidence of copying from 
Eoman types is in many cases undoubted. Thus the coins 
No. 2 gold (PI. i. 2) and No. 9 silver are certainly derived 
from the type of Magnus Maximus (PI. i.a) on a solidus struck 
in London, * though the course of degradation which the 
coin has gone through is very curious, f Both obverse and 
reverse of sceattas type 2a are certainly derived from Eoman 
coins of the types of PI. i. b. and d., denarii (small brass) of 
Constantine II. And this origin accounts in the main 
for the types 2-6, 8, as has been already pointed out; 
although 3 and 8 may on one side be derived from 
Frankish types. Then, again, types 12-23 are apparently 
derived from gold coins of the time of Theodosius or 
Honorius. 

A distinction is made between two series of imitations 
from the Eoman coinage ; those copies which are derived 
apparently from Eoman copper coins of the time of the 
Constantines and those derived apparently from gold coins 
of a later date.J These two classes represent the two 
channels of influence exercised by the Eoman coinage, which 
have been sufficiently discussed above. § 

The anonymous silver coins, whose origin we have been 
investigating, are, by numismatists, always known as sceattas. 
The strongest reason for believing that they bore this name 
is to be found in the laws of ^thelberht, king of Kent, 

* The exergual legend of Maximus's coin reads AVG. OB for Augusta 
(London) 72. 

t This type reappears upon three pennies of the ninth century (Ceolwulf II., 
Halfdan, and .lElfred). 8ee (for the first two) Hawkins, Cuerdalo Find, 
p. 10 ; Id. Silver Coins, suppl. pi. ii. no. 580 ; Arch<eol. jJil. vii. p. 48 ; N. C. 
N. S. vol. ix. pi. i. no. 11. 

X See page 3. Type 1 (No. 9) of the sceattas is not classed with types 12-23, 
because it can be referred to the English gold coinage (No. 1) for its prototype. 
It is almost the only typo here described which links together the gold and 
silver coinage of the anonymous series : though of course by their geiieial 
similarity of form, &c., the two classes arc connected closely enough. 

§ Pages ix, x. 

e 2 



XX INTRODUCTION, 

"~^ where sceat (or rather sciet *) occurs as a coin denomination, 
■while the word penny does not occur. Now, as these laws 
Avere compiled before the introduction of the larger and 
broader silver pieces, which superseded the smaller though 
thicker ones of our first class, this is the best evidence for 
supposing that these last were known as sceattas. We must 
beware, however, of attributing too much exactness and per- 
manence to coin denominations at a time when there was 
only one class of coins in actual currency, and when in 
consequence all the other coin denominations were moneys 
of account. And the evidence afforded by the laws of 
^thelberht might be thought to be nullified by the laws 
of Ine where the penmj only is mentioned,! could we be 
sure that these laws bore their primitive form. | 

We have no evidence save that which is afi'orded by the 
finds of these coins, and by the few intelligible legends 
which they bear, to show over what districts the use of the 
sceattas extended. The evidence of the first class tends to 
show that they were chiefly current in Kent, that of the 
second that they were also in use in Essex (or at all events 
in London) and in Mercia. 
Coins struck The sccattas struck in London (comp. Nos. 88-93) have 
m London. ^^^^ peculiarity, which is worth noticing. They alone, among 
the coins of this series, are of very base silver, sometimes, 
indeed, of a metal so debased, that it becomes questionable 
whether they should not be described as copper coins. 
Thus, the metals of all the earliest English coins bearing 
the name of London are approximately very base silver or 
copper and gold, § the metals of the two classes of Koman 
coins current in this country ; a fact not without its signifi- 
cance, especially when we reflect that the preference for silver 
coins was in some sort a badge of the Teutonic nations. || 

^ * In the laws of iEthelberht (/Thorpe, Ancient Laws, &c. pp. 1-10; 
Schmidt, Die Gcsetze der A.-S. pp. 2-10) tho two words gceat and scxt occur. 
The former is used in a general sense — a thing of value, treasure ; the second, 
in the concrete sense — a particular coin. Tliis differentiation of form would 
imply that its concrete sense had long attached to sad. 

t Thorpe, I. c. pp. 45-65 ; Schmidt, I. c. pp. 20-57. 

X The laws of Ine have only come down to us tacked on to those of 
iElfred. 

§ See above, j). xiv. || See above, p. v, uolc 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

Quantum valeat the circumstance tends to show, that the 
city of London retained something of the habits and pre- 
ferences which it had acquired under the Romans, At the 
same time the appearance itself of the legend ' Londonia ' or 
' Londunium ' may suggest, that during this period London 
preserved some sort of autonomy.* 

A similar reason may be suggested for the substitution of Northum- 
a cojjper for a silver coinage north of the Humber. This ' '° 
was the district of the Eoman capital of Britain where, 
certainly in the days of Bcda, deep traces of Eoman civiliza- 
tion were still to be found. f It is generally acknowledged 
by numismatists, that the use of copper in place of silver, in 
the district north of the Humber, is due to the existence of a 
greater number of Eoman copper coins in this part of the 
country, t But, in spite of this difference, the Northum- 
brian coinage must be reckoned a derivative from the sceat 
series. As is pointed out, § the early coins of Northumbria 
are, in a great proportion, silver ; and the series is not at first 
sharply divided from the sceat series south of the Humber. 
It is only after the sceaUas have been superseded by the 
Ijennies that the Northumbrian coins take a quite distinctive 
character, and become henceforth almost always of copper. 

With regard to the period of time over which our first Period over 
series of coins extends, that has been sufficiently indicated ^^^.^^ coinage 
by the foregoing enquiry. We can hardly place its com- extends. 
mencement before the conversion of -^thelberht. But if the 
scxttas mentioned in iEthelberht's laws are really the coins 
now known as sceattas, we cannot place it much after this 
date. It is certain that they were in use in the middle of 
the seventh century, from the occurrence of the name of 
' Pada ' upon some of them (p. 23). |1 

We have evidence, from the coins of ^thelred, that the 
sceattas remained in circulation until near the end of the 
seventh century. But we may fairly assume that they 
lasted much longer, and were only superseded by the intro- 

* Comp. Freeman, iV^orm. Conq. i. 24. t Beda, i. c. 11. 

X See p. 139, note J. § Ihid. 

II Peada's coins are apparently of an early form of sceat type — one which 
subacqucntly suftcrcd considerable degradation. 



XXll INTRODUCTION. 

duction of the i)ennij, towards the end of the eighth 
century. * This last event, the next which falls within the 
period comprehended in the present volume, is the most 
important change which the English coinage underwent for 
at least five and a half centuries, i.e. until the introduction 
of a gold coinage (a.d. 1343 or 1344), and of the groat and 
half groat by Edward III. (a.d. 1351). f 
introductiou A moment's glance at the plates will show the immense 
pennies. difference in character between the seeaftas and the pennies. % 
The former are small thick pieces, almost wholly devoid of 
intelligible legends, but rich, as few coinages of the world 
are rich, in the variety of designs by which they are 
adorned. The pennies are thinner, but much broader coins. 
They bear almost always on one side the name of the king 
by whose authority they were struck, on the other the name 
of the ' moneyer ' {monetarius, mynetere), that is to say, of the 
person made responsible for the just weight and purity of 
the coins. At a later date, the name of the place of minting 
is generally added to that of the moneyer. When first 
introduced (by Ofla), the pennies are remarkable for the 
beauty of their workmanship; but this characteristic is 
"^ confined to Offa's coins ; and in variety of design the penny 

series, from the very first, stands below the sceat series. 
Amid a very considerable variety, the general types of the 
pennies may be described as : — 
a. Ohv. A profile bust. 

Rev. Some form of cross ; 
or, h. Ohv. and Rev. Some form of cross or other religious 
symbol. 
The designs by which the cross is most often varied are 

* The Fraukish silver coins which, in tlio hoards of Duerstcde, llalluni, and 
Fraueckcr were found minified with sccattas, mn«t iiavo l)ecu of the types most 
commonly current at the time of the introductiou of the novim diuariiin by 
Pcjjin the Short (rirca a.d. 7.55). Sec below, p. xxiii. Therefore the hoards 
were probably deposited about T'lO-.'iO. It is to be observed that the sceattas 
in these hoards are generally of degrudid, and therefore hde types. 

t See Ruding, AnnaJs nf tlw Cuimifji', vol. i. pp. 217, 226. Tliat this sliould 
be tlje case, and that the junny slionld have retained it.s metal value, show 
the stability of the Kngliah financial system even at this early date. 

X Qpmp. pll. i.-iv. with pll. v.-xix. xxiv.-xxx. 




coinage. 



INTRODUCTION. XXlll 

the tribrach (the pall — generally characteristic of the 
Canterbury coinage), 7^ and O), which also seem, in some 
instances, to stand for the initials of Anglorum and Merci- 
orum (00), and the Christian monogram, or the letters XPC. 
Sometimes the name of the king, or the name of the moneyer, 
is simply written across the field, without any other design. 

The introduction of the penny was not an independent intro.luotiou 
development of the English coinage, but was, even more J^ Pi'j^Iljjf i^"® 
than the introduction of the sceat, the result of external Fmnkirii 
influences. Upon the rise of the house of Heristal to the 
throne of the Franks, a complete change took place in the 
coinage of that people. For the coinage of the Mero- 
vingian kings, which, as we have said, was chiefly a gold 
currency of trientes, was substituted a currency of silver — 
of broad flat pieces very much like our early pennies, and 
known in the laws and edicts of the time as the novi denarii. 
These coins were introduced by Pepin the Short, about the 
year 755. From the weight of about 19 grains Troy, of 
which at first they were, they advanced by two or three 
rapid increments to the weight of 23 • 6 grains, which is the 
weight of the denarii of Charlemagne, struck after the year 
774. In a somewhat parallel way, our pennies (among 
which we have one or two pieces which seem to be of a 
transition character) advanced from the average weight of 
the sceattas, circa 15-5 to 16 grains, to 18 and subsequently 
to 20 grains. 

OfFa was the first king who struck pennies in considerable 
numbers, and we may fairly ascribe to him the change in 
the English coinage. Nevertheless there is one coin which 
bears more the character of a transition piece than any of 
the pennies of Ofia. This is the coin ascribed in this 
Catalogue to Beonna, presumably an East Anglian king 
(East Anglia, No. 1, PL xiv. 1). The small diameter and 
comparative thickness of this coin, and its low weight, 
which is not more than that of the sceattas, have induced 
many numismatists to describe it as a sceat.* It is, how- 



* Hawkins' l<. C. 2ud eel. (Keuyon), p. 55; Sale Cat. of the Shepherd Coll. 
no. 30. 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Frank ish 
(lesitrns copied 
on pouuies. 



Desif^ns on 
pennies 
generally not 
Frankibli. 



ever, undoubtedly a penny. It bears designs similar to the 
designs on some of Offa's pennies,* and it has the inscrip- 
tions characteristic of the penny series. 

It would be possible to indicate some types upon the 
early English pennies, which are apparently derived from 
the types on the Carlovingian denarii. The obverse type 
of the coin just mentioned is of this number, as is, in 
consequence, the type on Offa's penny with which it has 
been compared (see note * below), f The designs upon the 
other side of both the here-mentioned coins of Offa, notably 
the reverse of PI. vi. No. 10, which contains the sigillum 
Bavidis, $ are also connected with the Frankish pennies. § 
The type in which the name of the king is written straight 
across the field of the coin, as on PI. vi. 13 (rev.), 15 (obv.), 
vii. 4, 8, 9, 12, 18, 15, 16 (all obverses), and 2, 3, 13 (rev.), 
all coins of Olfa, xi. 1, 2, early coins of Kent, and xiv. 3 
(obv.), an early coin of East Anglia, is a distinctly Carlo- 
vingian type. II One remarkable type of Ofta's pennies, on 
the other hand, is evidently derived from a sceat type. This 
is the type of Mercia, Nos. 45, 46 (PI. vii. Nos. 5, 6) which 
we may compare with the sceat of Peada, Mercia, No. 1 (Plate 
iv. 21), and through that with the sceattas, type 2 (PI. i. 5), 
&c. Still more remarkable is the coin of ^thelberht of East 
Anglia (E. A. No. 2, PI. xiv. 2), which is copied from the 
Pioman type of the wolf and twins, as on Plate i. c, and on 
the sceat, PI. ii. 9. 

Besides the few early types of pennies which may seem 



* Compare pi. xiv. 1, obv. and jil. vi. II, rev.; j)!. xiv. 1, rev. and pi. vi. 
10, obv. 

t Conip. Gariel, o. c. 2"'" p"°, pi. ii. nos. 4G, 17, pi. iii. no. 72 (all rcvorscb). 

X Sec above, p. xvii. 

§ Gariel, I.e. pi. ii. no. 32. 

II Comp. especially Gariel, o. c. 2™" p"', pi. i. 2-4 (reverses) 17, iii. 19 (rev.), 
all coins of Pepin tbc Short, and pi. vi. 40, &c. (Cliarlcmaguc). 

Mr. Evans (N. C. 3rd S. vol. ii. (1882), p. 78) suggosts, that the Englinh type 
may have been dcrivtd from tlie Papal coinage of Leo III. (Fioravaidt', ji. 78, 
no. 2). Considering how small was the issue of Papal coins at this time, 
and how comph tcly they were under the influcnco of tlio Carlovingian, it 
seems safer to assume, that botii the English and Pajial types were derived 
from the Frankish, 



INTRODUCTION, XXV 

to be copied from Carlovingian types, there is a general 
resemblance of the penny series, during the ninth century, 
to the Carlovingian denarii;* but there are henceforward 
few instances of direct copying of one by the other. And 
this, it will be observed, is exactly parallel to the case of 
the sceattas. In both instances the derivation of the class 
of English coins from the corresponding class of Frankish 
coins is undoubted, but there are in both cases few instances 
of direct copying of types. The most distinctive character- 
istic of the English pennies, as compared with the Frankish 
denarii, is the appearance of a head or bust upon about half 
of them V for a head or bust is almost wholly wanting in the 
earliest Carlovingian denarii. The series of Mercia and Kent 
consist, in almost equal proportions, of coins with a head or 
bust, and of coins without. On the coins of Offa these heads 
are elaborated with the skill of native art, but on the money 
of the subsequent kings they are pretty obviously copied from 
the heads upon Eoman or Byzantine coins. They are doubt- 
less derived from Eoman or Byzantine solidi, which about 
this time became practically the only gold currency for 
northern Europe.f This revival of Eoman influence, in 
forming the coin types of the pennies, presents another 
curious parallel between the penny series and the sceattas. t 

The preceding investigation into the origin of the English Relationship 
coinage, and the relationship between the English and the Frankish 
Frankish coinages, will not be thought too lengthy when we and English 

, - / . • 1 • i.' coinages to 

remember, Jirs^, the extreme importance m the numismatic subsequent 
history of this country of the changes which have been media3val 

•^ -^ ^ . -J- currencies. 

chronicled, and, secondly, the importance in the numismatic 

* This resemblance is, of course, chiefly between the Carlovingian coins 
and the pennies -without head or bust. See below. 

t Louis the Pious issued a certain number of gold coins, all of whicli boro 
the bust of the emperor. These probably circulated in England. I believe 
that one peculiar bust on a penny of Coenwulf (Mercia, No. 64, pi. viii. 5), 
is copied from the bust on a solidus of Louis. Gariel, J. c. pi. xiv. nos. 10-12. 

X We have no reason to suppose, however, that the Eoman types on the 
pennies were (like those on the sceattas) in any degree derived from Roman 
copper coins. The solidi formerly in use probably still remained in circu- 
lation. See the curious instance, mentioned above, p. xix, of the copying ou 
two late pennies of the typo of a solidus of Magnus Maximus. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

history of Europe of the Frankisli and English coinages. 
1. From the time of the introduction (or the definite 
establishment) of the penny coinage, the numismatic history 
of England continued almost uniform. There was no break 
in continuity made by the Norman conquest, subsequently 
to which pennies continued to be issued of the same size, 
weight, and general appearance as those which preceded it. 
There was indeed during later reigns a gradual diminution of 
the weight of the penny ; but until after the appearance of a 
gold currency (a.d. 1343 or 4), and the issue of the groat and 
half groat (a.d. 1351), this diminution was very slight. After 
that date it became much more rapid. This continuity of 
numismatic history is undoubtedly significant of a stability 
in the fiscal and financial condition of the country. 

2. The Frankish and English silver coinages became 
the parents of all the early mediaeval coinages of Western 
Christendom, excepting a very few issues in Southern 
Italy. From the Frankish were descended by far the greater 
number of coinages — the coinage of the German Empire, 
of the States of Northern Italy, the early Papal denarii, &c. 
From the English penny series were derived the coinages 
of the Scandinavian countries,* of Ireland,! and of Scotland.^ 
Date of in- The unquestioned derivation of the English penny from 

the penny. the Carlovingian denarius strictly limits, in one direction, 
the date of the introduction of the penny. The pennies 
could not possibly have appeared before a.d. 755 ; and it is 
probable that they did not appear for some years after 
the accession of Ofta in a.d. 757. We have given as the 
probable date of the ' Beonna ' coin, which looks like the 
very earliest type of penny, about the year 760. This 
consideration may help us to the solution of some numis- 
matic difficulties. The coin of iEthelberht described on 
p. 83 (East Anglia, No. 2, PI. xiv. 2), has been variously 
ascribed to ^thelberht II., King of Kent, who died a.d. 
700, § and iEthelberht, of East Anglia, who was murdered 

* But see Hildebmnd, Nordms iihlsta mynt. (K. V. II. o. A. M. iin. 188G.) 

t Num. Chr. 3" S. ii. 308 sajij. (Aquilhi SSiiiitli)- 

X Cochran-Patrick, liecorth of llif rdiumje of Scotland, p. ciii. 

§ Kcnyon, in the 2nfl cd. of Hawkins' Eug. SUvcr Coim, \>. 30. 



INTRODUCTION. XXVll 

at the instigation of Offa (or of his wife Cyne^ry^), 
A.D. 793 or 794. The date of the death of ^thelberht of 
Kent is a sufficient reason for not attributing the coin to 
him. The point is of some importance, because if the piece 
is an East Anglian coin, it is consistent with a rule which 
we shall see holding good in other cases, that the coins with 
runic legends were always issued in some ' Anglian ' (not 
Saxon) kingdom. 

Compared with the excellently ordered penny series bear- 
ing upon one side the name of the king, on the other that of 
the person responsible for the character of the coin, the 
earlier anonymous issues seem scarcely to deserve the name 
of a coinage. But the penny series itself was not, of course, 
immediately brought to perfection from a financial point of 
view. Thus the varied and artistic designs of Ofi'a's pennies 
are, from this point of view, a defect, and they are un- 
doubtedly a reminiscence from the still greater licence of 
the time of the sceattas. Nor must the artistic inferiority 
of the pennies of Offa's successor be attributed so much to a 
decay of art, as to a more thorough appreciation of the uses 
of a coinage. 

The changes which have been here described refer only Divergence 
to the half of England south of the Humber. The regular Northum- 
Northumbrian coinage scarcely begins before 'the time of brian coinage. 
Eadbert (a.d. 737-758), and even from that reign to the 
reign of Eardwulf (a.d. 796) considerable gaps occur in the 
succession of the kings. Down to the reign of Eardwulf 
there is no very strong line of demarcation between the 
Northumbrian money and the anonymous coinage current 
in the south.* The Northumbrian coinage is very often of 
silver, and it bears designs similar to some designs upon 
the sceattas; but as it displays the names of the kings 
who issued it, while the sceat series is almost wholly 
anonymous, the former must be considered to be financially 
in advance of the latter. From the time of Eardwulf, about 
the end of the eighth century (which we may assume was 
also about the time of the full establishment of the penny 

* The last Northumbrian coinage of the earlier type is that of iElfwald I. 
(slain A.D. 788 or 0). 



XXVlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cessation of 
various 
Heptarchic 
currencies. 



coinage), a complete change comes over the coinage of North- 
nmbria. It ceases to bear any designs save a cross, circle 
or pellets on the two sides of the coin, and becomes wholly 
(or practically wholly) a coinage of copper stijcas. At the 
same time, the names of moneyers begin to appear upon 
it, and continue to do so till the end of the series. This last 
feature was doubtless borrowed from the South-Humbrian 
pennies. Save for this one point of resemblance, the 
Northumbrian coinage becomes wholly divorced from that 
of the other Heptarchic kingdoms. About this time too, 
Northumbrian history loses almost all place in the history 
of England. It was a period of rapid decay, during which 
the country was no doubt occupied by its own internal 
divisions.* 

The successive decline of the diflferent Heptarchic king- 
doms is symbolised by the cessation of their coinages. 
Some of these kingdoms (Essex, Sussex) had ceased to 
be independent before the beginning of any coinage which 
can be assigned to the different divisions of England. The 
coinage of Kent, after the country had for some time been 
under the supremacy of Mercia, ceased with the expulsion of 
Baldred in a.d. 825, and henceforth the coinage of Wessex 
is the only one south of the Thames. The English king- 
doms north of the Thames were all suppressed by the Danes 
during their eleven years of conquest between a.d. 8G7 and 
A.D. 878, namely that of Northumbria by the death of 
Osberht and iElla in 867 ; that of East Anglia f by the 
martyrdom of Eadmund (a.d. 870 t), and that of Mercia 
by the expulsion of Burgred in 874, for Ceolwulf II. 
(who struck very few coins) reigned only as the puppet 
of the Danish army. But after the peace of Wedmore, 
a new penny currency sprang up for the use of the Danish 
conquerors and their English subjects. From the country 
between the Thames and the Humber it spread north- 
wards to Northumbria, and for the first time took root 
in that district. This introduction of the penny into 



* See below, p. xliii. 

t Wliich >)cfore this date is very iutermiltont. 

J Accidentally ujibpriuted h7o in tlie body of the Ciilaloguc (p. 00). 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

Nortlinmbria, the breaking down the barrier which had Introduction 
separated the countries north and south of the Humber, is coinage into 
the third great event in the history of the English coinage, Northumbria. 
and the last which falls within the compass of the present 
volume. 

The Anglo-Danish coinages south of the Humber are 
those of Guthorm-^thelstan, and the ' St. Eadmund ' 
pennies. A certain number of blundered and barbarous 
imitations of the coins of -Alfred and Plegmund,* some of 
which are relegated to the next volume, represent the tran- 
sition between the English and the Danish coinages. 
Guthorm-iEthelstan's coins are copied from a single type of 
iElfred's, the same type which most of the above-mentioned 
blundered coins also copy ; while they differ altogether from 
the preceding coinage of East Anglia. The ' St. Eadmund ' 
pennies, again, have a character quite of their own.j Some are 
of extremely neat workmanship, % the special characteristics 
of which are scarcely to be matched in any contemporary 
series of coins, English or continental. Others again repre- 
sent the average English work of the time ; § while a third 
class is extremely rude and barbarous. || Another peculi- 
arity of the ' St. Eadmund ' coins is that they bear names of 
moneyers which are certainly not all English ; some of these 
names appear to be Danish, others Frankish.^ Almost all 
the ' St. Eadmund ' coins described in the j)resent volume 
are from the Cuerdale Find, and the immense majority of Cuerdala 
the pieces known come from the same hoard. These must ^^'^*^- 
therefore have been struck previous to the year 905, the 

* See pp. 79, 82. Some very barbarous coins, with the name of Burgred, 
king of Mercia, also, perhaps, belong to the same series. See p. 54, Merc, 
nos. 247-9, 283-6, 385. 

t The ' St. Eadmund ' pennies are connected by two slight links with the 
coinage of Guthorm-Ji^thclstan, of East Anglia. 1. By the recurrence of one 
of .^ithclstan's moneyers (Abbonel) among the ' St. Eadmund ' moneyers. 
2. By the use of tbe words ' me fecit' ou some of .lEthelstau's coins, and on 
many of the ' St. Eadmund ' pennies. 

X See PI. xvii. nos. 7, 10, 12, 13 ; PI. xviii. no. 16 ; PI. xix. nos. 2, 4, 
9, 12. 

§ Pll. xvii. xviii. xix. passim. 

II Pll. xviii. no. 10, xix. nos. 11, 13. Comp. also East Ang. nos. 362-371, 
645-7, 698. t Page 97. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

probable date of the deposit, and therefore within some five- 
and-thirty years of the martyrdom of Eadmnnd. That the 
* cult ' of this saint should have sprung up so immediately, 
and that such a large number of pennies should have been 
struck in his honour, within so few years, must seem extra- 
ordinary. It is reasonable to suppose, that the coinage was 
issued chiefly in East Anglia, as the fame of St. Eadmund 
could hardly, during so short a period, have become more 
widely spread. 

The penny coinage which began in Northumbria, sub- 
sequently to the year 877, is of a still more curious character 
than the ' St. Eadmund ' issue. It was struck under a cer- 
tain king, called Cnut, who, it is almost certain, is also the 
Gu^red mentioned by several writers as having been the 
successor of Halfdan. He had been sold as a slave, and 
in that state was discovered by the Abbot Eadred at the 
miraculous instigation of St. Cuthbert.* Gu&ed was a 
Christian, and his coins all bear Christian types. But some 
of these types are wholly unlike those of coins current in 
England south of the Humber, and much more nearly re- 
semble the coins of the Prankish kings. The reasons for 
this peculiarity are suggested in the prefatory note to the 
Danish or Norse coins of Northumbria, p. 201. Such as 
they are, the coins of GuSred may bo considered as in- 
augurating the use of a coinage of pennies to the north of 
the Humber. GuSred's coins, are followed, without any 
very material change of type, by those of Siefred. But with 
the accession of a new dynasty in the first quarter of the 
tenth century, there is a change, and the remaining coins 
of Northumbria until its absorption into the kingdom of all 
England, though they have several original types, are 
modelled upon those of the kings of the West Saxon line. 
Origin of This penny coinage of Northumbria may be reckoned as 

Scandinavian ^j^g earliest coinage struck by any Scandinavian people. 
The Scandinavian - Irish money, which is the earliest 
currency of Ireland, and the first coins certainly struck 
in Denmark, Norway, or Sweden, are all copied from 



* Syin. Dun. //. D. E. o. 13. 



AND Weights. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

types of iEthelred II. 's coins, and were none of them issued 
before the eleventh century.* The ' St. Peter ' coinage, 
which was issued contemporaneously with the Northumbrian 
coinage of the second Scandinavian dynasty — the ' sons of 
Ivar ' — and with that of Eric (Blo^ox ?), corresponds to the 
' St. Eadmund ' coinage of East Anglia, though it is of a later 
date than the East Anglian coinage. 

We have, for the period before the Viking invasion, no § 3. 
laws which make mention of the right of coinage, and there- L^^^' *^'^- 

n • 11 -11 x-v • DeNOMINA- 

fore we cannot tell in whose hands that right lay. During TioNs,VALrEs, 
the period covered by the anonymous coinage (series 1), 
we may safely guess that very little special right of coinage 
was recognised. Had it been otherwise, the names of kingS) 
or of those who claimed such right, would have been more 
common. In the corresponding and partly contemporary 
coinage of the Franks, too, the regal rights in the coinage 
must, one would think, have been often in abeyance, f for an 
immense number of these Merovingian Frankish trientes 
display no name beside that of the moneyer. It would take 
too long to enter into a discussion upon the state of things 
which this implies. If a certain legal or even customary 
weight were exacted for the coins, if large payments 
{e.g. taxes) were made by weight, and if the money in such 
cases was melted down % and afterwards recoined for the 
personal distribution of the king and the uses of his house- 
hold, that would satisfy most of the requirements of the 
case. In the case of the Anglo-Saxon anonymous coins, 
there was not even so much of a guarantee as was afforded 
by the moneyer's name. But still the coins may have been 
issued by persons who were known and held responsible by 
their immediate neighbours for the genuineness of their 
issues; and for large payments (or even for more distant 

* Aquilla Smitli in Num. Ckr. 1. c. Hildebrand, 1. c. ; but see pp. 8, 9, 
for imitations of Carloviugian coins which may be Scandinavian monej' of 
the ninth century. 

t Barthelemy, however, maintains that the riglit of coinage vested strictly 
in the king during jMerovingian times. Manitel de Numis. p. 2. 

X Sco Vita S. Elicjii (by St. Ouen), c. xv. for evidence with regard to the 
custom, under the Merovingian kings, of converting the taxes into bullion. 



XXXn INTRODUCTION. 

ones) the pftyment by tale may have been supplanted or 
supplemented by payment by weight, as payment in gold 
still is in our banks. 

There can be no doubt that the Carlovingian sovereigns 
claimed, and strictly enforced, their sole right to the issue 
of coins. This was one among many imperial rights which 
they revived. And we may infer that, when the penny sup- 
planted the sceat, the kings of the different kingdoms of 
England made similar claims. These rights, however, were 
shared with the Archbishops of Canterbury and York. Offa 
and Coenred allowed the kings of states which were subject 
to them to put their names on coins. But it is pretty certain 
that, previous to the Viking period and the anarchy which it 
introduced, the right of coinage did not extend beyond the 
kings and archbishops of England. "When the last Viking 
kingdom had been once more reduced under the English 
kings, the right of coinage became, in theory at any rate, 
exclusively their own. The first ordinance distinctly con- 
nected with the subject of the coinage is ^Ethelstan's 
(924-940), -^Selstanes Domas II. (Concilium Greatanleagense 
[Greatley]) 14, where it is ordained that there is to be one 
coinage throughout the kingdom (cynges onweald — regis 
imperio), and that no coinage is to be struck except within 
the city-gates. It goes on, however, to give a list of the 
mints in some of the chief towns, and we see that many 
of these mints were shared with bishops, archbishops, 
and abbots.* The right of using such mints was only a 
delegated right, for these archbishops and abbots never 
placed their names upon the coins ; and it need not have 
interfered with the royal prerogative to have the exclusive 
regulation of the coinage. This prerogative is first dis- 
tinctly asserted in a passage of the laws of iEthelred II. 
iESelr. Dom. III. (Concil. Wanetung. [Wantage] a.d. 
997 ?) 8.t 

Aud nan man ne age nroime mynetere, buton cyng 
(Et nuUuH liabeat aliqucni nionolarium, nisi rux. — Latin trs.) 

* § 2. ' In Canterbury 7 moneyers — 4 of the king, 2 of the [nrchjbiHhop 
and 1 of tiic abbot. In Rochester 3 — 2 of the king, 1 of tiic bisliop.' Tlieso 
cjtiscojial mints were lung retained. 

t Sclimid, (ieKdzc, &c., p. 217. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXlll 

There has been some controversy over the position of the The Moneyer. 
moneyer {mynetere, monetarius) iu Anglo-Saxon times. We 
have seen that he first receives oliicial recognition with the 
introduction of the penny, eirc. a.d. 760. The earliest men- 
tion of the mynetere is in the laws of ^thelstan just 
referred to * where it is ordained that the guilty moneyer 
shall have his hand struck ofi", and that it shall be placed 
over the mint smithy (uppon })a mynet-smiSSan), This 
seems to me to imply, that the moneyer at this time was 
the actual fabricator of the coins, not an officer made 
responsible for them. And this supposition is confirmed by 
the legend, ' me fecit,' which we occasionally find following 
the name of the moneyer.f The chief difficulties in the way 
of this conclusion are the extraordinary varieties of spelling 
which characterise the names of moneyers upon the coins. 
They can hardly be explained on the theory of forgery, for 
the coins of fullest weight and purest metal are often 
most distinguished by these eccentricities of spelling. (But 
see below, p. Ixxxii.) 

As there were, for all the period of English history with Deuomiua- 
which we are concerned, but two denominations of English 
coin, that is to say, the sceat and the i)e)imj,X and not more 
than one of these in general currency at one time, all the 
other monetary denominations mentioned in the Anglo- 
Saxon laws and in literature must be moneys of account 
merely. The denominations mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon 
laws, &c., are the following : Pound, Mark, Mancus, Ora, 
SciLLiNG, Penny, ^rymsa, Soeat, and Styca. Of these the 
marh and the ora were introduced by the Danes, and were 
not definitely incorporated into the English monetary system 
during the greater part of the time of which we write. 

* There are other passages in iEthehed. Dom. iii. 8. 16, which add no infor- 
mation tovxching the status of the moneyers. The first increases the peualty 
for issuing false coins to tiiat of death ; the second passage inflii-ts a like 
penalty for setting up private mints ' iu woods or such places.' 

t See pp. 95, 96, 100, 102, 105, 108, &c. 

X The single solidus of Archbi'shop Wigmund cannot be looked upon as 
furnishing a real exception to this rule. We might perhaps add the J^rymsa 
for the earlier years of the coinage. But this was generally only a money of 
account. 

d 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Pound. The Pound (Pund), from tlie Latin pondus, was originally 

the weight of the Jihra, considered by the Teutonic nations 
as the Latin weight par excellence. It was adopted from the 
Romans by nearly all the Teutonic peoples south of the 
Baltic, and, as shown by the various degradations which it 
underwent among them as well as by the dialectic varieties 
which the word assumed, it was adopted at a pretty early 
date. As a weight the pound would, of course, have no 
place among coin denominations ; but we have evidence 
that, at a pretty early time, it came to be also a money 
of account, the pound by tale (money of account) being 
distinguished from the pound by weight.* "Whether this 
distinction had begun at the time of which we write, it is 
hard to say. The pound of silver always contained 240 
pence. The weight of the pound eventually always used as 
the standard for the English coinage (the Tower Pound) 
was 5400 gr. Troy, giving 22i gr. Tr. (32 wheat grains) for 
the penny-weight, which is the earliest statute weight — 
given in 51 Hen, IIL 

IM alio us. The M ANGUS (pi. M ANGUS As) or Mangos is a word of 
uncertain derivation ; that from manu cusa may be rejected 
as fantastical. It was a coin denomination in use upon the 
Continent quite as much as in England, and may have been 
imported into this country from abroad. It appears to be 
mentioned in England as early as a.d. 811 ; t while the 
earliest mention abroad cited by Du Gauge | is a.d. 814, 
at the Council (Placitum) of Spoleto. The mancus was 
equal to ^ of a pound, and therefore to oOd. 

Shilling. The tSiiiLLiNG (Scilling) is, as has been said above, in its 
etymological signification a ' division.' § According to the 
hypothesis there advanced, it grew into use for a denomin- 
ation of value from having been originally an indefinite 
portion of an armlet, later on a portion equivalent in weight 
to the Roman solidus, and finally a solidus itself or the 

* H. Ellis, Lttrod. to Bomcmlaij, p. 101, ' libra ad nimicruiii,' and ' libra ad 
pcnsum.' 

t Haddan and Stiibbs, Councils, iii. 570. If this piece is undoubtedly 
genuine. 

J Du Canpe, G/o>"<. s.v. mancue. § Skeal, I'hjm. Did. t-.r. Shilling. 



INTRODUCTION, XXXV 

equivalent weight in gold. Later still it sank to be a money 
of account merely, and became of much less value than the 
solidus. In the laws of ^thelberht Is. = 20 scsettas. 
Taking the nominal weight of the sceat at about 160 grs, 
Troy and the value of gold to silver as 9 : 1, * this would 
give for the scilling less than 36 grs. in gold, instead of 
70 grs. the weight of the solidus as fixed by Constantine. 

The Penny (Pening, Penig, also Pending, (the earliest Penny, 
form t) Thorpe Diplom., p. 471, 1. 26, &c. |) allied to the 
German Pfand, and in its etymological meaning something 
like a pledge or token of value, would, of all the monetary 
terms in use in England, be the most appropriate as applied 
to the one recognised medium of exchange. As we have 
said, the word occurs in the Laws of Ine. If the authority 
of that source be doubted, the earliest occurrence would be in 
the will of A.D. S33 or 835 cited above. | It has been said, that 
the weight of the penny eventually rose to 22^ gr. Troy (1'45 
grammes) which was more than that of the latest denarii 
of Pepin, but less than the latest denarii of Charlemagne. 

The pRYMSA (pRiMSA, Trdis, ]:'eims, &c.) was, it has been Thrymsa. 
suggested, at one time the same as the tremissis. Bosworth 
(A.S. Die.) quotes from Wilkins the value 1200 solidi = 2000 
})rymsas, which gives it a value of more than ^ of the solidus. 
It is certain, however, that in some parts of England 
(e.^. the North) the J'rymsa sank down to be worth no 
more than the sceat, or possihhj two sceattas. (Schmid, o.c. 
App. vii. 2, and Geldreclinung, s.v. Thrymse.) It is possible 
that in districts into which the gold tremisses had not 
penetrated, the silver coins of the same class, i.e. the 



* Madox, Hhf. of the Ex. i. 277. Soetbeer, howevtr, (Petermann's Geog. 
Mitth. Erglinz. 57, p. UG, sqq.) says that in the Carloviugian age gohl was 1o 
silver as 12 : 1. Tliis, if it held good for England would, of course, give a still 
smaller weight in gold fur the value of a scilling. 

t Skcat, Efym. Did. «.d. Penny. 

X Birch, Cdrfulurium Sdxonicum, vol. i. p. 575. Mr. Biich gives the 
date about 833, Thorpe 835, following an endorsement in a later hand. I 
have been unable to make use of the Cart. Sax. in most cases, on acconut of 
there being (as yet) no distinction diawn between genuine and spurious 
charters. The necessary indications will, I iiresuinc. bo added when tlic 
work is complete. 

d 2 



XXXVl INTRODUCTTOX. 

sceattas, sometimes usurped the name of their predecessors 
the tremisses. 
Sceat. 8cEAT (also Scjst), allied to the German Scliatz, Dan. shatt, 
&:c., signifies treasure, value, or payment, in the abstract, 
and as such the word continues to he used throughout Anglo- 
Saxon literature. In this sense it is still preserved in the 
modern scot (' scot-free,' * scot and lot,' &:c) and sliot. It has 
already been said that sceat occurs (in the form scKt) as early 
as circa a.d. 600, signifying a definite coin. This fact, of 
course, does not prove that the coin designated was a piece 
of English manufacture. We have seen that, by the laws of 
iEthelberht, 20 sceattas went to a shilling. But by a 
Mercian wergild (Schmid, Gesetze der A.-S., App. vii. 3), 
the date of which is uncertain, the sceat is reckoned ^-1^ 
of a pound, so that 24f?. = 25 sceattas, or 1 Mercian shilling 
= 4^ sceattas, the £1 being equal to 60 Mercian shillings. 
The West Saxon shilling =1^ Merc. sh. Therefore 1 W.S. 
shil. = 5^5_j. sceattas, not much more than one-fourth of the 
earlier reckoning. 
Si yea. The Styca (also Stic), etymologically ' piece ' (Germ. 
Sti'ich), is not mentioned in the A.S. laws. In literature it 
is used as the equivalent of the ' mite ' {Xeirrov) of Mark 
xii. 42, and Luke xxi. 2. We may believe that it was at 
one time used to designate those very small Koman coins 
(minimi) which were extensively current both in this 
country and in Gaul, and upon the pattern of which the 
Northumbrian stycas were partly modelled. 
Mailv-. Tlie Mark (Marc) and Ora were denominations of weight 
among the Scandinavian nations. The former, which is first 
mentioned in the ' peace ' of .ZElfred and Guthorm, seems 
to have been the unit of weight north of the Baltic, as the 
pound was to the south of it. Its usual weight was half that 
of the pound. Later on, tlu; mark became a money of 
account. It was usual in England to calculate by half- 
marks, though there is no trace of this practice in the 
Scandinavian laws (Steenstrup, Normannerne, iv. 172). 
*^'^^- The Ora (Icel. Eyrir, pi. aurar), on the other hand, was 

not originally a denomination of weight. It was derived 
from the Latin aurnm, meant originally treasure in coined 



INTRODUCTION. XXXVll 

money, and subsequently no doubt became the equivalent of 
a solidus' worth of silver coins. As such it would have cor- 
responded to the Enfi;lish sciJUng, only that the difference in 
the relations of gold and silver in this country and in Scan- 
dinavia gave it eventually a different value as a money of 
account. The earliest mention of the ora is in Eadweard's 
and Guthorm's laws 7, by which it appears 12 ore = 30 sh., 
which gives 1 ora = L^^ sh. 30 sh. = also 3 half-marks (ih. 3, 
§ 1), so that 1 mark = 8 ore. 

It is not necessary to cite all the passages in the A.S. Values. 
laws from which the relative values of these different 
monetary denominations may be gathered,* the less so as the 
whole question is very carefully discussed in the index to 
Keinhold Schmid's Gesetze der Angelsachsen (s.v. Geldrech- 
nung). It will be sufficient here to give the tables in which 
Dr. Schmid sets forth the results he has obtained — 

£1 a. Wessex. £l=48s/i. 

= [2 marks] 

= 4 J -m. = 8 mancuses = 16 (15) ore = 48 sh. = 240 d. 

1 i-m. = 2 „ = 4(3f) „ =12,, = 60 „ 

1 mancus = 2 (1|) „ = 8 „ =30 „ 

1 6ra= 3 m)sh.= 15(16)c?. 
1 sh. = 5 d. 

* All the coinages described in the present volume, with the exception of 
the tenth century coinage of Nortliumbria (pp. 2ol-244), belong to the period 
before the definite settlement of the Danes in England. Now we have seen 
that the Danes introduced weight- and money-valuations of their own into 
this country — the Marie and the Ora for instance — (Steenstrui^, Normanncrne, 
iv. § 27) ; and it is quite possible that the values of the En(jli)<]i monetary 
denominations were in some degree modified to suit these importations. 
Therefore, strictly speaking, tlie only passages from the laws wliicli can be 
quoted as evidence for the values of the coinage of England before the tenth 
century must be taken from the laws which were written previous to that 
date, that is to say, from — 

The Kentkh Laws of iEtlielberlit I., written circa a.d. 596, 
of Hlothar and Eadric, circa a.d. 673, 
and of "Wihtried, circa a.d. 725. 
And the West Saxori Laws of — 

Ine (a.d. 08:5-726), tliough these may have 
been modified in .Alfred's reign, 
of iKlfred, written between a.d 87S UOI. 



XXXVlii INTRODUCTION. 

p- h. Mercia. £1=00.'?//. 

= [2 marksj 

= 4 1 -in. = 8 manciises = 16 (15) ore = 60 sh. = 240 d. 
1 l-m. = 2 „ = 4(3f) „ =15,, = 60 „ 

1 mancus = 2(1-1) „ = lish. = 30 „ 

1 6ra= 31(4)s/i.= 15(16)(Z. 

Ish. = 4:(l 

Weights. Wc have only inferential evidence as to the weight system 

upon which the early English coins were calculated. The 
average weight of the anonymous gold coins described in 
the present catalogue is about 20*0 grains, which is not very 
far from the proper weight of the tremissis. The average 
weight of the sceattas is 15"5 grains. We may place the 
full normal weight at 16 grains. The pieces, however, 
differ enormously among themselves, the heaviest weighing 
204 gr. and the lowest 92 gr. It is not uncommon for 
them to fall as low as from 10 to 12 grs. This great dis- 
crepancy seems to show, that the sceattas were not generally 
used for large payments l^j tale. When used by talc (i.e. as 
coins) they were in almost the position of a token coinage 
at the present day. Payment in the higher values was 
probably generally made by weight. We may assume that 
they were meant to conform to the scale of the Merovingian 
and Frankish silver coins {denarii or saigas*) of the 
contemporary period and of neighbouring countries. The 
weight of these Merovingian silver coins is, as Mr. Robert- 
son has pointed out, exactly that of the Byzantine scruple ; 
whether designedly so must be left to conjecture. Moreover 
that the sceattas had at one time a legal value by tale is 
evident from the quotation in a ]\Iercian wergild, which 
gives 250 sceattas as the equivalent of the pound. Probably 

* It is uot uncommon to hear tlic Mtrovinfiian silver coins siwkcu of as 
naiijiis, as iliBtiii^^uislicd from tiic ('iirli)viiigiaii (hnarii. 'J'lus word suhja, 
liowovcr, only occuih in tlic Alciiuiniiin ami Bavarian (r>nioiirian) laws. It 
(Iocs not (rcciir in the liipuariaii (Jodc. (Linilcnbrof;, \>- ■1>')0 f^qq-), or in the 
Frman Cudi; (id. p. 400 sqq-), the laws appertaining to iIk; districts from which 
come the small coins resembling our sceattas. It seems certain then that tiiesc 
coins are not SKigan but the vchrcis denarii, as dislingnislicd from tlie nori 
denarii or denarii norai monetae of (ho laws rerernd (o, wliicli are (he new coins 
of Pepin and Charlemagne (Lea; Z'V/V. tit. i.). 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

the sceattas of the date to which that wergikl belongs (the 
date is uncertain) were on a more uniform footing than the 
sceattas of an earlier time. 

The average weight of the pennies of Offa is IS grs., 
which is likewise that of the pennies of Jaenberht, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ; but of the isolated coins of Ecgberht 
(Kent), of Beonna and -^thelberht (E. Anglia), which are 
probably contemporary with Offa's earliest coins, it is not 
more than 17-3. This last weight is equal to 21*1 grs. 
Paris, which seems to have been about the weight of the 
earliest denarii of Pepin. Carlovingian denarii went on 
increasing in weight until the year a.d. 774, when the 
weight rose to 32 grs. Paris (= about 26 '3 grs. Troy), 
which was higher than the English penny (save exception- 
ally) ever reached. The English penny, like the Prankish 
denarius, went at the valuation of 240 to the lb. The 
difference, therefore, lay between the Gallic and the 
English pound, the English being apparently what was 
afterwards known as the Tower pound, of 5400 grs. 
Troy, whereas the Carlovingian denarii followed the heavier 
weight of the Gallic pound. It happens, however, that the 
later pennies of iElfred, and those of Eadweard the Elder, 
iEthelstan, and Eadmund, are on a higher standard than 
this of 240 to the Tower pound. This rise in the standard, 
which was only temporary, may have been due to the coming 
of the Danes and Norsemen, and the introduction of the 
new penny coinage into Northumbria. For the earliest 
Northumbrian pennies closely resemble the Prankish denarii 
(see p. 201), and they seem to be struck upon a higher 
standard of weight than the contemporary coins of the 
southern districts, albeit they differ enormously inter se. 

As the coinage of the West Saxons is not included among § 4. 
the series of pieces here described, these are, on the Jl*'^^"^^J; 
whole, but slightly connected with the political history 
of England. It will be sufficient, therefore, to resume in a 



* The names prinfccl in capital letters, iu the Ibllowing sketch, are those of 
personages whoso coins are described in this volume. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

few pages tlie chief events of this history, for the periods 
ill time and space to -which belong the coinages described 
in the present vohime. Two leading motives snccessively 
dominate the course of our history during this period : (1) 
the struggle for hegemony among the Heptarchic kingdoms, 
and (2) the struggles of the English nation as a whole 
against its Danish and Norse invaders. 
rmgii!<s It is now sufficiently recognised that the so-called 

owarcsimi}. Uep{;^,.(.]jy jg Q^jy ^ certain stage in the progress whereby 
the number of independent Anglo and Saxon tribes which 
settled in this country slowly coalesced into one people, 
under one ruler. "While, on the one hand, behind the 
heptarchic states, we can easily trace a great number of 
smaller divisions,* so on the other hand, from the earliest 
period which can fairly be called historical, we are able 
to signalise three or four kingdoms as those among 
which the rivalry for supreme power really rested, viz. 
Kent, Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex. I name these 
kingdoms in the order in which they successively rose to pre- 
eminence. Not more than three of these can be considered 
rivals at any one time. Before Wessex — occupied at first in 
wars with her AVelsh neighbours — became a dangerous rival 
to the other English kingdoms, the hopes of Kent's re- 
gaining her old hegemony had disappeared. The beginning 
of the anonymous coinage is in all probability contem- 
porary with the hegemony of Kent, the Bretwaldadom of 
TEthelbcrht. But we have no money which can in any way 
be directly associated with this period of history. After 
the death of iEthelberht the Bretwaldadom was exercised 
by Biaidwald of East Anglia, while iEthelfriS of Northumbria 
enjoyed a power at least equal to that gained by either of 
these kings.f The supremacy of Northumbria wns definitely 
acknowledged under Eadwine (a.d. G17-G33), whose reign 
we may fairly count as the beginning of the historical 
period of the English annals. This is also the period 



* 8ce tJiier alin Stubbs, Coni^t. JHM. i. 170 S(iq. 

t ' II<' conrjiieicd more tuiritoricH from tlio Britnny, ( itiicr iiKikiii^ lliciu 
liilmliiry or driving tlic inliriliitaiits (juitf awiiy and i)laiiliiig Eiigliali in (hciv 
Kicad, (hail any otlicr king or trilnuic' — lUda, ii. c. 34. 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

of tlio pretty general conversion of the English people, and, 
we may guess, the era of the general adoption of the new 
coinage.* Eadwine was the first Christian king of North- 
nmbria (conv. a.d. 627) ; East Anglia was converted, under 
Earpwald, about 632, or, more completely, under Sigeberht a 
year or two later.f Wessex began to listen to the preaching 
of Birinus in 634; and in 635 Cynegils, its king, was 
converted. The East Saxons finally accepted Christianity 
circa a.d. 653 ; Mercia did so after the death of Penda, in 
A.D. Gb^:). The South Saxons were not fully converted till 
A.D. 681 ;$ nor the Isle of Wight until 686. 

For a while, Penda, king of Mercia, was the great champion Eivahy hc- 
of heathendom, as opposed to Eadwine, the most powerful ^^^^{^.^^.^ ."[jj 
upholder of Christianity among the nations of the Angles. Mercia. 
Under Penda the long rivalry of Northumbria and Mercia 
begins. With the aid of Ceadwalla, the king of the 
Stratbclyde Britons, Penda attacked and slew Eadwine at 
the battle of Heathfield, in a.d. 633 ; and later on he slew 
Oswald, the successor of Eadwine, at Maserfeld (Oswestry?), 
642. But he did not confine his operations to Northumbria. 
He twice attacked the hosts of Wessex, and drove King 
Cenwalh from his throne (643) ; thrice defeated the East 
Anglians, and slew three kings of that nation, Sigeberht, 
Egric, and Anna. In fact, as Mr. Freeman says, ' Penda 
came more near to achieving the union of the whole 
English nation under one sceptre than any prince before 
the West-Saxon Ecgberht.' § Nevertheless, considering the 
great victories which he achieved, Penda seems to have been 
careless in reaping their full results. He did not incor- 
porate much in his kingdom of Mercia. Thus, after Heath- 
field, he left Northumbria to be overrun by Ceadwalla, and 
at first he watched with indifi'erence the return of the 

* With regard to the relations between England and the Continent brought 
about by the conversion of the English, see Freeman, Norm. Conq. 8rd ed. 
i. 30. Of these rolaliona the first English coinage was one of the results. 

t Chr. S. gives a.d. G32 for baptism of Earpwald. This date appears to bo 
too late. Sigeberht's death can be shown to have occurred in a.d. (J^io. 

X Chr. S. gives a.d. GGl as the year of the couvcrsiou of iEthelwalil, k. of 
the S. S. 

§ Nunii L'liiiij. ord ed. i. oli. 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

country under the allegiance of a king of the Bernician line. 
Oswald and Oswiu, the sons of ^thelfriJS ' the Fierce,' 
had been driven out by Eadwine. Oswald went to Scotland 
to the monastery of Hy (lona), where he imbibed the 
Christianity of the Columban church. A year after Heath- 
field he returned, and eventually succeeded in once more 
uniting all Northumbria under his sceptre, lie is reckoned 
the sixth Bretwalda, though how any other king could 
rightfully enjoy such a title in the lifetime of Penda it is 
hard to understand. Oswald's great achievement was the 
re-introduction of Christianity (now under the auspices of 
the Columban Church) into Northumbria. 

Oswald was, as has been said, slain by Penda after an 
effective reign of eight years, in a.d. 642. Penda was, in his 
turn, slain at the battle of Windaedfeld (Wingfield ?) by Oswiu 
(a.d. 655). Aldfrid, the natural son of Oswiu, and eventually 
king of Northumbria, was present at this battle. By it the 
supremacy of Northumbria was once more completely 
established, and Peada, the son of Penda, was reduced to the 
position of an under-king. He was the first Christian king 
of Mercia, and this is perhaps the reason why, despite the 
inferiority of his position, he was the first king of Mercia 
■who placed his name upon the coins. 

AVulfhcre was the successor of Peada (a.d. 658),* and he 
restored Mercia to her ancient independence, f From this 
time forward till the death of Coenwulf in a.d. 822, a 
period of nearly 170 years, Mercia was almost always under 
the sway of an able and successful ruler. The kings of the 
East Saxons became subject to Wulfherc ; he had, indeed, so 
far incorporated Essex with his own territories tliat he 
possessed the right of disposing of the see of London. Finally 
we find him, after conquering the West Saxon king at the battle 

* Thrcu Mercian 'duces' rebellcil against Oswiu and sot up Wulfhcre, 
whom tliey had kept in concealment. — Beda. iii. c. 24. (E. H. S.) 

t This epoch of the contemporary reigns of Oswiu, Wulfherc, and Ecgberlit 
of Kent, is celebrated by Beda. ' Nequc unquam prorsus ex quo Britanniam 
petierunt Anglis feliciora fuere tempora, dum et fortissimos Christianosque 
liabentes reges.' . . . These, too, were the days when Theodore taught 
tiirougliout the land, 'the first archbishop whom all the English obeyed.' — 
Be.la. iv. c. 2 (E. II. S.) 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

of Pontesbiiry (a.d. 661), bestowing upon the king of the 
South Saxons, who was evidently little better than his under- 
king, the Isle of Wight and some of the territory of Wessex. 
He defeated another "West Saxon king at Biedanheafod in 
675. From this time the rivalry between the kingdoms of 
Northumbria and Mercia began to die down. Wulfhcre 
was succeeded (a.d. 675) by ^Ethelred, who had a long and 
successful reign. He recovered some parts of the ancient 
kingdom of Mercia (Lindsay) which had been wrested from 
it by EcGFEiD, the Northumbrian king. He fought one 
battle with Ecgfrid on the Trent (a.d. 679), which is as 
significant for the want of any definite result, as previous 
battles between the two great Anglian kingdoms had been 
important for their efi'ects. The quarrel was composed by 
Theodore, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and a wergild was 
paid for the Northumbrian aetheling, ^Ifwine, who had 
been slain. The reigning houses of Northumbria and Mercia 
were at this time closely allied by marriage. Oswiu's suc- 
cessors were his legitimate son Ecgfrid and his natural son 
Aldfrid, of both of whom we have coins. Their sister 
Alhflsed married Peada ; another sister, OsthryS, married 
^Ethelred ; wliile Aldfrid on his side married Cyneburg, 
the sister of Peada, of Wulfhere and ZEthelred. These 
relationships did not put a stop to the rivalry of North- 
umbria and Mercia, but they modified its bitterness. 

For the history of Northumbria under Ecgfrid and Decline of the 
Aldfrid, the reader may be referred to the short biographies kiu^^aoin/^^^" 
at the end of this sketch. These kings arc considered not to 
have kept the glory of their kingdom at its former height, 
but, save for one disastrous expedition against the Picts in 
which Ecgfrid was slain, their reigns must be reckoned on the 
whole as fairly prosperous. Aldfrid governed the kingdom 
well and successfully, ' though within narrower limits,' than 
his predecessors. The rapid decline of Northumbria began 
after the death of Aldfrid. The country was torn with 
internal dissensions. Of the fifteen kings who reigned in 
Northumbria during the eighth century, only two died upon 
the throne.* 

* Sec Slubbs, Cvn^l. llitif. i. 137. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

Rivalry Meantime the rise of Wessex under Ceadwalla and Inc 

between bcffliu to OCCUPY the attention of Mercia, and this, perhaps, 
Morcia ami ^ ■, ■ />iiiii> 

Wessex. as much as anything else, accounts tor the latter country a 

not renewing her attacks upon Northumbria. As at a later 
day under Ecirberht, the ambition of the West-Saxon kings 
was directed first against the kingdom of Kent. Ceadwalla 
and Ine both invaded Kent. During the first invasion, Cead- 
walla's brother Mul (' the Mule ') was slain by the men of 
Kent. Ine afterwards (694) compelled them to pay a fine of 
30,000 (sceattas ?) as a blood fine.* Ine also turned his arms 
against the South Saxons. The rivalry between Wessex and 
Mercia, begun at Pontesbury and Biedanheafod, was renewed 
at the battle of "Wansborough (Woddesbeorh), a.d. 715, 
between Ine of Wessex and Ceolred of Mercia, the second suc- 
cessor of ^THELKED. It seems to have been a drawn battle.f 
Ceolred died the next year (716), and was succeeded by .(Ethel- 
bald (' the Magnificent,' or ' the Proud '), under whom Mercia 
again rose to a position of superiority among all the Heptarchic 
kingdoms. In his reign the Mercians once more ravaged 
Northumbria (a.d. 737). But iEthelbald's arms were directed 
chiefly against the West Saxons. Ine had abdicated in a.d. 
725 1 after a reign of thirty-seven years. Five or eight 
years after this (730 or 733), iEthelbald ravaged the West 
Saxon territory, and took the town of Somerton. Wessex 

* It is generally assumed that the sum was 30,000 soluli, because iEtliel- 
W'card has that reading. Later writers have ' mancuses.' Allen, however, 
lioijal Frerog. p. 177, suggests that the wergild was 30,000 sceattas, a far more 
likely sum. This is the first mention of a definite sum of money in the 
Ciironiclo. MS. A has 30 m. (= 30,000), though Thorpe translates it 30 men. 
(In M. H. B. it is indeed so given — 30 miDinu ; but this i.-s simply a mistake.) 
B has 30 pounds, all the others have 30,000. F has ' xxs pusenda' with the word 
' pund ' w rilten above in a later liand. This has misled Earle (S. C. e. a. 694, 
lutte). Tiie notion of a fine of 30,000 pounds of silver is absurd. Paidi, who 
has evidently not read the original authority, might well be sceptical about it, 
Kiinifj 2E\Jrtd, &c., p. 35. The proper wergild would be more nearly 30,000 
BC( attas, ef. Merc. Werg. in Schmid App. vii. 3. I suspect that this was no 
more than the custf.mary blood fine (the customary one for a hintj) and that 
the record of it has by mere accident been preserved liere and not in other 
places. 

t H. Hunt. iv. § 9, ' Woneliirih.' 

X Ace. to Chr. .< A B, 72f! C-F. It seems that 725 is the right date. 
L. Theopold, Kritinche Uutirxurhinuj, &c., pp. 13, 14. 



INTKODUCTION. xlv 

suffered a temporary eclipse. But it rose to power again 
under Cu^red, who defeated ^^thelbald in a decisive engage- 
ment at Burford (a.d. 752). 

This is perhaps the most important battle of the eighth 
century. It constituted a turning-point in the history 
of Wessex, and it has on that account been much celebrated 
by historians.* To this battle there marched under the 
standard of iEthelbald, ' king of kings ' as he is styled, 
the men of Kent, the East Saxons and East Angles. 
Five years after this great defeat, Mercia was in its turn 
invaded ; ^Ethelbald, in seeking to defend it, was again 
defeated at Seckington (in Warwickshire),! and ' disdaining 
to fly ' fell upon the field of battle. 

After a few months' interval iEthelbald was succeeded by Offix. 
Offa. Despite the memory of recent disaster which hung 
round it, the sceptre of Mercia was still perhaps one of the 
most powerful in England. And Offa raised his kingdom 
once more into a position of supremacy. Kent was crushed 
at the Battle of Otford in ad. 774, t and became little more 
than a dependency of Offa's crown. For we find the 
Mercian king placing his name upon the coins of Jaenbeeht 
and ^THELHEAED, the Archbishops of Canterbury. § Cyne- 
wulf, king of Wessex, was defeated at Bensington in 778. 
But Wessex was too powerful to be wholly subdued. Offa 
entered into an alliance with Berhtric, the succeeding West 
Saxon king, gave him his daughter Eadburh in marriage, 
and later on assisted him to drive from his kingdom his 
rival Ecgberht. iEthelberht, the king of the East xingles, 
sought a similar alliance with the king of Mercia. He 
was enticed to the court of Offa and murdered, a.d. 793. 
That, however, the conquered kingdoms Kent and East 
Anglia were not definitely incorporated with Mercian 
territory, we have the evidence of Charters to show, for on 

* See tlic long accounts of it given by Inter historians, H. Hunt., &c. 

t H. Hunt. iv. § I'J (R. S.) Or at llcpton Chr. S. F only. Tlie continuer 
of Budc says he was murdered, not killed in battle. For the date of ^Ethel- 
bald's death, see Stubbs' Prefnrc to Roger of IIov. (R. S.) p. xcv. 

X Or A.D. 775, adding two years to the date uf Chr. S. A, see Stiilibn, I. e. 

§ Pp. 71, 72. See also Num. Chron. N. S. 3rd s. ii. p. SO (Evans) and 
Hawkins, Eiuj. Sih: Coiux (Kciiyon) p. 32. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

some of tliese the name of Ecgbcrbt, king of Kent, appears 
during a great part of the period which intervened between 
the battle of Otford and the death of Offa. We have 
further evidence in the fact, that despite the acknowledge- 
ment of his supremacy shown in the Canterbury coins, Offa 
was anxious to separate his own kingdom from the juris- 
diction of its metropolitan, and erected Lichlicld into an 
Archiepiscopal See.* Against the Britons Offa's achieve- 
ments were as great as against his English rivals. He 
conquered from the West Welsh the territory between the 
Severn and the Wye, and constructed, it is said, ' Offa's dyke ' 
as a rampart to guard the newly-acquired territory. It is 
believed that he codified the Mercian laws, and that much of 
Offa's code was afterwards incorporated into the laws of 
Alfred. Finally, what most concerns the present study, we 
may give him the credit of introducing the neiv coinage 
of pennies into this country, a coinage which is in itself a 
monument of the art of Offa's reign. 

It will be observed that all the mints from which issued a 
coinage of pennies during the latter years of the eighth 
century were subject to, or under the immediate influence of, 
Mercia, viz. those of the kings of East Anglia and Kent, 
and the Archiepiscopal mint at Canterbury. Wessex, the 
only kingdom south of the Humbcr, which preserved its 
independence, issued no coinage before the accession of 
Ecgberht in 802. 
Decline of The greatness of Mercia was maintained by Offa's suc- 
Mercia. cessor CoENWULF (Cenwulf), who is callcd * St. Kynwulf ' 
by later chroniclers. Kent was reduced to greater subjec- 
tion than before by the capture of the king Eadberht Pr;en, 
who was brought as a prisoner into Mercia, and according 
to some accounts, was deprived of his sight. Coenwulf 
placed CuDRED upon the throne of Kent. With the accession 
of Ecgberht in Wessex, the tlironc of that kingdom was 
once more established in an undisputed succession, and 
in the most illustrious family which has ever ruled in 



♦ Synod of CValcIiytlic (Chelwii), a.d. 7S7. See irnddjin and Slnl.l..s. 
Oiuncih, iii. 41."). 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

England. From that time the fortunes of Wessex, which 
had sunk since the death of Ine, began once more to rise. 
Those of Mercia declined after the death of CoEN^YULF, or 
at any rate upon the expulsion of Ceolwulf, the third in 
succession from Offa. The supremacy of Mercia was finally 
destroyed at the battle of iEllandun in 825, a battle 
which may be placed beside or before that of Burford for 
its importance in Mercian history, and which forms a 
turning-point in the history of England. England, South 
of the Thames — the South Saxons, the East Saxons, and the 
people of Kent—' turned to Ecgberht,' and the king of the 
East Angles sought him for king and protector. In 
attempting to assert his supremacy over the East Anglians, 
Beornwulf of Mercia met his death, and his successor 
LuDicAN suffered the same fate the following year or, 
possibly, two years afterwards.* The kingdom of Mercia con- 
tinued to exist ; but Ecgberht obtained the hegemony (Bret- 
waldadom) of all England south of the Humber f (a.d. 827). 

This is the close of one era in the history of England, that Fijiai supre- 

which embraces the time from the bea-innina: of the his- ^^^^y of 

Wessex 
torical period to the end of the rivalry of the different 

Heptarchic kingdoms. The central point of it may be 

reckoned the reign of Offa, which is, of course, likewise the 

most important epoch in the history of the English coinage. 

The rise of Wessex to the hegemony was the chief feature of 

the succeeding thirty years after the death of Offa. The 

first great step in this process was signalised by the cessation 

of the independent coinage of Kent, in a.d. 825. But, from 

this time, a new element entered into the development of 

English history, the appearance of the northern invaders 

known as the Yikings ; and this new influence deflected the 

current of English history from its natural course. The 

coming of the Yikings, and not the growing power of 

Wessex, was the chief factor in the history of the declining 

fortunes of the Heptarchic kingdoms north of the Thames. 

As the disputes between rival claimants for co-nationality Coming of tlio 
. Vikings. 

* See Biog. notices, Ludican, p. Ivii. and note. 

t The Noithuiubiiiins tlieiiisilvcs made some sort of submii<sion {Chr. S. 
a. 827). 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

with the northern pirates are not decided, and do not seem 
likely to be so, it would bo safest to speak of the invaders of 
England always under the name of Vikings. They are, 
however, generally called Danes in the English chronicles, 
and as such it is legitimate to speak of them. The attacks 
of these Danes had already begun during the prosperous reign 
of Offa : first, an unimportant raid by ' three keels ' upon 
the Dorset coast (789) ; * six years after, a much more 
serious one in Northumbria, in which the famous monastery 
of Lindisfarne was burnt, and the community put to the 
sword. Other attacks followed upon the Welsh coast (795?), 
and upon Man (798). However, the storm, which seemed 
about to burst on several sides of Great Britain, eventually 
Danes in passed ovcr St. George's Channel to Ireland, There, for 
Ireland. many years, the Viking raids were continuous, and con- 
stantly increasing in number and volume. At last, the 
northmen not only established themselves in the most im- 
portant harbours along the Irish coast, and, by so doing, 
laid the foundations of the Viking ' kingdoms ' in Dublin, 
Waterford, and Limerick, but also, for a time, under a certain 
TurgesiuSjt obtained possession of all the northern half of 
Ireland, called Conn's half. There is good reason to believe 
that, when the Viking raids began again in England, they 
came first from the neighbouring kingdom of Ireland, t 

* Chr. S. 787. 

f Thorgisl? It is probahlo that this leader eame in command of the 
' great royal fleet ' which attacked the coast of Armagh in a.d. 831 or 832 
(An. Ult. 830, F. M. 830, The War of (he Gm'dhill, &c., pp. 9, 10.) In the last 
it is distinctly stated that Turgesius did comniund this fleet. Turgosins was 
drowned in I.ongh Owrc, a.d. 84.5 (An. UK. 841, F. M. 843, War, &c., 13). 

X A remarkable hoard of coins, found at Delgany, Ireland, and described 
liy ]Mr. 'TEvans in the A'um. Chron. 3rd series, vol. ii. (1882), p. Gl sqq., con- 
tained a series of pennies of the kings of Kent and RTerciu (also probably 
struck in Kent), some inicertiiiu nrchiepiscopal coins dating jtrnliably lx;tween 
832 and 833, and one papal coin of Leo III. The coins of the kiug.s of Mercia 
and Kent may date from the beginning of a penny coinage; llie latest of the 
aeries would be those archiepiscopal coins which may be referred to a date as 
late as a.d. 833. There is every reason therefore to accept the suggestion of 
BIr. Evans, that these coins were carried by some Viking fleet from Kent lo 
Ireland. And as we lind the Vikings reai)poaring a.d. 831 in England (at 
tSheppey), after a long interval, it seems reasonable to suppose that the fleet 
came to Sheppey from Ireland and returned thither, carrying away the hoard 
of coins as part of its bf)oty. 



INTRODUCTION, xHx 

These attacks recommenced in 834, when the Danes ravaged 
Sheppey. In 835 they gained a naval victory at Charmouth, 
and, two years later, politicly allying themselves with the 
West Welsh, they offered Ecgberht battle on land at Hengston 
(Hengistesdun), but were there decisively defeated. In the 
following year Ecgberht died. 

It is not necessary here to give the details of the Viking Earlier raid 
attacks upon England,* the less so that these, at first, °^ "^ '^° ' 
affected chiefly the history of Wessex. We may, however, 
mention the important attacks upon Canterbury and London 
in 851, by a fleet of 350 ships, despatched by Ptorik, the 
King of Kustringia (Oldenburg). f In defending London, 

* The fullowing is a list of the chief attacks upon the English coasts, 
between the desceut ou Sheppey, 83i {Chr. 8. 832), and the coming of the 
Great Army, 867. (The dates are those of the Saxon Chron., .which are three 
years behind till 839, two years (generally) till 851. See Theopohl o. c. and 
Stubbs, Roger of Hoveden (R.S.) Preface xcv.) 

833 [6]. Thirty-five ships came to Charmouth. Danes held the field. (The 
new-comers are called Danes for the first time in this jassage.) 

835 [8]. D. united with Cornishmen. Bat. Hengistesdun ; Engl, victory. 

837 [40]. Eng. victory over 33 (34) ships at Southampton. Dan. victory at 
Portland. 

838 [41]. D. in marsh country (Ely, &c.) ; Ealdorman Herebert slain. D. in 

Lindsay and E. Auglia. D. in Kent. 

839 [42]. Great slaughter at London, Canterbury (or Quentovic ?) and 

Rochester. 

840 [42?]. ^thelwulf fought at Charmouth. [Repetition of event under 

yr. 833?] 

845 [7]. Eng. victory on Parret (Somerset). 

851. Eng. victory at Wembury (Wieganbeorli), Devon. Eng. naval victory 
at Sandwich. D. wintered (for first time) in Thanet. Fleet of 350 
ships took London and Canterbury, and put Berlitwulf to flight ; 
defeated at Ockley (Acglea) by iEthelwulf. 

853 (4). Men of Kent and Surrey fought ag. D. Result doubtful. 

855 (6). D. wintered in Sheppey. They were under the command of Half- 
dan, Ivar, and Ubbe (Stcenstr. o. c. ii. 55). 

8G0. D. took Winchester by storm. Were afterwards defeated. 

865 (6). D. wintered in Thanet. Kentish men offered to buy them off. 

They stole away and ravaged great part of Kent. 

866 (7). Great Army Ciime to England. 

t Rorik was the nephew (or possibly brother) of a certain Harald, king of 
Denmark, who, having been driven from his kingdimi, came to seek the pro- 
tection of Louis the Pious, accepted Christianity, and (together with his son 
Godfred) was baptized at Mainz, A.r. 82G. Louis could not restore him to 
his throne; but he eufeot^'ed him with the district of Rustringia (nearly equi- 
valent to the modern Ducliy of Oldenburg) and with the great commercial 

e 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

Berhtwulf was defeated and forced to fly into ]\Iercia, and 
the Danes, after ravaging for a while north of the Thames, 
returned into Surrey. Here they were defeated with great 
slaughter at the battle of Ockley, by an army under the 
command of JEthelwulf of Wessex, and his son iEthelbald. 
England, north of the Thames, did not feel the full pres- 
sure of the Yiking invasions till the coming of what is known 
in our chronicles as the * Great Army ' to the eastern coasts, 
in A.D. 866. 
Coming of tlio The history of this Great Army in England is the history, 
Great Army. ^^ longer of isolated attacks, but of a deliberate attempt at 
the conquest of the country. The career of the invaders 
was marked by the fall, one after another, of the English 
kingdoms north of the Thames. If Wessex had not been 
able to make a better resistance, the whole country would 
have come under the power of the invaders. After a delay 
of one year in East Anglia, the Army marched into Nor- 
thumbria. It was at that time under the command of the 
kings, BcTgsecg, Oskitel, and Hamond, to whom were subse- 
quently added Guthorm and Halfdan, and of the earls, Frene, 
Ivar, Ubbe, and the two Sidrocs. Of these, Halfdan, Ivar, and 
Ubbe, are called the sons of the famous or fabulous Eagnar 
Lodbrog, the great hero of the Viking Age. Northumbria 
was at this time divided between two rival kings, Osberht of 
the legitimate line, and ^lla ; and, on their first arrival, the 
Danes obtained possession of York without difficulty. The 
rival kings united their armies to attack the invaders, who, 
adopting a form of tactic very common with the Vikings, by 
a pretended flight drew the English into an ambush inside 
the walls, where both their kings, W'ith the greater part of 
their armies, were put to the sword (a.d. 867). The North- 
umbrian kings who followed reigned only by suflerance of 
the Vikings, and there is no doubt that from this date the 
Northumbrian styca currency coins come to an end. 
Fall of The Army next went south into the Mercian kingdom, 

dmn.J'iK)nh"of ^^^ ^^^^ winter quarters at Nottingham (a.d. 8(i8-9). 

the T liames. 

town of Dorcstcd. Harald's snccf ssors in the fi'of abamloiicil Clkristi.inity, 

fornwore their allegiance to the Carlovitigiaii houw, and took to Viking 

' expeditions. The lleet was despatched in 850 or 851. Prudeiitius, An. 850. 



INTRODUCTION. ll 

BuRGRED, king of Mercia, called in the aid of Lis brothers- 
in-law, ^thelred and iElfred, king and aetheling of Wessex, 
and the united armies besieged the Danes in Nottingham, 
but without decisive result. However, the Danes went from 
Mercia once more to York, and wintered there (a.d. 869-70). 
The next year they came a second time into East Anglia, 
fought some important battles in the country, and finally put 
to death Eadmund, the king of the East Anglians. Almost 
all the celebrated monasteries of this district, which stood 
grouped round the great lagoons of the marsh country, fell 
before the fury of the heathens — Bardney, Croyland, Peter- 
borough, Huntingdon, Ely. The next year (a.d. 871) the 
army passed over the Thames, and took quarters at Beading, 
and thus began that long series of attacks upon the West 
Saxon kingdom, which was not brought to an end till the 
battle of Ethandune, and the Peace of Wedmore in a.d. 878, 
In the course of these years, however, the army went once 
more to the north, first to Northumbria, and thence through 
Lindsay to Mercia, where they drove Burgred from his 
throne (a.d. 874), setting up the puppet Ceolwulf H. in his 
place ; and the following year (875) the army finally divided, 
and a portion of it, under Halfdan, went into Northumbria, 
settled, and ' divided ' * that country (876). Another portion 
* divided ' Mercia in like manner in a.d. 877. All England 
north of the Thames now belonged to the Danes, and it 
was only after the Peace of Wedmore, that a portion of this 
territory was incorporated in the kingdom of Wessex. This 
portion was afterwards enlarged to include nearly the whole 
of Mercia. From the year 874, therefore, or at latest 877, the 
English coinage of the present catalogue comes to an end. 

Great obscurity hangs over the history of the Danish Danish kins- 
occupation of East Anglia and Northumbria. In Wessex pe^ce^of Wed^' 
the remaining years of .Alfred's reign, though not undis- ^°^^- 
turbed by Danish attacks, were chiefly devoted to the many 
works of peace which he undertook ; the principal of which, 
so far as regards the political history of the time, was the 

* Divided it, that is, among tlic principal commamlors, wlio in tlieir turn 
gave allotments to their followers (cf. Stcenstrup, AWm. i. 297) without 
wholly expropriating the English holders. 

e 2 



lii INTEODUCTION. 

codifying of tbo laws, and the incorporation into them of a 
large part of the laws of Offa, which are now lost to us. 
In the north too, a time of peace succeeded, upon the whole, 
to the long period of war, though the settled Vikings con- 
tinued, from time to time, to take part with new fleets of 
invaders, which came from over sea. Halfdan was succeeded 
by GuDRED, who appears upon the coins as Cnut, who was 
a Christian, and whose chief recorded act was the restoration, 
at Cuncacaestre (Chester-le-Street) of the order founded by 
Cuthbert, which had formerly been established at Lindis- 
farne.* Almost at the end of Cnut's reign, the peace of 
England was once more seriously threatened by the arrival 
of a large Viking fleet at the mouth of the Lymne, in Kent. 
It consisted of 250 ships, and the troops that it bore had 
formed a portion of the old Great Army. After ravaging in 
Kent, the Army fixed its camp at Appledore, and was for 
a while unassailable in that position. At the same time, 
Hasting had come to the Thames with eighty ships, and 
eventually established himself at Milton, in Kent. This 
soon produced a feeling of disturbance among the settled 
Danes in Northumbria, and Earl Siegferd with an army 
sailed down to the south, through the English Channel, as 
far as Exeter, to which he laid siege. iElfred dispatched 
one army to attack this of Sieqferd's in the west, another 
to protect London from the new Great Army and the 
troops under Hasting. The latter had made a strong 
camp at Benfleet, which was, however, stormed by the 
English, who captured, together with a considerable booty, 
Easting's wife and two sons. It is unnecessary to follow 
the marches and countermarches of these armies during 
the next two years, or the series of engagements, which 
resulted alternately in victories for the English and for 
their enemies. It is enough to notice this invasion as the 



* Sym. Dun. (H. D. E. lib. ii.), who gives a long account of the trans- 
lation of St. Cuthbort's remains. These had been removed from Lindisfarne 
in the reign of Halfdan tbrough fear of desecration by the Danes, were 
carried from place to place, and on tlio foundation of the House at Cunca- 
coiatie, were deposited there. There they remained 113 years (S. D. o. c. iii. 
c. i.), and were then taken to Durham — ur rather to the site on whicii tlio 
catliedral aud city arose. 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

last important attack, of the old Viking kind, upon England. 
The attack came to an end in a.d. 897 ; part of the armies 
returned to their homes in Northumbria and East Anglia ; 
another portion recrossed the Channel to the mouth of the 
Seine. Before these disturbances quieted down, Siegferd 
had succeeded to the throne of Northumbria. Five years 
of peace followed the termination of these campaigns in 
the south and west of England. In Northumbria they were 
years of great internal discord, of which no details have come 
down to us. The English kings in Northumbria were not 
wholly dispossessed of their power ; for we hear of one or 
two as still reigning in a portion of the country. Towards 
the beginning of the new century, the Danish-Northumbrian 
kingdom came to be united with the Danish or Norse 
kingdom of Dublin ; but the exact process by which this 
union was brought about, or how the claims of the House 
of Ivar (which was probably Norse) to provide a successor of 
the Danish kings of Northumbria came to be established, 
we have no means of knowing. 

We have, in fact, no internal history of Northumbria Decline of 
during the first half of the tenth century ; for this period, jq ,i,e teuth 
the history of England as a whole belongs to that of the century. 
West Saxon kings, and therefore to the succeeding volume 
rather than to this. It will be enough, for the illustra- 
tion of the meagre Northumbrian coinage, to refer the 
reader to the short biographies at the end of this sketch. 
The history of England, from this time, is the history of the 
recovery of power by the English kings. At first their 
efforts — those of the kings of England south of the Thames, 
and of the ruler of Mercia, ^thelred or his wife ^thelflaed, 
were directed to minimising the power of the Danes south of 
the Humber. The initial step was the suppression of the 
revolt of iEthelwald (a.d. 901-5).* This was followed by 
other engagements, the most important of which was the 
battle of Tettenhall or Wodanesfeld (Wednesfiekl), f iu 

* This rebellion was finally suppressed by the victory of Holme in Norfolk, 
which took place in a.d. 905 (not 902, as in CJir. S. B, C). See Steenstr. o. c. 

t On the identity of the battles of Tettenhall and of Wodansfeld see 
Steenstr. o. c. iii. 13. These two sites are near together in S. Stalfordshiro. 
The modern name of the latter is WedncsficM (pron. Wedp'tield). 



liv 



INTRODUCTION. 



A.D. 911. Then follow the building and rebuilding of 
fortresses and strong towns, which belong especially to the 
years a.d. 912-921. The work was begun by ^Ethelflaed 
and continued by Eadweard. The activities of the former 
were confined chiefly to the counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, 
Staffordshire, and Warwickshire; those of Eadweard em- 
braced Hertfordshire, Bucks, Essex, Bedfordshire, Hunting- 
don, Derby, Northampton, Lincoln, and even part of 
Lancashire. The work was often resisted, and sometimes 
long retarded, by the Danes, but, when completed, the 
building of any strong city generally led to the submission 
of those who lived in the neighbourhood.* A fresh race 
of Northmen from Dublin kept alive the flame of resistance 
in the north, and Ecgnald, Sihtric, Godfred, a second 
Kcgnald, and two Anlafs, all of the same royal house in 
Ireland, alternately received f and forfeited the countenance 
of the West Saxon kings, and gained and lost the Nor- 
thumbrian crown. The most important event in the course 
of these attempts was the battle of Brunnanburg (a.d. 937). 
For this battle the Norsemen seem to have collected all 
their forces, and determined upon a greater effort than any 
previous one, and the decisive victory of the English under 
iEthelstan was of proportionate importance. This achieve- 
ment was followed by the recovery of the Five Burgs, which 
shattered the power of the Danes south of the Humber. 
Finally, with the expulsion of Eric by Eadred in 954, the 
last Scandinavian kingdom in England came to an end, and 
Eadrcd's successors inherited the right to the title of kings 
of all England. 



§ 5. Biogra- 
phical 
Notices. J 
Kings of 
Mercia. 



Kings of Mercia. 

Peada (PjEda), 8. of Penda, made king of the Middle 
Angles during the lifetime of his father. He and 
they received Christianity, a.d. 653. On the death of 



* See especially Chr. S. a. 915, 918 (B-D), 021 (A). 

t Godfred mar. the daughter of /Ethclfiicd ; Sihtric mar. the Bibter of 
VEthelstaii. t Oi those ouly whose coius are described in the volume. 



INTllODUCTION. 



Iv 



P5 



O 



g S3 



H 


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fa 


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^ 


o 


a 


:5l 


c£3 




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o 


a> 




■73 




fl 








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(3 



r-a- 






3 tc s^ s H 

• ^ a — B^ a H — 

B -3 O !5 

OS r^ c r^ 



1— fc 





o 




» 


t^ 


p 


-« o ^ 


n 






s ho 


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la-g^ 




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H o 

2 a 



fa 



O 


3 « O 

— ^ a p"^ 

O 
M 

a 

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e2 




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o 



o 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

Penda at the battle of Winwaedfeld, a.d. 655, ]\rercia 
became subject to Northumbria, but Peada was 
allowed to retain the kingship of the Middle Angles 
and aft. of the Mercians. He was betrayed by his 
queen (Alhfloed) and slain 657. 
.^THELRED suc. (a.d. 675) his brother Wulfhere as k. of 
Mercia, which, under Wulfhere, had recovered its 
independence. Ravaged in Kent, a.d. 676. Fought 
with EcgfriS k. of North^ by Trent, a.d. 679, 
where ^Ifwine, setheling of North\ was si. ; but 
the quarrel was composed by Arbp. Theodore, and 
iEthelred paid the blood-fine. Took the tonsure, 
A.D. 704. He had mar. Osthry^, sister of Ecgfri^ 
and Aldfri^ ; she was slain by the South Humbrians, 
A.D. 697. 
Offa suc, on expul. of Beornred, a.d. 757. He was a distant 
cousin to ^thelbald, the last king of the legitimate 
line, who had been si. the same year at the battle of 
Seckington or Eepton, and ' quinto genu Pendse 
abnepos ' (W. Mai.) See Genealogy. Subdued East 
Anglia a.d. 771 ? (E. Wend.) Gained victory of 
Ottanford (Otford) over the men of Kent, a.d. 774 or 
775 ; and victory of Bensington over Cynewulf, k. of 
Wessex, a.d. 778. He converted Lichfield into an 
archiep. see, a.d. 787. Ordered the murder of iEthel- 
berht, k. of East Anglia, a.d. 793 or 794. The 
foundation of the monastery of St. Albans is referred 
by later writers to Offa and to the year a.d. 795. 
Died, a.d. 796. He mar. Cynethryb. Concerning 
Ofi'a's friendship and correspondence with Charle- 
magne see Ahnini Epis. (Migne) iii. ; Wilkins' 
Cone., i. p. 158 ; and Mat. Par. Vita Offm ii. ; R. 
Wend. a. 775 (E. H. S. i. 240) and Theopold's 
' Critical Enquiry ' upon this very question. 
Cynethryd, the wife of Offa. She is represented by later 
historians as a sort of Jezebel, inciting Offa to the 
murder of iEthelberht of East Anglia. Whether 
there be not some confusion between her and another 
Cyue^ryb dau. of Coenwulf, murderess of her brother 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

(St.) Cenhelm, may be doubted. She signs charters 
with her son EcgfriS in 796.* 

CoENWULF (St. Kenulphus — Fl. Wig.), of another branch of 
the desc. of Wybba. Sue. Ecgfer^ (who r. 141 days 
only) in a.d. 796. Harried Kent and took prisoner 
Eadberht, called Prsen or Prsenn, k. of Kent (q.v.), 
798. In 801 he went to war with Eardwulf, k. of 
Northumbria. Died a.d. 821 or 822. ' Nihil quod 
livor digne carperet unquam admisit ; donii religiosus, 
in bello victoriosus.' — Wil. Malm. 

Ceolwulf, brother of Coenwulf.t Sue. after brief interval 
of (^t.) Cenhelm's reign, in a.d. 821 or 822.t 
Expelled from the kingdom, a.d. 823 or 824 ? § 
Under Ceolwulf the decline of the Mercian kingdom 
begins. It was probably made the more rapid by the 
extinction of the old royal house, for the genealogy of 
the remaining kings cannot be ascertained. 

Beornwulf, sue. Ceolwulf, a.d. 823 or 824. Presided at the 
Council of Clovesho, a.d. 824, in which he endeavoured 
to settle long standing disputes between the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and certain Mercian relig. houses. 
Took up arms on the expuls. of Baldred, k. of Kent 
{q.v.), by ^thelwulf and Bp. Ealhstan, and was 
defeated by Ecgberht at J^llandune, a.d. 825 ; again 
defeat, and si. same or next year by East Anglians. |1 

LuDiCAN sue. Beornwulf. Marched an army into East 
Anglia to avenge the death of Beornwulf, but was 
himself def. and slain with five of his ealdormen. 

WiGLAF sue. Ludican, a.d. 825, 826, or 828. Deposed by 
Ecgberht, a.d. 829, restored a.d. 830, and held his 
kingdom as trib. to Ecgberht. Died a.d. 839. 

* Kemble, Cod. Dip., i., Nos. 172, 173. 

t S. D. X Chr. S. A-E 819, F 822. 

§ Chr. S. A-E 821 (not in F). 

II The chronology of tlie three kings, Beornwulf, Lndican, and Wiglaf, is 
uncertain. HacMan and Stubbs, Councils, give— Death of Beornwulf, 
A.D. 826 ; death of Ludican, A.D. 828; AViglaf, a.d. 828 ; exp. same your ; rest. 
A.D. 830. Tliis chroiiol. agrees with Rog. Wend., but it docs not agree with 
that given by Stubbs, R. IIov. prcf. xcvii. ; nor with R. Hov., who says that 
Ludican reigned one year, and that Wiglaf was exp. three years afterwards. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

Berhtwulf sue. Wiglaf, 839. Marched to dofoud London 
ag. a large fleet of Vikings, and was defeated by them, 
A.D. 851 or 852.* D. same year of wounds rec. in 
battle.t 

BuRGRED sue. Berlitwulf, a.d. 851 or 852. Asked the 
assistance of iEthelwulf, k. of Wessex, to reduce N. 
Welsh, A.D. 854 ? t On coming of the Great Army to 
Nottingham, a.d. 868, asked assist, of iEthelred, who, 
wdth iElfred, joined him with his West 8axon army 
to bes. the Danes. The Danes came to terms, and 
promised to quit the country. They returned from 
Lindsay in a.d. 874, fought with Burgred at Kepton, 
and drove him over seas. He went to Kome, and d. 
there same year, 'and his body lies in the English 
School in St. Mary's Church.' — Chr. S. He mar. in 
A.D. 854, ^thelswi«, dau. of ^thelwulf, k. of 
Wessex, and sister of -^thelred and -Alfred. Accord, 
to Fl. Wig., R. Wend., &c. he reigned 22 yrs. With 
his deposition the independent kingdom of Mercia 
came to an end. 

Ceolwulf IL, an ' unwise king's thane,' was placed upon 
the throne as puppet king by the Danes. He held it 
till the following year, or till fe77, when ' the Army 
divided Mercia and gave part to Ceolwulf.' 

Kings of Kent. 
Kings of The coinage of the kings of Kent does not begin till the 

line of Hengist has become extinct. 

Ecgberht is unknown to history. 

Eadberht IL, called P/e.t-.v or Pii.Ex.y. Obtained the throne 
A.D. 796. Capt. by Coenwulf, k. of Mercia (q. v.), 
A.D. 798 [deprived of his sight §j, and carried into 
Mercia. [Aft. released at Winchelcombe, with the 
consent of Cu^red his successor.! J 

Cudred. Made k. of Kent by Coenwulf, on depos. of 
Eadberht Pnen. a.d. 798. Died a.d. 806 or 807 ? 1[ 



Kent. 



* 851 Chr. S. A C-F, 853 B; conip. rru(k'iitiii8, Ann. 850. 

t A.I). H.-.2, Fl. Wip. 

X H.")H Chr. S. A. D-F, H.'i4 B. «; <'hr. .S. IMS. F only. 

II Will. Mulm. a. J{. 1. i. § 1)5 (E. 11. S.) t Chr. *'. 805 A B D-F, 804 C. 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

Baldred. Sue. to the throne of Kent (but under the supre- 
macy of Mercia) on the death of CuSred ? * In a.d. 
825, Ecgberht, k. of Wessex, sent an army into Kent, 
comm. by ^thelwulf his son and Ealhstan, Bp. of 
Sherborne, who exp. Baldred, and drove him across 
the Thames. After this, Kent became an appanage of 
the kingdom of Wessex, and was generally ruled by 
the heir to that throne. 

Archbishops of Canterbury. 

Jaenberht. Consec. Feb. 2, a.d. 766. Rec. the pall from Archbishops 
Pope Paul I. A.D. 767. During his episcopate (a.d. «f Canterbury. 
774), OfFa, k. of Mercia, conq. Kent, and Jaenberht's 
coins are struck under the suprem. of Offa. In a.d. 
787 was held the synod of Cealchythe (Chelsea), by 
which, or about which time, Lichfield was erected 
into an archbishopric, and the bishop of Lichfield, 
Higberht, made archbishop and metropolitan for 
Mercia. D. a.d. 790 or 791. f {See Haddan and 
Stubbs, Councils, pp. 402-466.) 

iEiHELHEARD. Elected, a.d. 79L Consec. July 31, 793. 
During the interval between these two events, the 
coins with legend 'Pont.' (p. 72) were probably 
struck. He was prob. a Mercian by birth. Was 
Abbot of Malmesbury (ace. to W. Mai.) and Bp. of 
Winchester. He fled from his see in 797, but returned 
upon the deposition of Eadberht Preen in a.d. 798. 
He had always resisted the continuance of the archi- 
episcopate of Lichfield, and in this was assisted by 
Eanbald, Archbishop of York. % Finally in 797, or 
more probably on the death of Higberht (May, 602) 
the Archbishopric of Lichfield was abolished. iEthel- 
heard d. May 12, 805. (Haddan and Stubbs, o. c. iii. 
467-555.) 



* This is agreeable to the statement of H. Hunt., who says that Baldred 
r. 18 yrs. No mention is made of tlie date of his accession m'chr. S. 

t Stubbs, R. ^'. A. 790. Haddan and Stubbs. Councils, 791 or possibly 792 
I W. Mai. Gcst. rout. (R. S.) p. 226. 



IX INTRODUCTION. 

WuLFRED. Prol)al)ly a Kentish man. Consecrated a.d. 805.* 
Engaged in disputes with Mercia, from a.d. 807 
(death of Cu^red), and more so after a.d. 817. He 
first espoused but afterwards deserted the cause of 
Bahlred, and favoured the claims of the West Saxon 
king Ecgberht. Died a.d. 832 ? (Haddan and Stubbs, 
0. c. iii. 556-608.) 

There was a certain interval between the death of 
.^thelheard and the consecration of Wulfred. See 
Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, iii. 559. It is possible 
then that some of the coins mentioned on p. 73 were 
struck during this interval. But it is more probable 
that these coins belong to the interv.al between 
Wulfred and Ceolnoth. Between these two prelates 
some accounts place a certain Feologeld, who struck 
no coins, and who may, for some reason, have not 
been generally acknowledged. 
Ceolnod. Consecrated a.d. 833 ? f One of his most 
important acts was the introduction of secular clerks 
into the monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury. 
Died Feb. 4, 870. (Haddan and Stubbs, o. c. iii. 
610-636.) 
^Ethered (^thelred). Succeeded Ceolnod. Consecrated 
A.D. 870.1 Ace. to an insertion in Chr. S. F he sought 
to remove the secular clerks who had been introduced 
into Ch. Ch. monastery, Canterbury. Died, June 20, 
889. § 
Plegmund. Consecrated a.d. 890. || He was a Mercian,1[ and 
was invited by .ZElfred to his court, and eventually, on 
the death of ^thelred, made Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. ' A learned and venerable man ' (Fl. Wig.), ho 
faithfully and gloriously governed the Church (Sym. 
D.), and died Aug. 2, 914. He is said to have had a 
share in the compilation of the Chronicle. 

* Hadflan and Stubbs, Counc. iii. 587, note a. 

t See IIa<l<liiii niid Stubbs, n. c. iii. GIO note, &c. J S. D. U. B. 870. 

§ Fl. Wig. (E. H. S.) i. 108. Chr. S. 888 (except C. 889). W. M. Gest. 
P. 1. i. Bays his pontif. lasted 18 yours. || Chr. S. a. 890. 

1 Fl. Wig. i. p. 82 (E. H. S.) Chr. S. A and D (both in later hands ?), 
■where he is called 'I}i.shop of Wiltshire.' lie subscribed charters in 871 and 
87.5 (Komblc, C. J), nos. 30], 307). 



Eadwald. 
-(Ethelstan I. 

iETHELWEARD. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi 

Kings of East Anglia. 

Beonna. Uncertain king. Perhaps the same as Beorna. Kings of East 
(See Fl. Wig. a. 758 ; W. Mai. (E. H. S.) i. p. 136 ; ^^ 
Alured of Beverley, Annal, lib. vi.) 

^Ethelberht. Son of iEthelred, the succ. of 'Beorna.'* 
Came to the court of OfFa, king of Mercia, to ask his 
dan. in marriage, and was mur. by Offa [at the 
instigation of CyneSryS ? f], a.d. 793 or 794. % 
He is raised to the rank of a saint and martyr by 
Fl. Wig., W. Mai. &c. ; perhaps by some confusion 
with St. Eadmund, nearly 80 years later. 

Unknown to history. The approximate 
dates given in the Catalogue are from 
D. H. Haigh's Numism. Hist, of East 
Anglia. 

Berhtric. Possibly the Berhtric, Jilius regis [Mercioruni], 
who signs charters, a.d. 840-845. 

Eadmund. Succeeded 857 ? or 859 ? § Slain by the Great 
Army when in East Anglia, Nov. 20, 870, || at the 
special instance (as tradition related) of Ingvar 
(Ivar) and Ubbe, called the sons of Eagnar Lodbrog. 
William of Malmesbury says, that this was through a 
mistaken belief that Eadmund had murdered Eagnar. 
But theEagnar Lodbrogssaga (Fornm. Sog. i. 239-299) 
makes Eagnar suffer death at the hands of ^Ella, king 
of Northumbria. The account in Malmesbury is pro- 
bably, therefore, a confusion between two kings, both 
of whom were slain by the Vikings between 867-871. 
St. Eadmund was traditionally said to have been tied 
to a tree and shot to death, like St. Sebastian. 

Danish King in East Anglia. 
GuTHORM-^THELSTAN. First camo to England with an 
auxiliary force to the Great Army in a.d. 870. 
When the Army divided, and Halfdan went into 
Northumbria, Guthorm remained in command of 
the southern portion, and in the spring of a.d. 875 

* W. Mai. p. 136 (E. H. S.) t Chr. S. 792 ( = 794 ?) ; Fl. Wig. 793. 

J Abbo Flor. De pass. S. E. § Fl. Wig. (E. H. S.) i. 78. 

II Erroneously given a.d. 873 ou p. 90. 



Ixii 



INTRODUCTION. 







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INTRODUCTION. Ixiii 

he went with this army into Cambridgesh, From 
Cambridgesh. the army proceeded to Wareham 
(Dorsetsh.), 876 ; but, on the approach of the 
English army under iElfred, made peace and stole 
away to Exeter. In Jan. 878 (Twelfth Day) the 
army, with Guthorm at its head, settled at Chip- 
penham, and harried throughout Wesses, Alfred 
being driven to the fastness of ^theln-ey. After 
Easter (878) >iElfred issued from his fastness, 
summoned the men of Hampshire, Wiltshire, and 
Somersetshire, and met the Danish army at Ethan- 
dune, gaining a complete victory. Guthorm made 
peace, and allowed himself to be baptised under the 
name of ^^thelstan. He div. England, south of the 
H umber, with -3^1fred, and took East Anglia and a 
portion of Mercia. Guthorm d. 890 or 891.* 

Kings of Nokthumbeia. 

EcGFRiD (or Ecgferd), s. of Oswiu, whom he sue. Feb. 15, J>'"2;s of 
670. Deprived Wilfred of his Bishopric and expelled 
him from the kingdom, a.d. 678. Fought ag. 
iEthelred of Mercia by Trent, a.d. 679 (v. ^thelred). 
Sent an army under Berht ag, the Scots in Ireland, 
A.D. 684. Against the advice of St. Cu^berht he led 
an army ag. the Picts, and was def. and slain at the 
battle of Nectansmere, May 20, a.d. 685. He mar. 
660, ^thelthryth dau. of Anna, k. of the E. Angles. 
He is called ' rex piissimns et Deo dilectissimus ' by 
Symeon of Durham. Wil. Malm, says he was more 
memorable for the piety of his wife than for his own 
merit, and that he and his brother AldfriS {q. v.) 
were infamous for their conduct to St. Wilfred. His 
exp. ag. the Irish is also accounted impious by Beda, 
and reckoned the cause of the disaster of the follow- 
ing year. 

Aldfrid (called also Ealdfrid, Alhfrid, Alfred, &c.) was 
the elder brother of the foregoing, but illeg. son of 
Oswiu. He took part in the battle of Winw£edfeld 

* 890 Chr. S. (exc. C), 891 Fl. Wig. 



Xortliiiiiil)ri;i 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION. 

(a.d. 655) which established the independence of 
Northumhria. Sue. Ecgfri^ in Bernicia, a.d. 685, 
and ^thelwahl,* s, of Oswald, in Deira. He 
appointed Wilfred to the see of IJexham, but aft. 
quarrelled with him and expelled him from Nor- 
thumhria. Gov. his country peaceably for nineteen 
years and d. Dec. 14, a.d. 705 (704). He mar. 
Cyneburg, dau. of Penda, k. of Mercia. 

Eadberht (miscalled Ecgberht by Wil. Mai.), s. of Eata, 
sue. his cousin Ceolwulf a.d. 737. Led an army into 
Scotl. and in company with Angus k. of the Picts, 
took Alclythe (Dumbarton) a.d. 756. Abdicated and 
took the tonsure, a.d. 758. D. 768. 

Alchred, s. of Eanwine and a desc. of Ida, sue. Moll iEthel- 
wald (who was not of the desc. of Ida ?) a.d. 766. f 
Driven from the throne at Easter, a.d. 774. % 

.^LFWALD I, (Alfwold), s. of Oswulf and grands, of Eadberht 
{q, v.). Sue. on expulsion of ^Ethelred I., s. of Moll 
iEthelwald, ad. 778 or 779. § Obt. the pall for 
Archbp. Eanbald (q. v.). SI. after a reign of ten 
years, by Sicga or Sicgan, Sept. 24, 788 or 789. IF 
' A light from heaven was frequently seen at the spot 
where he was slain.' ** ^^^ , -^ \(w6\ L 5^ ^ 

Eardwulf (Heardwulf). Sofr of -Ear^wfllf. Sue. Oswald 
or Osbald, May 14, 796. Went to war with Coen- 
wulf, k. of Mercia, 801 ; soon made peace. Expelled 
A.D. 806, ft 807, or 808. tt Eest. through the inter- 
vention of Charlemagne and Leo III. a.d. 808. §§ 
D. same year or 810 ? |||| 

* Oithelwuld, Fl. Wig. i. 21 (E. H. S.) ; ^iLelwald, Id. Gmeal. 

+ R. Hov. 765. He reigned eight winters, Chr. S. E ; nine winters, D. 

X Sym. D. II. It. Ti\. The year of the battle otOtford, R. Huv. 

§ Chr. S. 779 ; Sym. D. //. R. 719 ; R. Hov. 779. 

11 Sym. D. (R. S.) A pp. vol. ii. 376. 

t Chr. S. 788 ; Sym. D. //. It. 788 ; R. Hov. 788. 

♦* Chr. S. ; Fl. Wig. ; Sym. D. //. D. E. &c. 

tt See Sym. D. (R. S.) ii. App. 377, rrgn. x aniws. 

XX H. Hunt. The latter is the true date ace. to Iladdan and Stubbe, iii. 561 
note. But it does not seem to agree with Sym. Dun. //. D. E. ii. 

§§ Pertz, i. 195, 196. Haddan and Stubbs, Councih, iii. 561. 

nil The intervention of yElfwald II. 's reign bitween Eardwulf and Eanred 
is not certain, and the dates from this time to the accession of Osbtrht become 
very uncertain. 



INTEOUUCTION. IxV 

Eanred sho. ^Ifwald 11. (?)^in a.d. 808 or 810. lu a.d. 829, 
Ecgbei'lit of Wossex led an army into Northumbria ; 
Eanred made submission and obtained peace. Died 
A.D. 841 ? 

./Ethelred II. Son of Eanred, whom he sue. in 841 ? He 
was expelled in 844, and restored after the death of 
Redwulf. Died a.d. 849 or 850. 

PiEDWULF * sue. on expuls. of ^thelred II. in a.d. 844. SI. 
(by Danes ?) same year. 

OsBERHT sue. -^thelred II. in a.d. 849 or 850 ? f A portion 
of his subj. rebelled, a.d. 867, and set up a rival k. 
Mlla, ' not of royal blood.' The rival kings composed 
their quarrel, and united their forces to attack the 
Danes, v\ ho had taken poss. of York. By a pretended 
flight the D. drew the Eng. within the walls, where 
the greater part were si. and with them Osberht and 
.^lla. With this the English dynasty may be said to 
have ended, although Kngiish kings continued for some 
time to enjoy a nominal rule while the country was in 
the possession of the Danes and Norsemen. 

Archbishops of York. 

EcGBERHT, brother of Eadberht and son of Eata, t consecr. Archbishoi^s 
Bish. of York a.d. 734 ; § journeyed to Rome and 
received the pall (the first bishop of York after 
Paulinus who did so, and consequently the second 
Archbishop), a.d. 735 ; || d. a.d. 766. 1[ He restored 
the library at York, and is spoken of by A Icuin as his 
master. 

Eanbald II. sue. another Eanbald as Archbishop, Aug. 14, 

* Only mentioned by Mat. West. a. 844. 

t A", dccc liiii. imp. . . . Osberti . . . anno quiiiln. He therefore sue. 849 or 
850? Sym. Dun. U. J). E. 1. ii. ^thelred II. r. 9 yrs. Sym. D. (R. S.) App. 
V. ii. 377, i.e. sue, say, 840 or 841. Eanred r. 32 yrs., ih., tlierefore he sue. in SOS 
or 809. Allowing two years, or a year and a half, for iElfwald II., this would 
put Eardwulf's aecess. hark to a.d. SOfi or 807, wiiich ngnv^s with App. i. 
(/. c. 377). X S. D. H. I). E. ii. c. 3. 

§ Chr. S. 734 ; Sym. D. //. R. § 34, 73.5. 

II Chr. S. a. 735. But Sym. I). //. D. E. ii. c. 3. implies that he was iu 
Rome before his election. 

I S. U. H. Ii. § 45. Episf. D. A. E. § 2. He laid his see for 32 yrs. 

f 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

796 ; * rec. pnll Sept. 8, 797. f He had been presbyter 
in tlie Cathedral of York.J He assisted j^^thel- 
heard in obtaining the abolition of the Archbishopric 
of Lichfield. He also presided at the second synod of 
Wincanhealth (or Pincanhealth) [Fincale ?], a.d. 798, 
at which he ordered the adoption of the Confession of 
faith of the Five Councils as drawn up by Archbishop 
Theodore. § He died a.d. 808 ? 
WiGMUND. Succeeded Wnlfsig, a.d. 837. || Died 854. IF 
WuLFHERE. Succeeded Wigmund, a.d. 854.** On the in- 
vasion of Northumbria by the Great Army, and death 
of Osberht and ^lla, a.d. 867, he abandoned his see, 
and fled to Addingham in Wharfedale (W. Kiding).tt 
He was expelled from Northumbria, along with king 
Ecgberht, a.d. 872, and was restored the following 
year. Died a.d. 900 or 902. tt 

Danish or Norse Kings in Northumbria. 

Danish or Halfdan. Viking leader. With his brothers Ivar and Ubbe 
in^North-*^ commanded Viking fleet which wintered at Sheppey, 

umbria. A.D. 855. §§ One of the commanders of the contingent 

which in a.d. 870 joined the Great Army in Lincoln- 
shire, and assisted in the defeat of the English army 
under Ealdormen Algar, Morcar and Osgod ; joined 
with Baegsecg in command of one wing of Danish 
army at battle of Ashdown, a.d. 871 ; gained posses- 
sion of London this year or 872, and struck coins with 
monogram of London (see p. 203) ; went with one 
half of the Great Army into Northumbria, a.d. 875, 
and ' divided the land ' between his own followers 

♦ Chr. S. 796. Syni. D. //. It. § 58 (R. S.) Aug. 13. 

t S. D. n. E. § 58. X S. D. D. A. K ^ 2. § S. D. U. R. § 59. 

II Stubbs, B. S. A. and Haddan and Stubbti, Counc. iii. Gil, note h. Sym. D. 
I). A. E. § 2, {^ives IG years as tlie length of Wignnind's episcopate, and ho d. 
854 (see note below). R. AVend. however gives tlie unaccountable date 831. 

t S. D. J). A. E. § 2. Stubbs, R. S. A. R. Wend. 854. 

** S. D. //. B. § 67, 89 ; D. A. E. § 2. 

tt Sym. D. H. D. E. ii. c. G. 

X\ S. D. D. A. K. § 4.— 900. Id. If. Ii. § Kl.— 902. 

§§ Chr. S. 8r.3. Tertz, .\ix. 500. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixvii 

and the English, a.d. 876. The cruelty of his reign 
is commemorated by later historians. * Halfdan 
was driven out by his army, a.d. 877 ; sailed to 
Ireland and attacked the Norse colony in Strangford 
Lough, and was killed in battle ? f ^thelweard and 
Fl. Wig. t however, relate that he fell in the battle of 
Tettenhall or Wodansfeld, a.d. 911. 

GuDRED. Called son of Har^acnut. Said to have been 
rescued from slavery by Abbot Eadred, to whom 
St. Cuthbert had appeared in a vision and com- 
manded him what to do. He was brought by Eadred 
to the Danish army and acknowledged king.§ What 
claim he had to the throne we are not told. This 
Gu^red is identical with the Cniit whose coins are 
described p. 204. || He died August 24, 894. 1[ 

SiEFRED (SiEGFRED, Siegferd). This is probably the Earl 
Siegfer^ who, in the lifetime of Gu^red-Cnut, viz. 
in A.D. 892, came with a fleet of 140 ships to aid the 
fleet which Hasting had brought to the mouth of the 
Thames, and afterwards sailed round to the south coast 
and attacked Exeter.** He had perhaps come from 
Ireland this year 892,tt for he is probably the SiegferS 
the Earl it under whom part of the Danes of Dublin 
ranged themselves, while another part sided with 
SiefriS (Sihtric) the son of Ivar. §§ 

* E. g. Sym. Dun. H. D. E. ii. c. 6 (R. S. i. 58). 

t Ann. Ult. 876 ; Four M. 874. (Both = 877). Nonnannerne, ii. 91. War 
of the GaedhiU, &c. p. 27. 

X .^tholweard, Chr. iv. 4, Hal/dene, Euwysl quoque. FI. Wig. i. 121. 
(E. H. S.) Eoioils et Halfdene fratres regis Ingu-ari. Ivar had not a brother 
named Eowils. § Sym. Dun. H. D. E. c. 18. 

II Cf. Olaf Trygvassons Saga, c. 61-2 ; Steenstr. o. c. ii. 94 ; Haigh in 
Archxol. JEl. vii. ; Rashleigh, Num. Chr. N. S. ix. Mr. Rashlcigh, how- 
ever, confounds this Gu<5red with Godfred or Godfri^, grandson of Ivar. (See 
Genealogy of House of Ivar.) 

t iEthelweard, iv. iii. ed. Savih^ p. 482. Sym. D. H. Ii. 894 ; E. D. E. 
ii. 14. 

** Gir. S. s. a. ft An. Ult. 892. Steenstr. ii. p. 143, note 2, 

XX It may be noticed that Siefred seems to retain the title of earl (which was 
a personal and not a territorial title) along with tliat of king. See p. 222 
and note. 

§§ Todd, War of the GnedhiU oud the Gaill, Tiitio,!. p. Ixxxiii. 



Ixviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



^ 



(^ 






<^ 



o 



<^ 



Cb 



O c 



O" 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix 

Kings of the House of Ivar. 

Kegnald, grandson of Ivar, came to Waterford, a.d. 916. g'J^f^ ^[ J^^^ 
[Had prev. been in Man, where he slew BariS, son of 
Ottir, A.D. 914.*] Went to Northumbria and drove 
out Aid red, Eng. k. in Bernicia, who fled to Constan- 
tino ni., k. of Scotl. Sailed thence to Tyne stream 
in E. Lothian, and in a.d. 918 fought with Constan- 
tino at Dunblane, north of the Firth of Forth, f In 
A.D. 919 he came from Scot, and took York. Did 
homage to Eadward a.d. 921, and d. same year. 
This is probably not the Piegnald whose name 
appears upon coins. 

SiHTRic GaleX or Caoch,^ grandson of Ivar, came first to 
Dublin [as a child ||], a.d. 888. Left Ireland and 
took refuge in Scotl. a.d. 902 or 903. Ket. to Ireland 
to Confey a.d. 917, and in a.d. 918 recov. Dublin. 
Slew, in battle of Kilmashogue 919,11 king Njel 
Glundubh,** k. of Dublin. Driven out of Dublin by 
Irish, A.D. 920. Sailed to Engl, and rav. Devenport 
in Cheshire, 921. Sue. Eegnald (above) as k. of York, 
A.D. 921 or 925, after Eadweard's death, and mar. 
A.D. 926 the sister of ^Ethelstan. D. a.d. 926 or 927.tt 

Kegnald, s. of Godfred, who was himself a grandson of Ivar, 
and who d. a.d. 934. In a.d. 943 was conform, by 
Bishop Wulfstan and rec. by the k. at the bishop's 
hands. Was exp. with Anlaf (Olaf) a.d. 944, and 
prob. si. same year.^l 

* An. nit. a. 913(=<J14?). Todd, War, &c. p. Ixxxiv., says 913, 
Stoenstr. o. c. iii. 57, 914 (which is the correct date) and Anglesey (also Mona). 
not Man. 

t An. Hit. 917. See Todd, 1. c. Ixxxvi., Steenstr. 1. c. 13 seqq. Sym. Dun. 
(H. R.) gives the date quite wrongly 912. 

X Hero ? § Blind (i.e. of one eye). 

Ij He died young, ' iiiimatura jctate,' An. Ult. a. 927. Therefore, if he 
came to Dublin in 888, he; could not have bien more than a child. See 
F. M. 885 (= 888) and Todd, 1. c. Ixxviii. 1 Not 920 as in Chr. S. 

** Mis-called Sihtric's l)roth(r by Chr. S. E and F, Sym. Dun., H. Hunt., 
Gaimar (v. 35G1), and Chron. MHhoxi — unless he were his half-biother or hia 
brother-in-law. 

tt Sue Todd, 0. c. App. D. {>. 279, and Stocnstrup, o. c. iii. iqi. 10 seq., 61, 
C-i, 109 wq. 

%X Sec Aniuil. CUnimuai. a. 937 {- 911); Steenstr. o. c iii. l>. 81 nutc. 



Ixx INTRODUCTION. 

Anlaf or Olaf QrAiuy. Also called the Red. Son of 
Sihtric Gale {q. v.). Called in Chr. S.* Anlaf of Ire- 
land ; by Fl.Wig. ' pagan king of Ireland and of many 
other Isles.' He prob. left Ireland on the death 
of his father with the other Danes of Dublin.f Went 
to Northiimbria same time(?) t and was expelled thence 
with his uncle Godfred k. of Dublin in a.d. 927 (?). § 
Went to Scotland, and event, mar. dau. of Constantine 
III. In A.D, 934 II ^thelstan sent an exped. to harry 
in Scotland; and in 937 Constantine and Anlaf, in 
revenge prepared an exp. into North'\ Olaf, with his 
cousin Olaf Godfredsson If came to the Humber with 
a fleet of 615 sail and seized York.** Many other 
princes joined the league ; but they were def in the 
famous battle of Brunnanburg (Brunanbyrig) the 
same year, ff and Olaf fled with the remnant of 
the army. He was in Ireland again in a.d. 938 and 
pillaged Kilcullen. |J On the death of -^thelstan in 
A.D. 940 or possibly before,§§ Olaf again came to York 
and was rec. as king. The Danes of Mercia and East 
Anglia likewise ackn. him, as did Wulfstan, Arbp. of 
York. He marched on Northampton, but failed to 
take it; he took Tamworth by storm. Edmund 
marched to attack him, and the two armies came face 
to face at Leicester. |||| By the intervention of the two 
Archbishops, Odo and Wulfstan, peace was made. 
Olaf was bapt. and took Northumbria, or according 
to Sym. Dun.HH all England N. of Watling Street 
(a.d. 941). He then div. North, with his cousin Olaf 

* D only. t Todd, p. 280. 

X According to Todd. He alleges no proof. 

§ Also according to Todd. 

II Or 933 (Todd), Chr. S. 934, Fl. Wig. 934, Steenstr. 934. But Fl. Wig. 
gives 938 for date of Brunnnnlnirg; and so is jK'rhaps a year in advance 
here, and the dates of the Chr. are frequently wrong at this time. 

t See Todd, p. 282 note 2. 

** Todd says 115— by a slip? Stcenst. G25. See Fl. Wig. and Sym. Dun. 

tt Chr. S. 9.37, Song of Brunnanburg. 

Xt Or in 940 ? See Todd, 0. r. p. 282. It is not easy to distinguish 
between the two Olafs iu these records. 

§§ Four :M. a. 938 (= 940), S. D. 939. |||| Chr. S. 943. 

7K Which, Ijnwcvcr. uius-t bo n mi»<iuke. S'.t Ste<'ns*(rnjt. o. r. ill. 79. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxi 

Godfredsson {q. v.) who d. next year. Anlaf was 
expel, along with Eegnald Godfredsson in 944.* 
The two following years he was in Ireland, and perh. 
became k. of Dublin in 945. j The account in the 
Chronicle becomes here very confused. It is probable 
that, in a.d. 948, Olaf succeeded Eric (q. v.) who had 
been expell. by Eadred ; but that Eric again became 
king in a.d. 952, when Olaf was driven from Nor- 
thumbria for the last time. He is afterwards fre- 
quently heard of in Ireland. His last appearance in 
the field was at the battle of Tara, a.d. 980. Finally 
he became a monk of the monastery at lona, and 
d. 981. t 
Anlaf or Olaf Godfredsson, brother of the second Eegnald § 
and cousin of Olaf Quaran. In a.d. 929 we find him 
plundering in Kildare, and in 933 he plundered 
in Armagh and Monaghau ; in the latter expedition 
he was defeated. In 935 he was in Meath. In 
937 he left Dublin to join in the expedition which 
ended in the battle of Brunnanburg. He was in 
Ireland again in a.d. 938, and plundered Kilcullen. 
He accompanied Olaf Quaran in his second expedition 
to York in a.d. 940 or 941 ; and, for a while, was 
joint king of England with him, but died the next 
year? (a.d. 941 or 942 ||). 

It is not probable that any of the coins with the 
name of Anlaf or Olaf were struck by him. The 
distinction which numismatists have sought to draw 



* Chr. S. 944. t Todd, I. c. % Todd. 

§ Accord, to Todd (see Geneal.), though this is not absolutely certain. 

II Chron. Scot. 940 ; Clir. Sax. (E F) 942 ; Sym. D. 941 ; ' Olilaf . . . mox 
pcriit ' — 'died soon after' (this date), Clonniac. 934 (= 941). Steenstrup gives 
941 as date of his death. As Todd says, much confusion has been caused by 
confounding these two Olafs, and, again, by separating Olaf Sihtn'csson and 
Olaf Quaran. The confusion is less likely to arise from reading any one 1M8. 
of the C'hronicle. For observe that it is only IM8S. E F of the Saxon Chron. 
which mention the death of Olaf Godfredsson under tliat patronymic: that 
tlie taking of Tamworth, &c. and the baptism of Olaf (who has no patronymic, 
but who is Sihtn'rsson) 943 ( = 941), are mentioned— the former in D only, and 
the latter in A and D only ; also Hint while the subj. of all Northumbria and 
expulsion of Olaf in 944 is mentioned in all JISS., in A-D only is this Olaf 
called Sikhicssoit, while in E F only (of 949) the same Olaf is called Quaran. 



Ixxii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Eric. 



§ 6. Compo- 
nent I'AKTS 

OF THE Coin. 

MetJiod of 
coining. 



between the two spellings, Anlaf and Onlaf (sec 
pp. 234-6), has no justification in the historical 
notices of these two kings. 



Eric. The paternity of this king is uncertain. According 
to Adam of Bremen, he was the son of Harald 
Blaatand, king of Denmark.* But this assertion is 
unsupported by other authorities. It is more prob- 
able that he was Eric the son of Harald Ilaarfagr,^ 
who, having been appointed by his father to succeed 
him in the kingdom of Norway, at length raised a 
rebellion by his cruelties, and was expelled by his 
brother Hakon. He appears to have first come to 
England in a.d. 948, and to have been received as 
king. Eadred invaded Northunibria. and the Danes 
immediately abandoned their king, but almost as 
soon accepted Olaf Quaran (q.v.). Eric returned in 
852, and drove out Olaf and was himself driven out 
in 854. He betook himself to Stanmore Heath, in 
Cumberland, where he was attacked and slain by 
Maccus, Olaf's son.| / 

' The modes of coinage, in early times,' says Iluding,§ ' so 
far as they can now be traced, were rude and inartificial; the 
sole expedient being to fix one die firmly in a wooden block, 
and to hold the other in the hand as a puncheon, when, by 
striking the latter forcibly and repeatedly with a hammer, 
the impression required was at length worked up.' On a 
coin of Charlemagne, struck at Mellc,|l in Poitou, we have 
the representation of a block, with a sort of anvil fixed into 
it, and two hammers. If Doubtless these are meant for 
implements used in striking coins, but, of course, the 



♦ This stiitemcnt is accepted by Todd, o. c. p. 2(>(). 

t Steenstrup, o. c. JJeimskrinfjla Saga (Lain^, vol. i. 310, 1514 i<(tjii.). 

X Stccndtr. o. c. iii 8'.». ^g Annuls of (In Cohuujc, i. G7. 

II Coiiccruiii^r llio iiiiiHjrtiiiicc, in (he early uiiddie a;,'C8, of tlie aeries of 
eoins ibsucil from INIcllc, mid lis iiilliicni-c on aiil)soi|ucut muiiutary teriiiB, 
Bee Leiioriiiaiit, La moiinnie dans V Aiiliijuili, p|i. 1, HI. 

D Cariel, >,. c. 2"" p"% fl. ix. It?. 



iNTRODUCTiox. Ixxiii 

representation is not clear enough to give us any exact idea 
of the shape of such implements. The curiously broadened 
edges, which characterise the coins of certain series, must, 
one thinks, have been caused by gathering the coins up in 
rouleaux, and giving these rouleaux some sharp blows with 
the hammer all round the edges of the coins. Among the 
series described in the present volume, this characteristic is 
almost confined to the ' St. Eadmund ' and Northumbrian 
pennies. But it is found in some of the contemporary West 
Saxon coins, and becomes common in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. 

No exact classification can be given of the types of Classification 
coins contained in the present volume. The coins of the " ^'^^^'" 
first (the anonymous) class, are so wholly difi'erent in 
character from those which follow, that any classification, 
which included all series, would give an erroneous impres- 
sion. We may, perhaps, gain a useful distinction by the use 
of the words design and imttern. Thus, while the former 
word would apply to almost all the types of the sceat class, 
and to some of the earliest Northumbrian coins, the word 
pattern would apply to almost all the types of the pennies, 
except the heads or busts upon them, and to all the later 
Northumbrian stycas : some few of the late Dano-Norse 
pennies may, perhaps, be described as having designs on one 
or both sides. Making, then, this distinction, we have, for the 
general classification of the coins described in this volume, — 

1. Designs on both sides, without intelligible legends 
(pll. i. 2-8 ; ii. 1-14, 19-26 ; iii. ; iv. 1-20). 

2. Designs on both sides, with legend on one or other, or 
both sides (pll. i. 1, 9-14; ii. 15-18; iv. 21, 22; xxviii. 3, 
5, 9 ; xxix. 1 ; xxx. 2-4). 

3. Design, with or without legend, on one side, legend 
and pattern on the other (pll. iv. 23-5 ; xx. 2-11 ; xxii. 1 ; 
xxiii, 1 ; xxviii. 8; xxix. 2, 5, 12, 13; xxx. 1). 

4. Head or bust, * and legend, on one side, design and 
legend on the other (pll. v. 4, 5 ; xiv. 2). 

* These heads aud busts include ouly those on the penny coinage, for then- 
is a marked distinctidn between sucIj as are designed to represent tlie uutlior 
of the coin, and biu'h as are merely dtxiijiin imitated fmni Koman, i^c. coins. 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION. 

5. Head or bust, and legend, on one side, pattern and 
legend on the other (pll. v. 1-8, 6-15 ; vi. 1-9 ; viii. 1-5, 
14-19; ix. 4-14; x. 1-7, 9-16; xi. 3, 4, 8, 9 ; xii. 6 13; 
xiii. 1-9; xiv. 4, 5; xxiii. 6; xxviii. 6, 7). 

6. Patterns and legends on both sides (pll. vi. 10-16; 
vii. ; viii. 6-13; ix. 1-3, 12, 15; x. 8; xi. 1, 2, 5-7, 10, 
11; xii, 1-5; xiii. 10-14; xiv. 1, 3, 6-12; xv.-xix. ; xx. 
1, 12-14 ; xxi. ; xxii. 2-19 ; xxiii. 2-5, 7-12 ; xxiv.-xxvii. ; 
xxviii. 1, 2, 4; xxix. 8, 4, 6-11 ; xxx. 5-10). 

We have included, in the last group, even those coins 
which have little else than a legend on either side (e. g. 
pi. xi. 2), because, even in these cases, there is an endeavour 
to form a pattern out of the legend. 

Art. There are few known series of coins which contain, in 

proportion to their number, such a variety of designs as 
do the seeattas. We have said something about the types 
which are apparently inspired by Roman prototypes, 
and of those others probably copied from Frankish proto- 

Ofthc types ; and more is said about them in the notes pre- 

ceding the descriptions of the various types, in the body 
of the Catalogue. There remain a still greater number of 
designs, which may be taken as examples of distinctively 
native art; that is to say, while the greater number of 
known coins of the sceat class belong to one or other of the 
imitative series, the greater number of sceat ^?/j;es are 
original. The reverses of PL ii. Nos. 15-17, 19-26, are, in 
a great degree, original, though, as is suggested (p. 10), 
probably inspired by Eoman coins. Even the obverses of 
these coins have a great character of originality. The 
reverses of Nos. 9, 18 on this plate are quite original, and 
the obverse of No, 8 has, out of a degradation of a lloman 
type, in a noticeable way grown up again into an original 
design. The obverses of PI. iii. 1-5, are all original 
designs; those of 14-18 become so by excessive degradation; 
the reverses of 16 and 17 are perhaps remotely indebted to 
Pioman coins; the reverse of 18 is altogether English; and 
the rest of the coins in this plate, and almost the whole of 
those in PI. iv. (1-20) show little or no trace of foreign 
influence on either side. With the designs upon the sceat 



eccattas. 



INTRODUCTION. IxxV 

series, we may group the few which appear upon the early 
Northumbrian coins (PI. xx. 2-11, PI. xxii. 1). Of these 
English designs — we may fairly call them so — some are 
worthy of special attention. 

1. The bird upon the coins, PI. ii. 17, 22-24 (rev.), repre- 
sents, I believe, the Victory in PL i. 1, as the cross repre- 
sents the labarum. No. 17 would, of course, be a later and 
more original development of the type, for here the likeness 
to the Koman prototype has entirely disappeared. On 
No. 26 of the same plate we see a Victory alone, expanded 
to constitute the whole type. This may, possibly, be only 
a different development from the same prototype. 

2. The cross of the type now called Irish cross, but 
equally an Anglo-Saxon (as well as a Frankish) form, 
which appears on PI. ii. 18 (r.)*, PI. iii. 25 (r.), PI. iv. 
2 (r.), is noticeable, as are the circles of dots by which it 
is accompanied, and which are a very characteristic feature 
of Anglo-Saxon and Irish manuscripts f of the seventh and 
eighth centuries. Very noticeable, too, is the development 
of the same type of cross into the design of wheels and pellets 
on PI. iv. 13 (r.). 

For other examples of this cross on the coins of Offa, see 
PI. vii. 11 (r.), 15 (r.), and on Northumbrian stycas PI. xxii. 
6 (r.), 7 (r.). 

3. The development of a sort of whorl as on PI. iii. 4 (o.) 
out of the type of the bird or animal on PL iii. 2 (o.) is very 
noticeable. So are the whorls on PL iii. 5 (o.), PL iv. 12 (o.), 
composed, the first of three, the second of four animals' heads 
united by their tongues. (Comp. PL iii. 23, 24 (revs.).) We 
see a completer development of the type in PL iv. 10 (r.), 
in which the origin of the design is entirely lost. These 
types become the more interesting, when we remember 
how characteristic the whorl-patterns are of the Irish and 
Northern English illuminated MSS. of the seventh and the 
early part of the eighth century, while they are almost, if 
not wholly, wanting in later and South English MSS. 

* The letters o. and r. arc lioiiceforward used to signify obverse and reverse. 
t See Num. Chron. N. S. vol. xv., Art on the Coins of Offa (the present 
writer), p. 215. 



Ixxvi INTltODUCTION. 

4. The change uiulergone by the type of the wolf on the 
coins, PI. iii. 19-22 (revs.), is very noticeable. This wolf is 
perhaps derived from that on PI. ii. 9 (o.), which is itself a 
copy from a Koman prototype (PI. i. c). 

5. A similar, but not quite so clear, development of a type 
is traceable from PI. iii. Nos. 26-29, where in the first 
place both obverse and reverse designs become doubled, and 
finally out of four birds there is developed a rose.* 

C. The heads on Pll. ii. No. 24 (o.), iii. 19-20 (o.), and 
iv. 18 (o.) seem to show some indication of a special method 
of representing the hair which is characteristic of Hiberno- 
English MSS., viz. by a kind of interlacing or very open 
plaiting of the locks, quite different from the tight plaiting 
represented on the heads upon Offa's coins. f (See below.) 

7. Most of the remaining sceattas as well as the North- 
umbrian coins, PI. XX. 2 (r.) 4-11 (revs.), contain some 
fantastic animal of the kind with which we are familiar upon 
Anglo-Saxon illuminated MSS. The type of PL iv. No. 4 t 
presents particular features which are noticeable on very 
many of the fantastic animals in ]\ISS., e.g. the bent-up legs 
land the tail in the mouth. § 
Of Offa's The liennies, as a class, bear no comparison to the sceattas 

for variety of design. The richest in that respect are the 
coins of Offa. Ofia's coins have always been celebrated for 
their artistic excellence, which is far greater than that 
displayed by any other Western series for some centuries. 
So far as England is concerned, making allowance for a 
certain rudeness in design, Offa's pieces may on the whole 
be pronounced artistically superior to any series of coins 
struck in this country before the reign of Henry YII. This 
beauty is chiefly shown in the busts upon the obverses of 

* Tlie dovcloi)mcnt would be more cltarly shown, had a greater number of 
cxami>lc8 been photographed. 

t There arc numerous instances in the Book of Kells (Publ. Palreogr. Soc), 
ii. Jill. 57 and 58, Westwood Furxhnih's, pi. 10. See also AVestwood, pi. 28 
(,S/. Gall MS.), Pal. Soc. ii. pi. 21 {St. Chudd's Gosjich). 

X TJie reverse type of this coin seems to be derived from a type on the coins 
of Authemius (a.u. 4G7-472). 

/^C'omp. I'saltcr of Auijustiae, Cotton MS. Vesp. A. 1 ; Wiirlntm Booh; 
15 a, 10 a. 



pennies. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxvii 

a great nnmlier. These busts are perhaps derived from 
those on Roman solidi, but they are distinctly original in 
character and are really fine examples of Anglo-Saxon art. 
Some of these wear diadems similar to those of the Eoman 
Emperors ; one has an elaborate jewelled diadem or crown 
such as is not to be found on any contemporary coin. 
(PI. vi. 1.) With the exception of one piece which has the 
hair of the bust loose and flowing (PI. vi. 3), the busts have 
it either in close curls or in plaits. The plaits on PI. v. 
Nos. 8, 9 are reproduced with considerable beauty and skill, 
and are probably very good rej)resentations of contemj)orary 
fashion. I have not been able to find any examples of hair 
dressed quite in this way upon Irish or Anglo-Saxon MSS. 
of this time ; but the representations in these last are likely 
to be more conventional and less realistic than the repre- 
sentations upon coins. The arrangements of the hair in 
PI. V. Nos. 1, 2, 10 are also curious and pleasing. 

The most interesting reverse types are those which 
represent a serpent (PL v. 4, 5), or two serpents curled or 
intertwined (PI. vi. 6). In the latter case, the inter- 
twining forms remind one of the interlaced zoomorphic 
patterns which are so universal in the Irish and in the 
early Anglo-Saxon MSS. The difi'erence is that the inter- 
laced zoomorphic patterns scarcely ever consist of simple 
serpents, but almost always of some elongated form of beast 
or bird.* There are some other characteristics of the designs 
on this coinage which recall the art on Anglo-Saxon ]\[SS.t 
Most of the remaining reverse types, and a great number of 
tlie obverse represent elaborate and ornamented forms of 
crosses. 

The coins of CynethryS are exactly like those of Ofla. J^ftlio 
Those of the succeeding sovereigns of Mercia — and the 
contemporary Kentisli and East Anglian coins — are much 
more conventional and inartistic. The obverses show a 



* Tlie inteiluciug bodies in the Book of Kclls (Wostwood, Facsimiles), 
1)11. 0, 11 are appaivntly siniplL' strpents. P^ven these, however, have auiinal 
lieads ; and tlu'y dilTiT from the sorpeiils on (MVa's coins in tliis respect. 

t See Ninn. Chr. N. S. xv. 19G, Offtt, I: of Merciit (Pownall). and p. 20G, 
Art on the Coivx of Ofl'n. 



later 
pennies. 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION. 

closer copying of the Eoman bust. Exception may be made 
in favour of the Archiepiscopal coins of Canterbury, with 
facing bust (Wulfred — CeolnoS). The facing bust does not 
occur upon any of the Frankish coins contemporary with 
that of these archbishops ; * and there is nothing to show 
that these busts are copied from any Koman or Byzantine 
type. The reverse types throughout the whole series of 
pennies generally consist of some form of cross. The other 
religious devices are a combination of Zf and W, the Christian 
monogram J^ or ^, and the letters XPC The tribrach, which 
appears chiefly upon the coins of the kings of Kent, and 
of the Archbishops of Canterbury, may be looked upon as 
a religious type, and as a symbol of the Trinity ; but it is 
believed also to represent the pall of the archbishops, and 
to stand for a kind of heraldic symbol of the Canterbury 
see. The coins of Coenwulf, king of Mercia, with this type, 
were probably struck in Canterbury, f 

The art upon the coinage continually deteriorates from the 
time of Offa till the end of the ninth century. As has been 
said above, this fact must not be looked upon merely as an 
evidence of declining civilization — though in part it is this. 
The greater use of a coinage generally tends to diminish its 
artistic merit ; and it is fair to assume, from the evidence 
of modern finds, that, under the later kings of Mercia, a far 
larger number of pennies were minted (in proportion to the 
length of the reigns) than were issued by Offa. Another 
noticeable thing is that the pennies of the latter half of the 
ninth century {e.g. especially those of Berhtwulf of Mercia, 
Baldred, king of Kent, Ceolnoth, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and the later kings of East Anglia), show a nearer approach 
to the types and style of the Frankish deniers, than do the 
coins which precede them. 
Oftho The first coin of the Northumbrian styca series, that of 

Btycas. Ecgfri^, contains an interesting design (or pattern), that of 

the radiate cross, which, with the inscription lvx or lvx x 

♦ The full-faced bust occurs on Frankish coins of quite the eml of the ninth 
century, Gariel, pi. Lxii., Ixiii. IJut most of these were struck in Italy. 
Their type was copied from Papal coins of an earlier date (Leo III., 
Adrian I.. &c.). t See p. 39. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxix 

(Lux Christus ?), forms a sufficiently remarkable type. So 
does the coin of Eadberht and Ecgberht with the standing 
figure of the archbishop. This, we may suppose, is derived 
from some figure such as those on PL ii. 15, 19 (revs.) 
The rest of the Northumbrian styca series presents no 
types save those of animals, and of these we have already 
spoken. These animal types only occur upon quite the 
earliest stycas. The rest have no designs properly so 
called, and no pattern save a cross, circle, or pellet, &c. 

There is one solidus in the archiepiscopal series of York ^{*® r 

BOllflUS Ol 

(that of Wigmund, p. 193, PI. xxiii. 6), which has on the Wigmund 
obverse a full-faced bust of the archbishop. It is the only 
Northumbrian coin which bears a head or bust, with the 
exception of a few pennies, doubtfully attributed to Eegnald 
(p. 232). This solidus of Wigmund, with a few Canterbury 
coins (see above), and a very few Frankish,* are the only 
instances, north of the Alps and Pyrenees, of coins with 
full-faced bust, struck before the tenth century. The type 
of "Wigmund's coin has all the appearance of being an 
original design ; but it may perhaps have been suggested by 
Byzantine solidi with a similar bust. 

The early Northumbrian ijennies present no types of Of the 
interest, from the artistic point of view, unless, perhaps, it 
be the long cross which appears on the coins of Siefred (PI. 
xxvi. 5, 6, 12). It also appears on Alfred's coins ; and it 
is difficult to say whether it was first introduced in the 
north or in the south. The patriarchal cross, which likewise 
occurs on these early pennies, is a more or less original 
design. It would, that is to say, be impossible to find an 
exact prototype for it on the earlier or contemporary 
English or Frankish, or even on the Byzantine coinage ; 
though there are some types of Frankish denarii by which 
it may have been suggested. The remaining types of this 
early Northumbrian penny series are a cross pattee, which 
may have been derived either from the Frankish coinage, or 
that of Southern England, a cross crosslet, and the ' Karolus ' 
monogram : the last is certainly taken from the Carlovingian 
coins. 

* See previous page, noie *. 



Northumbrian 
pennies. 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION. 

In the later Northumbrian pennies, tlic coinage of the 
tenth century, we get one or two interesting types, viz. : — 

1. A curious trefoil pattern (PI. xxviii. 3 (o.), xxix. 1 (o.) ), 
formerly supposed to represent three shields laid one over the 
other. (See Worsaae, Oni Danehrog, p. 9.) This notion 
seems to me fantastical, but I am unable to say from what 
the typo is derived. 

2. The flag or pennon, which is a wholly original device, 
and is peculiar to the coins of the Northmen in Northumbria 
(PI. xxviii. 3 (r.), xxix. 1 (r.) ). See p. 231 note. It is, as 
is there said, probably the earliest representation of a 
standard borne by any Scandinavian army. The type 
suggested the type of a very interesting Danish coin, repre- 
senting the ' Danehrog,' the Danish national standard which 
(according to legend) came down from heaven. The Danish 
type shows a star in the same field as the flag, symbolising 
its celestial origin. 

3. The raven (PI. xxix. 2), which is generally believed 
to be also a war-standard. It may be suggested that the 
emblem of a raven, which was undoubtedly used by the 
A^ikings (see Clir. S. a. 878), was an idea derived from the 
Eoman aquila, and that it was not a raven painted on a 
banner, but a piece of cloth in the shape of a raven. In fact 
that it was this seems to result necessarily from the stories 
told of the auguries drawn from the attitude of its wings on 
going into battle. (Compare the figure from the Bayeux 
tapestry, given by Worsaae, Om Danehrog, p. 13.) This 
would account for the difference between the standard or 
pennon, spoken of just now (PI. xxviii. 3, xxix. 1), and this 
simple representation of a raven (PL xxix. 2). And the 
two types of banners would, in a certain degree, represent 
the vexillum and the aquila of the Roman armies ; though 
of course there is only a remote connection between the cloth 
raven of the Norsemen and the bronze eagle of the Poman 
legions.* 

4. The divine hand in PI. xxviii. 8 (o.), of which enough 
is said in the body of the Catalogue (p. 233). 

* Haigh thinks that the bird is meant for a dove and not a raven (Arch. 
iEl. vii.)) '•"' 'ho .shape of tho hcnk Hccnis to ucgntive this theory. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxi 

5. The type on the reverse of PI. xxviii, 9, is a bow 
and arrow ; the obverse type may be meant for a club or 
battle-axe. 

6. The sword on the coins of Eric (PL xxix. 12, 13) and 
(copied from them ?), on the coins of St, Peter (PI. xxx. 1-4) 
and St. Martin (PI. xix. 14), is also an original type. Some 
rather absurd speculation has been set on foot with regard 
to its meaning. Mr. Haigh having observed in some 
passages of the Irish Annals,* mention made of the sword 
of Carlus, assumed that this was the sword represented on 
the coins of Northumbria. Mr. Haigh concluded, that it was 
a sword presented by Charles the Bald to Eagnar Lodbrog 
after he had advanced upon Paris, 845, and preserved by his 
descendants (?) There was certainly a sword of Carlus in 
the possession of the Norse kings of Dublin, which happens 
to have been twice taken by the Irish from the Norsemen 
and twice recovered. This Carlus is called, in the Four 
Masters, son of Anlaf (Olaf). He was the son of Olaf the 
White, and he was slain at Killinern, near Drogheda, a.d. 
868. t That his sword was considered an object of such 
veneration or renown as to be represented on the coins of 
Eric (Blo^x) is in the last degree improbable. And it 
need not be said that this Carlus had no connection what- 
ever with Charles the Bald. 

The legends upon the coins may, in their turn, be classed Classification 
in the following way :— ^^ ^'^"°^^- 

1. Names of those under whose authority, or in whose 
name, the coins are struck (i.e. of Kings, Archbishops, and, 
in cases of the memorial coins, of Saints). 

2. Names of moneyers. 

3. Names of towns, which are very rare in the series 
contained in the present volume. 



* F. M. 994, 1029, 1058, Arch, ^liana, vii. 69. Haigh imagines that the 
' Karoliis ' monogram is connected with the type of the sword. 

t F. M. 8G8. Haigh, it must be said, was aware of this passage. Two 
Carluses, one son of Anlaf, and k. 868, another son of the k. of Lochlann 
(Norway) k. in the battle of Clontarf (1014), are hopelessly confused in the 
index to Todd's War of the GaedhiU, &c., but are distinguished by Todd 
himself in hi.s Tntroductioii. 



nanifs. 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTION. 

4. Religions legends, very rare throughont the whole 
Anglo-Saxon series. 

All these four classes of legends are given by the indexes 
at the end of the volume. 
Proper lu printing the lists of names which occur upon the coins, 

some difference is made between the rendering of the names 
of the kings and archbishops, and that of the names of 
moneyers. The former, which are known to us from many 
documents, besides the coins, it has been considered best to 
print in a uniform and convenient spelling, which fairly 
represents the pronunciation of the original. Thus the 
diphthong M is always used at the beginning, though not 
in the last syllable of such a name as -3j]thelred. When, 
however, there are two or more alternative spellings of any 
name {e.g. AldfriS, Ealdfer^, Aldfer^, Alfrid, &c.), the spelling 
given by the coins is always preferred. In the case of the 
moneyers the spelling of the name upon the coins has been 
more closely followed. If, for instance, we find a moneyer 
always, or even most frequently, spelling his name Ethelred, 
there seems no reason for printing that name .Ethelred. 
There is no more reason in this case for adhering to any one 
orthography than there would be for refusing to accept the 
varieties of the name of, say, Smith (e. g. Smith, Smyth, 
Smythe, Smijth, &c.), which we meet with at the present 
time. Of course it is quite possible that the engraver of 
the coin was not the moneyer, and was not writing his own 
name. But the fact remains, that the coins are the only 
documentary evidence for the names of the moneyers. 

The varieties which occur in the spelling of the same 
moneyer's name are sometimes very remarkable. These 
might, it has been said already, be taken as evidence that 
the moneyers were not the engravers of the coins. But we 
know the extraordinary ways in Avhich uneducated people of 
the present day spell their names, and, therefore, this argu- 
ment is not of great weight. We will instance some of these 
varieties, for they may not be wholly without interest to the 
philologist ; seeing, that the more uMconvcntional, and the 
more distinctly phonetic the spelling is, the more value 
will it have from this point of view. Among the moneyers 



INTRODUCTION, Ixxxiii 

of Burgred, it will be noticed, that the two names, GuShere 
(or GuSnere) * and Hu^here (or Hu^nere), f occur ; and a 
comparison of the coins which bear these two names, makes 
it almost certain that they are from the same hand. We 
have, of course, numerous proofs that, in certain positions, 
the Anglo-Saxon G and H represented almost the same 
sound. The name of Burgred himself, for instance, which, 
upon the coins, is spelt with a G, is in MSS. more usually 
written with an H; and a hundred other examples might be 
cited. In this case we have the alternative use of the 
letters G and H at the beginning of a name, which is, of 
course, the strongest possible evidence of their equivalence. 

More curious still is the fact of the forms Degemund (or 
-mond), Dagemond, Daieraond,$ being all used for the same 
personal name, as it is nearly certain that they are ; as of 
the forms Ssemund and Sigemond § (or -mund), Ansiger (or 
Ansicar) and Ansier, |1 Wineger and Winier, If M^ehed and 
Aeilred.** The dropping or addition of the H (Heardwulf, 
Eardwulf), the simplification of diphthongs — E or A for jE, 
A for EA (e.g. Tidweald, Tidwaldtt), E for EI (Sten and 
Stein XX) — call for no comment. 

With regard to the moneyers' names themselves, it will 
be seen, when looking at the index, that a considerable 
number there given are almost inexplicable. But these 
extraordinary forms almost all belong to the curious ' St. 
Eadmund ' series. The probable forms of these obscure 
names are sometimes obtained by comparison of a number of 
various spellings, and by a process of elimination which it 
would be impossible minutely to explain. It can only be 
understood by any one accustomed to the examination of 
coins. Very often, some slight mark, some peculiarity in 
the formation of a single letter, are sufficient evidence 
that two coins, whose legends seem very different, are really 
the work of the same moneyer, and present the same name 
variously written ; and a long familiarity with the forms of 
mistakes to be anticipated in writing and spelling, assists 

* P. 58. t ^- 62. X P. Ill llo. § P. 127-8. 

II P. 105-107. t P. 182, 138. ** P. 165. ft P- 82. 

XX Pp. 120, 180. 

9 2 



Ixxxiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



in the decipherment of the coin inscriptions. But there 
are, of course, many difficulties in the way, and these are 
largely increased by the perversity in spelling, and equal 
perversity in the formation of the letters. 
Palffiography. The different forms of letters are given sufficiently for the 
identification of the coins by the type used in the body of 
the work. But in the accompanying plate, the shapes are 
exactly rendered, having been drawn with great care, in 
an enlarged form, by Mr. F. Anderson, and reduced by 
photography. 
Runic in- i. The inscriptions, which are wholly or chiefly in Eunic 

scnptions. characters, are reproduced entire ; for as they belong to 
different dates, it is important to show what modification 
(if any) the letters have undergone between one date and the 
other. "With regard to the most important of these Eunic 
inscriptions, I will repeat the remarks upon them with which 
I have been favoured by Dr. Wimmer, of the Eoyal University, 
Copenhagen — 

1.* ' There can be no doubt that this inscription is as 
given on the plate, and that the runes are to be read 
Scanomodu. That it is an Old English inscription is 
evident from the specially English rune P*. The inscription 
is the more remarkable, as I look upon it as the oldest of all 
yet known English runic inscriptions. The first rune ^ (s), 
difiers only by the little hook below from the common 
Germanic form, sprung from the Latin st> viz., S or ^, that 
is to be found in the Gothic, German, and Northern inscrip- 
tions. The last have, also, beside S, X, such forms as ^, ^, 
and the like ; while the English inscriptions had, at an early 
date, the form H, which also belongs to the later northern 
runes. In the same way the A c (Z;) is an intermediate form 

* TLifi remarkable inscription lias already been publisliecl more than once 
(see p. 1), but never with sucli exact reproductions as are given on this Plate, 
and by tlie photograph of the coin (PI. i. 1). 

t This, and some other remarks wliicli follow, are, of course, part of the 
theory whicli Dr. Wimmer has made specially his own, touching tlio origin 
of the Eunic alphabet. See Aarho(j for nordisk Oldhyndiijhed for 1874. 
The theory is contested by Canon Taylor, in his Greeks (mil Goths, and his 
Ilistory of the Alj'hahet. I may mention tliat (lie most exact attention has 
been given to the drawing of the two letters i^ and K or /^ of this inscription, 
and tiiat tin- forms given on the plute may be completely relicfl upon. 



INTRODUCTION. IxXXV 







Runic 


Inscriptions 


n p "^ 5^' M « M n 


uqx-'/fe^TM^ MKi^ rnt;. 




( f 


■ 1) 


(P .2) (P 5) (P. 6 ) 




9 


e 


T 8 9 


C F Mf 

(P.2J) 


«>w 


nm ?Eoxxp rnr 

U) tt/ C 8J) IP 8i) 




/c 


(p. 24) 


IP. 24) 




B R^^n R 


PI NTRr^W 




I '=• / 


««) 


( P . / 4 7) 


A 


TX 


Alphabe 

7^ 71 A 


fie Varieties 


7K 3» ^ 77 [V] 


B 


B 






C 


c 


a 




D 


^^'D 6 


- 


E 


e 


F ^m 


F 


F 






G 


G 


cr q P 


UTjJ^lTrX 


H 


N 


h h 




I 




IE 


w 


L 


r 


u I r 




M 


T 


m w m 


m NN rw m |oi w vv M 


N 


H 


n H H 


X 


O 





•^ w <> 


O D 


P 








a 


cy 


O/ 




R 


n 


p* 




s 


s 


z M r 




T 


r 


U ^-3 T 




Y 


u 


U H h 


M U U [^y] 


W 


YV P P D 


P D* 


X 








Y 


e 


y=i ?■ 




Z 








thordh |) 


> 'b €) 


O t) 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

between the original form C (sprung from the Latin C), and 
the Liter English k. In the North, where < in like manner, 
in early times (with the addition of a straight line), appears 
in both the forms A Y, the latter form eventually survived ; 
and from this form the K in the later runic alphabet is 
derived. In England, therefore, the development is C A ^', 
in the North it is C^ K, Finally, the ^ in this inscription 
has still the original meaning o, the same meaning as in the 
Gothic, German, and Northern inscriptions. With this early 
stage of the characters the form of the language of the 
inscription also agrees, as Scanomodu is the name of a man 
in the nominative singular. While the corresponding later 
Old English form has the termination -mod (compare Here- 
mod in Beowulf), the end sound of the stem (-u) has here 
been retained. On palseographical and linguistic grounds, I 
should pronounce the date of the inscription (in round 
numbers) about the year a.d. 600.' 

2. The next inscription, read, only tentatively, Beartigo, 
is, as will be seen from the drawing, very doubtful. Dr. 
Wimmer found, in the cast sent, only the letters i ^ ; 2 M ; 
7 X ; 8 ^ ; quite clear. He considers it very doubtful whether 
the third letter can be f. On the whole, he pronounces it 
to be, probably, nearer in date to the inscription 5, than 
to the inscription 1. This, it will be seen, accords perfectly 
•with the numismatic evidence, and with the history of the 
coinage sketched at the beginning of this Introduction. The 
form p (o) might, Dr. Wimmer holds, have very well existed 
alongside of the other form ^ during a certain period. 
Putting the inscription 1. at circa a.d. GOO, and this inscrip- 
tion at more near to a.d. 650 (the date of 5.), there would, 
of course, be left a certain interval for the development 
of the alphabet. 

3, 4. Obviously belong to nearly the same period as No. 5. 
5. The date of this inscription is exactly determined 

(betw. A.D. 655 and 656 or 657), if we admit, as I think 
we must, that the name is that of Peada, the son of Penda. 
Dr. Wimmer finds, upon palseographical grounds, no difficulty 
in accepting this date. 

6 and 7. The date of Nos. 6, 7, would be, at least, twenty 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxvii 

years later than that of No. 5. In this case the inscription is 
boustrophedon. ' This fact,' Dr. Winimer says, ' has, according 
to my theory, no special significance in determining its age. 
The original direction of the runic writing is straight, from 
left to right ; but every inscription which runs round a 
circular, oval, or rectangular object, takes, in fact, a bou- 
strophedon form. The fact that the inscription [No. 7] is here 
written from right to left is, probably, merely due to the 
forgetfulness of the engraver.' In fact, as we see in Nos. 6 
and 7, the inscription runs both ways, from right to left and 
from left to right. The two inscriptions are copied, to show 
the contemporary use of the two forms t> and t (for ]?). 

8. This inscription belongs to the period of transition from 
the use of the sceat to that of the penny — i. e. to about the 
year 760. It will be seen that it is only partly in runic 
characters, the runic ^ being replaced by the far more con- 
venient Eoman form O. (Nevertheless we see in 10 the form 
P retained at a much later date.) 

9. Belongs to twenty or thirty years later than 8. It 
accompanies the name of the king, which is written almost 
wholly in Koman letters. There is, perhaps, some signi- 
ficance in the fact, that the king's name is written in Koman, 
and that of the moneyer in runic characters. 

10. 11. Belong to a still later period, the reign of Eanred, 
in Northumbria (a.d. 807 or 808-841). In these the mix- 
ture between Koman and runic characters is more complete 
than in any of the other nine inscriptions. In each case, too, 
the name of the king upon the obverse of the coin is written 
wholly in Koman characters. Besides this, the moneyer, in 
each case, has, upon the greater number of his pieces, written 
his name in Koman characters. If, then, there existed any 
doubt about the force of any of the runic letters in these 
two inscriptions, for the period to which they belong, these 
doubts would be at once set at rest by the transliterations 
into Koman characters. The most curious feature in these 
inscriptions is the retention in 10 of the runic Fs, which one 
would have expected to be very early abandoned in favour 
of the Koman O, and which is abandoned in the much earlier 
East Anglian inscription, no. 8. 



IxXXViii INTRODUCTION. 

Looking, then, through the runic inscriptions (1-10), it 
•will be seen that they afford no bad epitome of the history 
of this alphabet, in some of its important stages in England. 
They show a steady increase in the proportion of Koman to 
runic letters ; and, but for the exception just cited, the three 
forms used for — $, fi, O — would bo expressive of certain 
stages in the history of the runic alphabet. 
SuTTival of ^ further stage in this history is given by the survival of 

runio letters, runic forms for certain letters, while the rest of the legend 
is given in Eoman characters. The letters which survive in 
this way are given at the end of the alphabetic forms in the 
second part of the accompanying plate (p. Ixxxv). 

By far the longest lived were the letters p> or €> and P (W). 
The last two, especially, are found on coins long subsequent 
to the conquest. I do not think that any of the others 
extend much beyond the beginning of the tenth century. 

Y This form is given at the end of A and also of Y. In 
runic alphabets it is said to have had the force of a 
and of i. The name of the moneyer, in which it 
occurs, could scarcely have been written Cinwulf, but 
it might very well have been Cynwulf. However, the 
alternative form V also appears in his name, and we 
cannot determine whether the name was Canwulf, 
Cunwulf or Cynwulf, or even Coenwulf. It is only 
certain that, in this instance, y must represent some 
vowel sound.* 
B May perhaps be reckoned a runic or semi-runic form. 
F (/E) Where it is confused with E may, as is suggested 
(p. 151 note), have been, in some sense, a survival of 
a runic form. 
X (G) This occurs both on the early coins of Mercia, and 
several times in the later Northumbrian styca coinage. 
In the latter series it is scarcely to be distinguished 
from the form for N (i). 



* Y lif^) ill Scandinavian runes, the force sometimes of M, sometimes 
of R. Still earlier it had the force of Z. (Wimnier, in Aarhog for nordisk 
Oldhyndighed, 1874, pp. 114, 122, &c.) The value here must be a vowel 
sound. Wimmcr also gives the form ^ = e or a) ; otliers liave given 6 : 
oe (Coenwulf) would suit the position of the letter f in question. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxix 

r (L) Occasionally occurs in inscriptions otherwise written 
in Koman letters; and it almost insensibly merges 
into the form r. 
M (M) This is far from infrequent upon the ' St. Eadmund ' 
coinage, and occurs also in that of Northumbria ; but 
not, I believe, in other series. 
i (N) Of this form we have already spoken. It is most 

common upon the Northumbrian coinage. 
t (T) This is the only other runic form which occurs in 
inscriptions isolated among Eoman characters. It is 
found in the coinage of Mercia and Northumbria. 
ii. With regard to the various forms of Koman letters, it Roman letters, 
must be borne in mind first, that there is upon the coins 
no continuing of strokes below the line, such as we find in 
MSS., and, therefore, that all distinction given by this 
process is lost ; secondly, that the inscription being nearly 
always circular, and requiring a constant change in the 
point of view of the observer, a careless engraver was 
in much greater danger of writing his letters sideways, 
than a scribe would be when engaged upon a manuscript. 
That the engravers of coins were much more careless than 
any ordinary scribe is also abundantly evident. These 
considerations will account for many of the peculiar forms 
which we observe upon the coins. 

A The first seven * forms of this letter call for no com- 
ment. The eighth is, I believe, very rare, if at all 
to be found, in manuscripts. It only occurs once 
upon coins (p. 25), The ninth form only occurs 
twice. (It is not represented in the type of the 
catalogue.) It may be due to a mere slip of the 
engraver's tool, or it may be a common manuscript 
(uncial) form written sideways. 
C The closed or Lombardic form of this letter (Q) is 
common enough on coins (as it is in manuscripts) of 
the twelfth century. But its use at so early a date 
as here (before a.d. 904) is hardly to be accounted for. 

* See p. Ixxxv. These immbers are counted not from the beginning of 
alphabetic varieties, but by including the normal form of the letter which 
stands first in each row. 



XC INTRODUCTION. 

The form given is more like a D reversed. It may- 
be meant for G and not C (see p. 105). We have 
another instance (difficult enough to account for) of 
the alternative use of G and D in the same name ; 
though this occurs in quite a different series of coins 
(p. 160). 

D The only form of this letter which calls for notice 
is the last (O). It is not taken from an isolated 
example, or due to any mere slip of the engraver, 
for it occurs several times, and on the coins of different 
moneyers ; though it is confined to a portion of one 
series, viz. to the earlier coinage of East Anglia. 

F The single variety of this letter is entirely confined 
to the stycas of Northumbria. Its identity with 
the familiar manuscript form is noticeable, taken 
together with its local use on the coins ; the in- 
ference being that the coin engravers of Nor- 
thumbria were more familiar with manuscript 
(semi-uncial) forms, than the engravers further 
south. (See G.) The same form however is found 
occasionally in lapidary inscriptions from other parts 
of England. 

G The fifth form of this letter is peculiar, and no doubt 
only a chance ornamental form. It occurs only once. 
The sixth form is still more peculiar; but if it be 
turned round, it becomes more like an ordinary form. 
The others are varieties which may be closely matched 
in manuscripts. The forms (9-11) which most nearly 
resemble the semi-uncial writing are (like the MS. 
form, T) confined to Northumbria. No. 12 (T) can 
only be explained as being the Greek gamma. It 
occurs only on a tenth century coin of Northumbria 
(p. 232). 
H, N The alternative use of these two forms, both for 
H and N, which constitutes the chief difficulty in 
the way of deciphering the names upon these coins, 
may be paralleled, to some extent, in manuscripts 
and in lapidary inscriptions, but not nearly to the 
same extent as here. It must, one tliinks, liave arisen 



INTRODUCTION. XCl 

chiefly from confusion between the runic and the 
Roman forms of H. 

L The form r must likewise be a survival of runic 
influence. 

M The numerous varieties of this letter are remarkable. 
No. 2 (T) is, in these coins, very distinct from No. 3 
(CO), and is, likewise, the more common form of the 
two, whereas in MSS. en is extremely common, and 
T very rare. HP is most common on the Mercian 
coinage, en on that of East Anglia. The various 
forms of double N (nos. 4, 7, 9) are, I believe, rare 
in MSS. No. 5 (HH) is common enough, as is no. 8 
(MJ) which is (e. g.) used almost universally as an 
ornamental letter in the Durham Book. But no. 6 
is, so far as I have been able to find out, extremely 
rare, or even non-existent, in extant Englisli MSS. 
An example of it occurs in Westwood's Facsimiles 
of Miniatures and Ornaments of A.-8. and Irish MSS. 
pi. 19. This is taken from the Gospels of Thomas, 
Abbot of Hagenau. It may be noted that this form 
only occurs upon the earlier coins of East Anglia. 
The same is the case with all the forms from 5 to 9. 
The form 4 (l/N) occurs both on the earlier and 
the later (the ' St. Eadmund ') coins of East Anglia. 
The forms 10 (loi), 11 (W), 12 (VV), are taken from the 
' St. Eadmund ' coins. 

N The varieties of this letter call for no special com- 
ment. No. 4 (N), which is one very common in MSS, 
is on the coins almost confined to the East Anglian 
series. 

O The difi'erent forms of this letter, which are chiefly 
fanciful, likewise require little comment. The 
diamond shape (nos. 2 and 6) is common enough in 
manuscripts.* So is the square form No. 7. But 

* Hiibner says that this is common in Gaulish Christian inscriptions of tlie 
sixtli and seventh centuries, but tiuit it does not occur in Spanish or British. 
{Exemp. So: Ep. L(tt. Prolog, p. Ixiii. col. 2.) It scarcely occurs elsewhere in 
late Latin iuscr. Wo must assume, therefore, that the form in Anglo-Saxon 
iuscr. is derived remolely from Gaulish inscriptions; otherwise one might bo 
templed to conned it with the riuiic $. 



XCli INTRODUCTION. 

on the coins this last is confined to one particular 
Northumbrian king (p. 140). The forms 3-5 occur 
only on the coins of Mercia. No. 6 occurs only, in the 
present series, on those of Plegmund, Archbishop of 
Kent ; but it is also found on contemporary coins of 
the West Saxon kings. 

R This letter can only be distinguished by the open 
and closed forms. If, however, the straight stroke of 
some of the open forms were to be lengthened, we 
should get a form (P>) which is a characteristic MS. 
form, and developes into the cursive letter n. (See 
what is said above, p. Ixxxix.) 

S The use of M for S can hardly be explained. The 
fact however remains, that the same moneyer's name 
is spelt both Bomecin and Bosecin, and the most 
reasonable interpretation is that M is the Greek (S) 
placed sideways. (See above, under G.) The form 5 
(O is cognate to a form which occurs in manuscripts, 
and which developes into the cursive letter r- It 
only occurs singly on ' St. Eadmund ' coins, and on 
early stycas of Northumbria (pp. 105, 140). In the 
case of the coin Mercia No. 71 (PI. viii. 8), the same 
form seems to be combined with the letter H. 

T The curious decay of this letter, given on p. 124, is 
not drawn here, as it scarcely constitutes a new 
variety, and is sufficiently shown upon PI. xviii. 
C-8. 
V ( U) Appears in a great variety of forms, many of which 
are, however, modifications of No. 2 (W). Neverthe- 
less some of the forms which these modifications 
take cannot be distinguished from some of the forms 
of N. * Of the form v we have already spoken. 
(See p. Ixxxviii, also pp. 14G-7.) 
On the whole, by far the greater number of peculiar 
alphabetic forms are to be found upon the earlier pennies 



* Tlie above forms of letters arc, as a rule, made exclusivo of reversed or 
inverted letters. But no doubt some of the forms of V here given come 
under one of these two heads. 



INTRODUCTION. XClll 

— those of Mercia, Kent, and East Anglia, struck before 
the middle of the ninth century. A change in the general 
formation of the letters gradually sets in as this century 
advances. The strokes of which they are composed become 
more cuneiform. The coins of Mercia, from Berhtwulf 
onwards, the Archbishops of Canterbury from Ceolno'5, 
and the ' St. Eadmund ' coinage of East Anglia, afford 
the best examples of this cuneiform style. (Compare 
Pll. X. xii. xvii.-xix.) It is not used to any extent upon 
the styca coinage of Northumbria, but is very notice- 
able on the Dano - Northumbrian penny series. (Comp. 
Pll. xxiv.-xxx.) 

It will have been already seen that in a great number 
of cases identical alphabetic forms are used for several 
different letters. Thus, some among the forms for G and T 
(27, &c.) cannot be distinguished ; H, N, H, &c., may be either 
H or N ; r either G, L, or S ; X may be the runic form of G, 
or of N, or the Roman X ; N may be N or V. The 
possibilities of confusion are further increased by the 
great frequency upon the coins of reversed and inverted 
. letters, letters placed sideways, &c. ; the reason for which 
has been already given. So that A may be A or V, N may 
sometimes be z (i.e. s), and, as we have seen, Q may (in one 
case, at any rate) be C, and M be 2 (S). These ambiguities, 
added to the extreme carelessness of the engravers, occasion- 
ally make the interpretation of the names upon the coins no 
easy task. It will further be seen, upon examination of 
the Catalogue itself, that whole inscriptions and individual 
letters are frequently written from right to left ; sometimes 
the inscription reads from right to left, and each letter of 
it faces in the usual way, or, conversely, the inscription 
reads in the right direction, and the letters of it face to the 
left. 

In the preparation of this Catalogue I have been under 
special obligations to Mr. John Evans, P.S.A., Treas.R.S., 
who has read the proofs both of the Introduction and of the 
Catalogue ; to Mr. H. A. Grueber, F.S.A., Dept. of Coins, 
for reading the proofs of the Introduction ; to Mr. E. 



XCIV INTRODUCTION. 

Maiinde Thompson, LL.D., F.S.A., Keeper of MSS., for 
assistance in the examination of illuminated MSS., and 
in the comparison of alphabetic forms ; to Dr. L, Wimmer, 
Koyal University, Copenhagen, for his remarks upon the 
runic inscriptions ; and to Mr. H. Montagu, F.S.A., Mr. T. 
W. U. Robinson, and the Rev. W. Featherstonhaugh, for 
supplying lists of unpublished moneyers. 

C. F. Keary. 



CATALO Or UE. 



CATALOGUE OF ENGLISH COINS. 



ANGLO-SAXON SERIES. 



COINS OF UNCERTAIN DATE. 
GOLD. 

Sdidus. 
Sixth Century, a.d. ? 

The following piece is believed to have been found in thi.s country. It is a 
barbarous copy of a solidus of Houorius, such as that descril)C(l in C'olien, Monnaies 
Imperiales, torn. vi. p. 478, no. 21, viz., Ohv. DN HONORIVS PF AVG. 
Bust r. diademed and weaiing paludaraentuiu. licr. VICTORIA AVGGG. 
The emperor standing r. holding iitandard and Victory, and placing his 1. foot 
upon a recumbent captive. In addition to a blundered imitation of this type, the 
piece in question contains a legend in runes which are of the Anglian form, 
as below. 



Obverse. 



Blundered legend, VN-HNO!' 



INHHNG points, small circles 
of dots. Diademed bust, r. 
wearing paludamentum or 
cuirass. 



Reverse. 



Blundered legend to 1. 



to 



^Kri$M$'>*'ri [SCANO- 
MODU?]. Figure standing r., 
holding standanl and Victory, and 
placing 1. foot upon recumbent 
captive. Truces of legend in 
exergue. a; -75 Wt. 67-2. 

[Pi. I. 1.] 

The piece is published in Stephens, Old Northern Runic Monuments, jip. Ixviii. 
and 879, in tiie Numismatic Chronicle, N.S., vol. viii. (18CS), p. 87 and pi. iv. 
nos. 17-1!) (B. V. Head), and vol. ix. (ISWt), P- 174, pi. v. no. 2 (D. H. Haigh). 
The legend has been interpreted SCAN O MODU " Scan owns this mot" (coin 
or die). It is mure probal)ly tho name nf a [terson, and it lia.s been suggested 
that we may find a trace of tiu? name in Scammonden, near Halifax. That the 
piece was used as a coin, and not merely as an ornament, nuist be considered 
doubtful. We may compare it with a similar coin discovered in Harlingen 
(Netherlands) an<l pnbli.siied by Thomson, Atlm, no. 251 ; Stephens, O. N. 11. M., 
vol. ii. p. .')54, and Numismatic Chronicle, N.S., vol. ix. pi. v. no. 3. 



SCEATTAS. 



SCEAT SERIES. 

A.D. GOO-750? 
I. — Small Gold Coins. 

Type 1. 

Probably imitated from eolidi of Magnus Maximus struck in London (see 
PI. I. a; of. Cohen, Medailles Imperiales, torn. vi. p. xvi. no. 8); but possibly 
from those of Valentinian I. struck at Treves of tlie same tyi>e. 



Blundered legend, 
demed. 



Legend identical. 
Legend identical. 

Legend identical. 



13ust r., dia- 



Two busts, with traces of hands 
supporting an orb between them ; 
above, head and two wings ; on 
either side of head, three dots. 

Ai -5 Wt. 20-2. 
[PI. I. 2.] 

AJ -45 \Vt. 191. 



four dots on either side of 
head. a: -5 \Vt. 202. 

a; -45 Wt. 20-3. 



Type 2. 

Apparently imitated from Merovingian trientes. Compare Num. Chron., O.S. 
vol. vi. p. 171, N.S. vol. X. (1870), p. 164, &c., pi. xiii., 27, and vol. xii. (1872), p. 72, 
the Crondal Hoard. 



Bust r. ; in front, a trident, 
legend. 



No I WVN33TT0N Cross iwtcnt 
within double circle of dots.* 

A/ -5 wt. 19-9. 
[PI. L 3.] 

I TT3B3NVW Single circle round 
I cross. a; -5 Wt. 19-5. 



Type 3. 
Imitated from Merovingian gold coins. (Cf. Conbrouse, pi. 15Gg, no. 1.) 

With Eunic Lnjcnd. 



Blundered legend formed into a 
pattern. Bust r. diademed. 

[PI. 



I [BEA(R)TIGO?] IRXJf:lltM^t 
I Cross calvary on three 8tei)8. 

u -5 Wt. 20-5. 
L4.] 



• This is a type of which numerous varieties exist, representing proljaWy a c<)n8ideral)Ie issue. 
Compare papers cited atx)vc. The iiit<Ti>rrt(iticin of other reverse legends of this type, wliich arc in 
rciility (there can be little doubt) nirnly Muiidered imitations of the inscription on some Merovin- 
gian Iriens, has given occasion for the display of a good deal of misplaced ingcnuitj' on the part of 
Bome Knglish numismatists. For possible iyicroviugiun prototyi)es, sec Conbrouse, pi. 1&3K, and 
15SK, no. 15, &c. 

+ The runic legend has been read "fcartigo" for " forty '' — 40 copper stycas. The reading 
is improbable. 



SCEATTAS. 



Obverse. 



II. — SiLVEB Coins. 

Types 1-23 of the following series are apparently all connected with some 
Roman prototype. Types 2-11 are derived, either on obverse or reverse, from 
Roman denarii of the time of the Constantiues. Types 12-23 are apparently 
derived from gold coins of the time of Honorius or later. See Introduction. 



Type 1. 

Imitated, like the gold coins of the same type (Gold, Type 1), from the solidi 
of Magnus Maximus or of Valentiuian I. 



Blundered legend. Bust r. dia- 
demed. 



Two busts, with traces of hands 
supporting an orb between them ; 
above, head and two wings; on 
either side of head, pellet. (Cf. 
PI. I. 2.) 

M -45 Wt. 19-3. 



Type 2a. 
Probably imitated from the small brass coins of Constantine II. struck in 
London. Ohv. Bust 1., radiate. Bev. Standard inscribed xx , and on either 
side of it a captive. Compare PI. I. h and d, and Cohen, torn. vi. p. 240, Constan- 
tine II. no. 190, and pi. ii. no. 56 (Licinius Jun.). 



10 



11 
12 

13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

18 

19 



TIC (blundered legend). Bustr., 
radiate; behind, A; behind bust, 
two annulets ; in front, one. 



Blundered Iegentl,T[R I ?]AT Square 

compartment within which, o 5 
/ \ 



below, cross. 
TRI 



R lA 
[PI. I. 5.] 
AT 



two annulets behind ; 
none visible in front. 



one annulet behind ; one 
in front. 

one annulet behind ; 
none visible in front. 



TRI AT 

TA IRT 

[TA] mT 
TRI [AT] 



M -45 Wt. 19-4. 

M -5 Wt. 200. 

m -5 Wt. 19-5. 

M -45 Wt. 19-5. 

M -45 Wt. 19-5, 

M -45 Wt. 20-0. 

JEL 45 Wt. 19-2. 

M -45 Wt. 19-5. 

M -45 Wt. 20-2. 



M -5 Wt. 19-9. 
B 2 



SCBATTAS. 



No. 
20 



21 



22 



TIC (blundered legend). Bustr., 
mdiate ; behind, A ; one annulet 
behind ; none visible in front. 



two annulets behind 
one in front. 



Reverse. 



Blundered legend T[RI ?]AT Square 

T T 

comniirtment within which, q ; 

/ \ 

M •4.5 Wt. 19-8. 



below, cross 
TR AT 

R A 



M -45 Wt. 170. 



M -45 Wt. 19 0. 



Type 2b. 
A degraded form of the same type. 



23 


1 1 C Degraded radiate bust r. ; 
annulet in front. 


Square 

TT 

O 
/ \ 

cross 


coiapartment with traces ot 
usually blundered, and a 

at every side. 

m -45 Wt. 13-2. 


24 


VAI „ 


„ 


„ M -45 


Wt. 17-8. 


25 


nV „ annulet behind and in 
front. 

[PI.] 


J) 

:.G.] 


M -45 


Wt. 10-2. 


26 


VER „ 


'• 


one cross only. 
51-45 


Wt. 18-2. 


27 


No inscript. Bust 1. 


„ 


four crosses M-5 


Wt. 13-5. 



[PI. I. 7.] 



Type 2c. 

28 I Blundered letters; degraded ra- I Traces of legend +MOM. Cross; 
diatc bust r. dot in each angle. 

I Ai -45 Wt. 121. 

[PI. I. 8.] 



29 



30 



Coins with Runic Legends. 

Uncertain Legend IMP? 

Degraded form of radiate bust r. I Square compartment as in Type 2h, 
as in Type 2h, and in front but with an annulet at every 
traces of legend q ^ M I side. s. 5 Wt. 105. 



[PI. I. 9.] 



IM only. 



crosses at every side of 
comi)artineut. 

n 5 Wt. 11-5. 



SCEATTAS, 



No. 



Reverse. 



31 



32 



Degraded form of radiate bust r. 
as in Tyi^e 2h, and iu front 
tiaces of legend M I only. 

Bustl. 3V1I. 



Square compartment as in Type 2&, 
T at every side of compartment. 
m -5 Wt. 9-2. 

„ cross at every side of com- 
partment. 

M (base) Wt. 97. 



Legend MKP'(EPA). 

See Num. Chron., N.S. vol. viii. (1868) p. 75 (B. V. Head). Also Hawkins, 
Silver Coinage, 2ud ed. (R. L. Kcnyon) p. 25, no. 557. 



33 

34 
35 

3G 

37 

38 
39 

■10 
11 



Degraded form of radiate liiist r., 
as in Type 2h ; iu front MCT 



Square compartment with traces of 

T T 

legend O as in Type 2b. 



/ \ 



[PI. I- IU.] 



Bust 1. ; legend blundered. 



Radiate bust 1., similar to Type 2a; 
behind hea<l TVT ; in front, 



TV behind bust. 



TTA 



M -5 Wt. 13-5. 



M -5 Wt. 15-2. 



„ dog-tooth pattern above 
compartment; no crosses 
at sides. 

M -45 Wt. 101. 

TT 

Compartment within which O ; 
' I I 

to 1. TAT ; below, a cross. 

M -45 Wt. 18-2. 

TAT AT at sides of compart- 
ment M -45 Wt. 18-8. 

M -45 Wt. 15-3. 



TAT on either side of compartment. 
M -45 Wt. 17-7. 
[PI. I. 11.] 



no letter visible behind 
head. 

V behind head. 



Al to 1. of compartment. 

M -45 Wt. 18-8. 

T T 

Square compartment ; w-ithin O ; 

to 1. blundered letters. 

M. 45. Wt. 20-3. 



42 



Legend P-Cr (APA). 



Degraded radiate bust r. similar 
to Typo 2a. Behind, A ; in 
front. rCP- 



Si^uare compartment within which 

O as in Tvpe 2a On r. side A. 
/ \ ' Al -45 Wt. 17-7 



SCEATTAS. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


43 


Degraded radiate bust r. sin 
to Typo 2o. Bcbiud, A 
front tliroo aimulets. 


lilar 
; in 


Square compartment within which 

O as in Typo 2 a ; cross above 
/ \ 
compartment ; to r. A[T]. 

m -45 Wt. 19-7. 


44 


„ two annulets. 


[PI. 


,, blundered letters within 
compartment ; outside, 
cross on every side. 

m -45 Wt. 18-0. 
[. 12.] 


45 


„ one annulet. 




within compartment; outside, 

cross on every side. 

M -45 Wt. 15-9. 


46 


„ two annulets. 




SI -45 Wt. 18-6. 


47 


„ blundered. 




Blundered legend ; cross, dots in 
angles. M i Wt. 19-0. 


48 


rCf or PRP- Same type as 
behind head, A. 


ast ; 
[PI. 


Square compartment within which 

T T 

O cross on every side. 

I. 13.] Si -45 Wt. 17-8. 



49 



Legend rMCP'(LEPA?) 



riVlC[F'] Similar type; behind 
iiead, A. 



Square compartment; within, traces 
of letters round annulet ; cross on 
every side, as in Type 2b. 
[PI. I. 14.] ■ m -5 Wt. 18-6. 



For other Sceattas with runic legends see Morcia. 



Type 3a. 

Obverse possibly derived from a Merovingian obverse type. The reverse has 
the same origin as that of the previous types, viz., the Roman coins with 
standard between two captives. 

Square compartment derived from 
standard ; an annulet (O) and four 
crosses (X) witliin, and cross ( + ) 
on cvory side. 

Si -45 Wt. 17-2. 
[PI. II. 1.] 



50 



51 



Bust r. diademed ; in front of it a 
long cress. 



O, three crosses, and .-. witiiiu com- 
partmeut. 

Ai A!) Wt. 19-2 



SCEATTAS. 



01) verse. 



Type 36. 



52 



53 



Degraded form of the above type 



Square compartment within which 
blundered letters. 

M -45 Wt. 17-8. 
[PI. II. 2.] 



Degraded bust ; varied ; annulet 
instead of cross in front. 



Square compartment ; within, X 
with tliree dots in each angle. 
Around, blundered legend. 

m -45 Wt. 18-8. 
[PI. II. 3.] 



54 



55 



56 



57 



58 



59 



Curved figure witii long bristles 
behind and two angles in front, 
one below the other. [De- 
graded form of head r.] 



Type 4. 
Degraded form of Type 3.* 

Square compartment with remains 
of O ; outside, cross. 

m -5 Wt. 190. 



one angle; cross in front, 
annulet below. 



T T 

O 
/ \ 



Within compartment, annulet sur- 
rounded by four dots ; outside, 
blundered inscription. 

M -45 Wt. 18-9. 
[PI. II. 4.] 



one angle ; cross, annulet, 
and other marks in front. 



one angle ; cross in front, 
annulet below. 



Within compartment, annulet, sur- 

V X 

rounded by . . and four dots; 

outside, cross and blundered 
letters. ax -45 Wt. 18-0. 



Within compartment, annulet and 
four dots ; outside, blundered in- 
scription, m '45 Wt. 17-7. 
[PI. II. 5.] 



one angle; no cross 
annulet. 



type much defaced. 



Square compartment as in No. 54, 
cross not visible. 

as. -45 Wt. 18-0. 

T T 

Square compartment ; within, o : 

/ \ 

outside, crosses. 

^•5 Wt. 14-8. 

* This type is a great deftrndatinn of tlie previous type, so great in tl]e obverse tliat tlie relation- 
ship of the two eaii witli diiruulty he distiiigiiishcd. A careful examination of the obverses of the 
following pieces will however, it is believed, show that the type began in an attempt to imitate the 
diademed bust proiier to Type 3. A study of the sauio kind of degradation of type shown iu the 
British .Scries will further tend to this conclusion (cf. Evans, Coins vf the Ancient Britons, Pl.xvi.). 



SCEATTAS. 



Reverse. 



60 

61 

62 

G3 

64 

65 
66 

67 

68 
63 

70 
71 



Curved figiiro having long bristles 
behind (degraded form of the 
head to r.); trace of nose and 
eye ; three straight lines in front. 



four straight lines (lower 
lino of noso being sepa- 
rated) and two triangles 
in front. 

four straight lines and one 
triangle in front. 



four straight lines, two 
triangles in front. 



Type 5. 

Degradation of Type 4.* 

Square compartment; within, re- 



[Pl. II. G.] 



four straight lines, one 
triangle in front. 



four straight lines, cross, 
and two triangles in front. 



„ four straiglit Hues in front. 
„ throe straight lines in front. 



3 and triangle in front. 



T T 

mams of inscription, O ; out- 

/ \ 
side, slight traces of crosses. 

m -45 Wt. 20-2. 

„ blundered letters outside 
compartment. 

M -5 Wt. 20-2. 



four straight linos outside 
compartment. 

M -5 Wt. 201. 

traces of inscription or 
crosses outside compart- 
ment. M -45 Wt. 19-5. 

M -40 Wt. 19-3. 



M -45 Wt. 19-2, 
m -45 Wt. 18-5. 

T T 
Within compartment, O ; outside, 

traces of inscription or of crosses. 
M -45 Wt. 17-5. 

„ outside, vol ax 4 Wt. 15-7. 

Compartment witli blundered form 

of O ; blundered Utters outside. 
/ \ M -45 Wt. lG-8. 



[PI. II. 7.] 



3 and > in front. 



M -45 Wt. 15-8. 



M -45 Wt. 1 5-7. 



* This type htm l>epn generally ralleil a type of tlio Wolf and Twins, and referred for its prototype 
to Type 7, whicli afiain is repriMliiced on tlic coin of .Ktlielherlit, kinn of lia-st AiiKlia(q.v.). Tllese 
coins may well have been derived from tlie small hra-ss coins of Constantino I., hearlnR the inscrip- 
tion "Urlis Pa>ma." .See Hawkins, Silrer Coins of England, '2nd ed., p. 2.1, and Dirks, I^s 
An{/lo-Saxtms et leurs scKdttas, pp. .Il, hg seq. It seems, however, more prohalile that this 
type is a depra'lcd form of the diademed bust on Type .'t, pa.ssinf; throngh tlie last type. The 
question is nevertheless (liHicult to dcciile, and on this acconnt it has been tliought better to let 
thcae coins constitute a separate type. The reverse is a form of the standard-device. 



SCEATTAS. 



Reverse. 



Type 6. 
Altered form of Type 5, in which the degraded head has changed into a bird, 
72 



73 



74 



75 



76 



Bird r. with long feathers standing 
lip from back ; in front of it a 
small cross. 



Square compartment similar to those 
in preceding types ; within, an- 
nulet, lines, and dots; outside, 
crosses and numerous dots. 

.31 -45 Wt. 18-3. 

„ crosses seen on three sides. 
M -5 Wt. 19-2. 



in front of bird, 

[Fl. II. 8.] 



cross on one side. 

M -5 Wt. 190. 



Within compartment five annulets 
(0) and four pyramids of dots 
(.-.) ; outside compartment, cross 
on every side. m 45 Wt. 17'8. 

M -45 Wt. 15-5. 



Type 7. 

TJie obverse of this type shows the wolf and twins, probably copied from the 
reverse of coins of Constantino, with the legend VRBS ROMA and the head of 
Rome on the obverse. Conijiare PI. Ic and Cohen, MtdaiUis ImperiaJes, torn. vi. 
p. 179, no. 13. The reverse is a bird and tlower design, siich as does not occm* on 
early Saxon or Trisli ]\ISS. But a design similar to this of the coin is to be seen 
on the Bewcaslle and Ruthwell crosses (cf. Stephens, Old Northern Bimic 
JMonunients, i. p. 398, &c.). Comjiare again an example of a design not dissimilar 
from the following, upon a Gaulish coin (Hucher, L'Art Gaulois, pi. 32, no. 1 ; cf. 
also pi. 13, nos. 1 and 2). 



77 



78 



Wolf r., and twins (distinctly re- 
presented). 

[PI 



I A bird between two stalks of corn ? 
I M -5 Wt. lG-0. 

II. 9.] 

I „ „ « -5 Wt. 17-5. 



Type 8. 

The obverse of this type appears to have been imitated from Merovingian 
coins. (Cf Conbrouse, pi. 158E, nos. 9, 10 [Poitou].) The reverse is a form of 
the standard type. 



79 



80 



VIAOi • A In centre, cross, two 
dots in angles. 



Square compartment as before (Type 
<!), outside of which a cross and 
traces of letters, m -45 Wt. lS-4. 
[PL II. 10.] 



AAN tlirce dots in angles of 
crosis. 



no traces of letters. 

M -45 Wt. lS-9. 



10 



SCEATTAS. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



81 

82 

83 
84 



AVHA In centre cross, dot in 
each angle. 



Square compartment as before (Typo 
6), outside of wliich a cross; no 
traces of letters. M -45 Wt. 18-8. 



A + numerous dots around cross. 

[PI. II. 11.] 

+ V • HAH numerous dots 

around cross. 

Cross ; annulets and uncertain 
letters around. 



traces of two crosses and of 

letters outside compartment. 

M -45 Wt. 18-9. 

one cross outside compart- 
ment. M -45 Wt. 20-4. 

^•45 Wt. 181. 



85 



Type 9. 
Bust r. diademed ; in front, + L€L 



Degraded form of diademed head 1. 
as in Type 5 ; four lines in front. 
M -45 Wt. 150. 
[PI. II. 12.] 



8G 



Type 10. 

Rude bust r. ; in front, traces of I Eudc bust r. ; in front, I LV (?). 
letters. 1 m -45 Wt. 16-0. 

[PI. II. 13.] 



87 



Type 11. 
Possibly Merovingian. 



Bust r. ; in front, annulet ; above, 
cross. 



AROALDOXco In centre, square 
compartment, within wliich sal- 
tire witii dots in angles. 
[PI. II. 14.] Ai -5 Wt. 17-8. 



With legend LVUDONIA.* 
Type 12. 

Remotely derived from coins of Honorius, similar to No. 1, (compare Num. 
Chron., 186'J, pi. v.). 

HelmetLd figure, holiling two long 
crosses, standing on boat-like 
curve, facing, iiead r. 

Ai (base) -5 Wt. 15-3. 
[PI. II. 15 ] 



89 



rVHDONIA+ (somewhat l)lun- 
dered). Bust r. ; hair ilressed 
ill Saxon fashion. 



LVH DOm A Bust r., diademed ; 
hair ditferently arranged, and 
possibly traces of helmet. 



m -5 Wt. 14-8. 



* ThP ipRcnils iiii'in tlio following coins have l)cpn read, CNOON, VNOONN, 
ELVNOOIIII, AELVNOOTIIA, kv. (hvo. llawkin», .ViVi-.-r fV-i».v, .l... Jn,! cl. (). -M). niul 
Hiiinc havf tx'i'ii rcfiriiil U> Niuiiia, a king of the .Siiilh .Sa.\<)ii». Tlicrc is in nnlily Utile luuni Inr 
(lunlit that tlipy arc all forniH more or lcs.s bluiKlorctl of tlio IokoiuI LVNDONIA. A similar 
legend, it is to be noticed, is likewlHC found upon an Anglo-Suxon gold coin. See Coitis found on 
Jiayshul Heath [Croudal, llanto] iVitm. Chron., vol. x. (1»70). pi. xiii. 2H. 



SCEATTAS. 



11 



No. 


Obyerse. 


Reverse. 


90 


DN DON 1/1+ Bustr. 


, diademed. 


Helmeted figure, holding 
crosses, standing on 
curve, facing, head r. 
m (base) -45 


two long 
boat-like 

Wt. 15-8. 


91 


ONNIO? 


Bust r., diademed. Similar type ; no curve ; straight 
line joining bases of crosses. 

M (base) -5 Wt. 15-5. 
[PI. II. 16.] 



VHOONH+ Bust r. ; hair 
dressed in Saxon fashion. 



Type 13. 

Figure seated r. in chair, head 
turned back, holding in r. hand 
bird, and in 1. long cross. 

m (base) -5 Wt. 15-3. 
[PI. II. 17.] 



Type 14. 



+V1IOOHV19. Bust 1., dia- 
demed, and possibly traces of 
helmet. 



Cross of peculiar shape, having cir- 
cular spaces between limbs ; in 
centre and on each limb, pellet, and 
in each space between limbs, 
circle of dots enclosing pellet. 

m (base) -5 Wt. 14-5. 
[PI. II. 18.] 



Without Legend LVUDONIA. 
Type 15a. 



Bust r., diademed ; in front, long 
cross. 



cross on a base. 



Helmeted figure, holding two long 
crosses, as in Type 12. 

M (base) -5 Wt. 15-2. 

„ „ no curve visible. 

SL (base) -5 Wt. 16-0. 



Type 15b. 

I Helmeted figure, standing facing, 
Jjcad r., holding branch and long 
cross. m (base) -45 Wt. 13-4. 
[PI. II. 19.] 



Type 16. 



Bust r. diademed ; in front, floral 
ornament. 



Figure standing facing, holding two 
long crosses, bases joined by 
straight Line. 

M (base) 5 Wt. 15-8. 



[PI. II. 20.] 



no straight line at base of 
crosses. 
M (base) -5 Wt. 15-0. 



12 



SCEATTAS. 



No. 



Ucvirsc. 



Type 17. 



99 



Bust 1. diademed ; in front, long 
cross. 



Hclmetcd figure holding two long 
crossc s, facing, head r. 

Ai (base) -5 Wt. 14-3. 
[PI. II. 21.] 



Type 18. 

The reverse as well as the obverse is probably derived from some Roman gold 
coin with reverse type u standing figure holding labarum and Victory. Compare 
liev. Num. Bthjc, Ime s. vol. iii. pi. xvi. 2. 



100 

101 

102 
103 

104 

105 



Bust r. diademed ; in front, long 
cross. 



Helmeted figure standing facing, 
on a cni ved line, head r., holding 
in r. hand a long cross, in 1. a 
bird. .ai 45 Wt. 15-3. 



[PI. II. 22.] 



to right of figure, T. 

M -45 Wt. 14-5. 



to r., > 

.ai (base) -45 Wt. 138. 

no letter. 

m (base) -45 Wt. 130. 

curve not visible ; no letter. 
^ (base) -45 Wt. IPS. 



Type 19. 

Bust 1. diademed ; in front, long i Helmeted figure on curved line, 
cross. holding long cross and bird, as in 

last tvpo. M (base) -5 Wt. 17"2. 
[PI. II. 23.] 



lOG 



107 



Type 20. 

Bust r., liair and dress of Saxon I Helmeted figure on cm-ved line, 
character, hand holding cup. holding long cross and bird, as in 

Ty]ies is and 19. 
I M -45 Wt. 14-2. 

[PI. II. 24.] 

I „ „ ^ -45 Wt. 171. 



108 



109 



Head 1., surrounded by circle of 
dots outside of which, wreath. 



Type 21. 

Fi;;ure with long moustaches, stand- 
ing facing on curve, holding two 
long crosses. 

X. (base) -5 Wt. 105. 
[PI. II. lio.J 

I ,. „ M -45 Wt. 12-5. 



SCEATTAS. 



13 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Type 22. 



110 



Victory r., holding wnath ; in front 
traces of letters (Runic ?) 



Helmeted figure standing facing, 
head r., holding two long crosses ; 
double border, inner representing 
curve in Type 21. 
[PI. II. 2G.] M (base) -5 Wt. 17-0. 



Type 23a. 

In this typo we have on tlie reverse a complete departure from any Roman 
prototype. 

This dragon-like figure is common in early Irish and Anglo-Saxon MSS. Its 
prototype is probably not to be looked for on any coin. 

Ill 



112 



Dragon-like figure r., head turned 
1. 



Same figure 1., head r. 



Helmeted figure standing facing, 
head r., holding stafi" and long 
cross ; double border, as above. 

m -5 Wt. 13-8. 
[PI. III. 1.] 



Ruder form of same figure holding 

long cross in 1. ; to 1., small cross. 

m -45 Wt. 13-8. 



113 



114 



Type 236. 

Fantastic bird-like figure to r. I Helmeted figure facing, on curve, 
pecking at branch. head r., holding two long crosses. 

I m -45 Wt. 18-7. 

[PI. III. 2.] 



Varied form of same type. 



Ruder form of same type. 

M -45 Wt. lG-5. 



115 



Bird-like figure to 1. peckin 
branch. 



Type 23c. 

at Figure with long moustaches stand- 
ing facing on curve, holding two 
long crosses as before (Tvpe 21). 
m -4 Wt. 12-3. 
[PI. III. 3.J 



IIG 



117 



Type 23(7. 

Bird almost changed into a whorl. | Helmeted figure standing facing, 

' head r., on curve, as no. 88. 
[PI. III. 4.] M -45 Wt. 13-8. 



Wliorl which seems to be composed 
of three licads with tongues 
meeting in tlic centre. 



Type 23e. 

Helmeted figure standing facing, 
head r., holding two long crosses, 
tiie bases of which are joined by 
a straight line ; no curve. 

M (base) -5 Wt. lG-7 
[PI. III. 5.] 



14 



80EATTAS. 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Types 2-i-28 seem to be must ueurly rolated to the scries of Merovingian Coins, 
wliich have on the obverse a htad, on tlio reverse a small cross, either plain, 
huussc'e, or molino in one limb. 

Type 24a. 

Uncertain legend. Cross raised upon 

two steps ; on either side of upper 

limb, an annulet, dot above and 

on left. M -5 Wt. 19-7. 

[PI. III. 6.] 



118 



Rude bust r. ; arouml uncertain 
letters. 



119 



120 



121 



Type 24&. 



Uncertain legend, M U I OT ? Rude 
bust r. 



Uncertain legend, IDEIA- Cross 
raised upon tsvo steps, with an- 
nulets at extremity of each limb; 

between the annulets y v ; above. 



h^mall cross. 
[PI. III. 7.] 



ax -4 Wt. lG-9. 



Different legend, illegible, 
still more rude. 



„ traces of letters. 



Bust 



Uncertain legend. Cross on two 
steps ; nrouud TT and four annu- 
lets ; another cross above. 

M -5 Wt. 18-5. 

Different legend, but illegible. Two 
crosses as in last; around lower 
cross, annulets and dots. 

M -45 Wt. 15-8. 



122 



Type 25. 

Cross ami uncertain legend. Very i Uncertain legend • ANO • ; cross 
rude bust r. I with arabesque above. 

[Plate III. 8.] M -5 Wt. 14-8. 



12.3 



Tyjie 2G. 



OVANTCOlroA (meaningless le 
gind?) Bust r., diademed. 



• + i:VAf>0ONVA+ Cross raised upon 
tliroe steps; above it a bird r., 
and on either side an annulet with 
dot below. M -45 Wt. 20-0. 

[PI. III. 9.] 



124 



125 



Type 27a. 

OR- -lAINO lleadr. ; infront, I OlfOTIOOO 
a cross. bird r. 

[I'l. III. 10.] 



• Cross, upon which 
m -5 Wt. 190. 



Ruder form of same type ; traces 
of letters only. 



Ruder form of bird 1. ; long cross ; 
annulet on either side ; traces of 
letters only. Ai -5 Wt. 172. 



SCEATTAS. 



15 



No. 



126 

127 
128 
129 
130 
131 

132 
133 
134 
135 
136 

137 

138 

139 
140 

141 



Type 21b. 

OTAV[irO]VAHVAO (meaning- 
less legend y). Head r., dia- 
demed, within circle of dots in 
form of serpent. 



OTA V I CO V A H V AO Same type. 

+ OHVA TAVHO 

OTAVfOVAHVAITOO 
Traces of legend only. „ 

OTAVrOVAHVAIIO 



Legend as on obv. (ending VIO). 
Cross, on either side of which, 
annulet ; above, bird r. ; all within 
circle of dots in form of serpent, 
at -45 Wt. 19-3. 



••AVHfOVAHV 
OTAVHO 



M -5 Wt. 172. 



HAVTOO-- „ 

M -5 Wt. 19-0. 

OTAVHrOVA • • VOO 

M -5 Wt. 19-0. 



+ A' 



A + 000 



M -5 Wt. 19-0. 
in front of 



OTAVHmVA---- 
bird numerous dots 

M -5 W^t. 18-8 



OTAV-VAHVAOO 
OTAV--VAHVAITO 



[PI. III. 11.] 

TAVHfOVAH- 

0--AHVIOOO 



Traces of legend ; bust r., dia- 
demed ; in front, annulet. 

„ „ no annulet 



Ruder form of head r., diademed ; 
no traces of letters. 



Still ruder form of same type ; no 
traces of letters. 



no dots in field. 
m -5 Wt. 18-7. 



M -5 Wt. 18-5. 



OTA----IVAHVAOO numerous 
dots in field. m -5 Wt. 18-0. 

VAcoV VAOOO six annulets 

lound cross. m -5 Wt. 19-1, 

I Vro A Vm V A • • OOO annulet 

above dot on each side of cross. 

M -5 Wt. 16-5. 

VWAVOOVAHVOO annulet above 
dot on each side of cross, 

M -5 Wt. 181. 

Traces of legend • • • MWIhM • ■ • 
on either side of cross, annulet; 
in front of bird, small cross. 

M -5 Wt. 17-4. 



VAV 



M -45 Wt, 17-5. 



No legend; much ruder form of 
same type ; annulets only ; double 
circle of dots. .ai -5 Wt. 14-2. 



varied. „ dot within each annulet; 

numerous dots in field. 
[PI. III. 12.] ^-45 Wt. 10-2. 



IG 



SCEATTAS. 



No. 



Reverse. 



142 



• • • ECPAVIOCIV 

radiate. 



Type 28. 

This may bo a Merovingian coin. 

CM ON I Cross ; around six 



Head r., I + • • • • 
(luta. 
[[PI. III. i:i] 



X, i Wt. lG-0. 



Type 29<(. 

Tlie prototype of tlie obverse of this type and types 30, 31 is probably the 
obverse of some IMeroviiigian coin witli tlie head of Christ. Compare Num. Chron., 
N.S., vol. xix., PI. iv. 20 and Conbrouse, pi. 24, 3. It may however have been 
derivid from coins of Justinian II. (G81-tJ95 and 705-712). Compare Sabaticr, 
Mon7iaies Byzantincit, torn. ii. pi. xxxvii. 12. 



143 



Traces of legend D -\- 
Bearded head, facing. 



+ • + V I Traces of legend ; cross fourehe'e on 
which a bird r. ; O on either side 
of upper limb, ir -45 Wt. 19*2. 
[PI. III. 14.] 



144 



Type 29b. 



Traces of legend V I C + : + : 
+ V O I V very rude form of 
same type. i 

[PI. III. 15.] 



Traces of legend ; similar type ; on 
either side O .ai -45 Wt. 19-0. 



145 



Type 30a. 

Bearded head facing with long I Two male figures in hats standing 
raoustaciie and hair standing up facing, each holding a long staflf; 
from the head. dots in iield. M 5 Wt. 17-5. 

[PI. III. 16.] 



14G 



Type 306, 

Rude head facing, with long 
beard and hair standing up 
from head ; on either side, cross. 



Two male figures standing facing, 
long cross between them and cross 
on either side ; two dots in field. 
Ai -45 Wt. 17-7. 
[PI. III. 17.] 



147 

MS 

119 
150 



Type 31. 

Rude bearded head facing; on Dragon-like aTiiinal tor., head turned 
either side, a cross. 1. towards raised claw. 

Ai -45 Wt. 17-8. 
[PI. III. 18.] 



Head still more rude; crosses as 
on last. 



Animal to 1., liead r. towards raised 
tail. Ai -45 Wt. 17-5. 

Ai -45 Wt. 160. 

Ai -45 Wt. 14-2. 



SCEATTAS. 



17 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Type 32a. 



151 

152 
153 

154 
155 



Bust of Saxon type r , holding 
cross in one hand (compare 
Type 20). 



Animal (wolf) with short fore legs 
and long hind legs and with long 
tongue, curved round to r. (com- 
pare Type 7, obv.). 
[PI. III. 19.] M -45 Wt 16-8. 



Uncertain legend D WO ; bust 1. 
diademed ; no hand or cross. 

Similar to No. 151 ; dress varied. 



Wolf to 1. ; tongue ending in 
trefoil. M (base) 45 Wt. 17-4. 



The hind legs of the wolf have dis- 
appeared, and it has only two 
short fore legs and long tail. It 
is curved to r. m "45 Wt. 138. 
[PI. III. 20.] 

„ dress varied. Fore legs of wolf have also disap- 

peared, and it has become a wolf- 
headed serpent, curved to 1. ; 
outside it, another curved line, 
ending in animal's head, 
[PI. III. 21.] M -5 Wt. 17-2. 

„ I Serpent represented by a single 
dotted line, curved to r., and with 
wolf-head. M "45 Wt. 17-6. 



Type 32&. 



156 I Saxon bust 1., diademed ; in field, 
four circles of dots enclosing 
pellets. ' 

[PI. III. 22.] 



Wolf-headed serpent, curved to I. 

Si -45 Wt. 14-3. 



T^jpe 33. 



157 



158 



159 



ICO 



Saxon bust r., diademed ; in front, 
long cross ; dog-tooth border. 



Wolfs head r., with long tongue, 
collar of dots and dog-tooth pattern 
on neck ; dog-tooth border. 
[PI. III. 23.] M -4.5. Wt. 18-2. 



„ hair and dress varied ; no 
dog-tooth Ixirdcr visible. 



Similar, dress varied. 



Similar bust, varied. 



Similar head ; tongue forked and 
knotted ; no dog-tooth border 
visible. m 45 Wt. 15-5. 

Similar head ; tongue not forked 
or knotted ; in front, long cross ; 
no dog-tooth Itorder. 

2R (base) -45 Wt. 145. 



Similar head 1. ; long tongue twisted 
and forked, but not knotted ; no 
dog-tooth bordcrvisible; numerous 
dots in field. 
[PI. III. 21.] Ai (bast) -45 Wt. 15-5. 

V 



18 



SCEATTAS. 



Ko. 



IGl 



1G2 



Bust r. ; liair aud dress of Saxon 
fashion ; in front, long cross. 



Type 34. 

The reverse of this typo is similar to that of Typo 14. 

Cross of peculiar shape, having cir- 
cular spaces between limbs; on 
each limb, pellet ; in centre and in 
spaces between limbs, circles of 
dots enclosing pellets. (Similar 
to Type 14 rev.) 

M -45 Wt. 11-8. 
[PI. III. 25.] 



Similar bust, diademed; in i'ront, 
branch. 



Cross of same shape ; upon it plain 
cross, with dot in each angle ; in 
spaces between limbs, circles of 
dots enclosing pellets. 

m (base) -45. Wt. 12-8. 



Type 35. 

The development of the reverse of Type 37 from the reverses of this type and 
of the following is worthy of notice. 

163 Jlude bust r. ; in front, cross; | A fimtastic bird 1. ; in front, cross ; 
numerous dots in field. dots in iield. m -45 Wt. 13-5. 

[PI. III. 2G.] 



1G4 



Rude bust r. ; in front, cross 



1G5 I Similar; bust varied. 



Type 36. 

Two birds r., the larger below, tho 
smaller above ; in I'ront of tiiem, 
ft cross. St. -45 Wt. 17-0. 

[PI. III. 27.] 

I „ „ m -5 Wt. 160. 



1G6 



167 

168 



Type 37. 



Two heads facing one another; 
between them, long cross on 
pedestal. 



A rose formed of four rudely-shaped 
birds ; in centre, cross. 

2i -45 Wt. 16-5. 



[PI. III. 28.] 



[PI. III. 29.] 



M 45 Wt. 12-3. 
.31 -45 Wt. 15-7. 



1C9 



Bust of Saxon type r. ; in front, 
cross ; cable border aud bordir 
of dots. 



Type 38. 

A crested bird r.; in front, cro.s-8; all 
witliin incomplete circle, consist- 
ing of a line enclosed by similar 
' circles of dots. Ai 45 Wt. 165. 
[PI. IV. 1.] 



SCEATTAS. 



19 



Rovorpe. 



170 Fantastic bird r. 



Type 39. 

Cross of peculiar shape similir to 
that in Types 14 and 34; in centre 
and between limbs, circles of dots 
enclosing pellets, m 45 Wt. 12-4. 
[PI. IV. 2.] 



It is quite possible that the figure holding two crosses upon the ensuing type 
as well as the two figures of type 41 h, are derived from coins of Heraclius I. 
(610-641) Sal)atier, op. r.it. torn. i. pi. xxviii. seqq., or from some Byzantine coins 
of about this period ; comp. especially No. 175. 

Type 40. 

I Figure standing, facing, holding two 
long crosses. m -5 Wt. 18-9. 

[PI. IV. 3.] 



171 



172 



Dragon-like animal 1., head r. 



Similar animal ; one leg raised 
above head. 



m -5 Wt. 16-8. 



173 



174 



Type 41a. 



Dragon-like animal r., head 1. ; 
tail in mouth. 



Similar. 



Two figures standing facing one 
another, each lidding a long 
cross, which stands between them ; 
on either side, cross of dots. 
[PI. IV. 4.] sx -45 Wt. 19-2. 



Similar ; figures helmeted ; remains 
of crosses of dots. 

M -45 Wt. 15-4. 



175 

176 

177 

178 



Dragon-like animal 1., head r 



Similar animal r., head 1. 



Similar animal 1., head r. 



Type \\h. 

Two figures standing facing, each 
holding long cross; Ihe loft-hand 
figure bearded, the right hand 
with hood or perhaps nimbus ; 
between them, cross of dots. 
[PI. IV. 5.] M -45 Wt. 19-5. 



,, no sign of beard or nimbus ; 
croiscs very indistinct. 

m -45 Wt. 18-8. 

Same figures ; crosses distinct. 

M (base) -45 Wt. ISo. 

,, cross pomme'e between the 
two figtuv.s. Av 45 Wt. 15-3. 



20 



SCEATTAS. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Koverso. 


179 


Dragou-likc nuiraal 1., head r. 


Very rude figures, ftppnrcutly with 
hoods or nimbatc ; long cross be- 
tween them. m -45 Wt. 17-7. 



180 



181 



Type 42. 

Bust r. ; linir plaited in Saxon I Hound running 1. past a tree, look- 
fashion ; on 1. sliouhler, bird 1. I ing back. Ai 45 Wt. lG-4. 
[PI. IV. 6.1 



Similar bust, holding a cross ; no 
bird (compare Typos 20, 32a\ 



var. ; tail knotted. 

m -45. Wt. 150. 



Type 43. 

The reverse of this type occurs upon Merovingian coins, and is also not 
uncommon upon Cailovingian (of. Aniuuiin' de la NiimiKmatiquc, iii. p. 314). But 
it appears alt^o to have been u type in use on Gaulish coins {lici: de laNuvtis. 
Ihhji', pi. xiii. No. 7). 

182 Dragon-shaped animal 1., head r. I Irregular interlaced totragram with 

' dots inside (two rings interlinked). 
[PI. IV. 7.] & -45 Wt. 17-8. 



183 



Type 44. 

Fantastic bird r., similar to that i Beast with large claws and tongue 
on No. 113; branch in front. I out, walking 1. m -5 Wt. 148. 
[PI. IV. 8.] 



184 

185 

18G 

187 



Type 45. 

Fantastic beast, crested and with I Ornamental spiral ; at outer end; 
long tongue r. | m 5 Wt. 150. 

[Pi. IV. 9.] 



Similar beast without crest 1. 



„ m -45 Wt. 12-2. 

Spiral of diffL-rent form. 

m -45 Wt. 180. 



Dragon with long wings r. ; other- 
wise similar to last. 

[PI. IV. 10.] 



M -45 Wt. lG-5. 



188 



Type 46. 



ORVIIIT-ONI TA TC (Un- 
certain legend). Bird walking 
r., looking Ijack. 



Square compartment with saltire in 
centre, the limbs ending in an- 
nulets; the whole within thittcd 
circle. ^i 45 Wt. 151. 

[PI. IV. 11.] 



SCEATTAS. 



21 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



189 



190 



Type 47. 

Four wolves' heads from which 
issue long tongues joining in the 
centre, so that the whole forms 
u kind of whorl. (Comn. Type 
23e obv.) 

[PI. IV. 12.] 



A centaur-like figure, but having 
wings and female breasts, to 1., 
head r. m 45 Wt. 17-8. 



Si -5 WL 14-3. 



191 



Type 48. 



Whorl somewhat like three wolves' 
heads. (Compare Type 47.) 



Four wheels set cross-wise, a ixjllet 
in the middle and one betweeu 
caeli pair of wlieels. (Derived 
from cross in Types 14, 84, 39.) 

A\ -45 Wt. 14-8. 
[PI. IV. 13.] 



192 

193 
194 

195 



A small hciid facing ; around, circle 
of eight annulets each enclosing 
pellet ; dots betweeu. 



Type 49. 

Fantastic bird r., similar to that on 

Type 39, outlined also in dots ; in 

front, circleof dotseuclosing pellc t. 

M -5 Wt. 14-5. 



ten aimulets round head. 

[PI. IV. 14.] 



M -45 Wt. 14-3. 



„ seven annulets round head. | behind head of bird ; cross of 

dots in front. m -45 Wt. 155. 
[PI. IV. 15.] 

" " " I » „ M -45 Wt. 14G. 



19G Traces of letters. A chalice (?) 
or i)erlia2)s very degraded form 
of bust r. 



Type 50. 
[Possibly a Merovingian coin.] 

Traces of letters. A cross, having 
a dot in each angle. 

M -45 Wt. 191. 



[PI. IV. 1(3.] 



Type 51 

197 Two men standing facing, side by 
side, holding long cross between 
tiiem, and each a cross in out- 
side hands. (Possibly from By- 
zantine type, see Type 41.) 



[PI. IV. 17.] 



Two squares formed of dotted lines, 
tlio inner one divided by dotted 
diagonal lines, with thi-eo dots (.-.) 
in each quarter. 

Ai -5 Wt. 188. 



22 



SCEATTAS. 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



198 



Bust facing, hair plaited iu Saxon 
fashion. 



Type 52. 

Crosa-liice arabesque of interlaced 
lines, with dot in centre and in 
' each open Bpacc. M •45 Wt. 15'9. 
[PI. IV. 18.] 



Type 53. 

199 Very degraded form of bust r. (as I Cross of zigzags with in centre ; 
in Type 4), with annulet be- dog-tooth border, 
ncath angle of nose. M -45 Wt. lG-2. 

[PI. IV. 19.] 



Type 54. 



200 Fantastic half-figure r., holding 
two long crosses, the limbs ter- 
minating in annulets. 

[PI. 



Eiglit-rayed star composed of four 
crosses and four straight lines ; 
annulet in centre. 

m -5 Wt. 19-5. 
IV. 20.] 



( 23 ) 



MERGIA. 



SCEATTAS. 



PEADA. 

A.D. 655 — A.D. 656 OK 657. 



No. 



Obverse. 



Traces of iuscrii)tiou OTI • • 
OIZNO Hclmcted buat 



Reverse. 



Similar to lust 
OIZNO 



Tmces of inscription in 
Iioman letters • • AcflT T 
Standard typo, revcr.sed, 
cross below ; on standard 
CPIXF' [PA DA] 

m -45. Wt. 20-3. 
[PI. IV. 21.] 



OTIO More degraded form of 
standard type ; within 

compartment o : L>"t- 

X X 
side to r., R^IXir; an.l 
in Roman letters around, 
• ACOfOT 

M -5. AVt. 17-5 
[PI. IV. 22.] 



Traces of inscription 
OHVHG Filleted bust 
r. 



Cross with annulet in each 
angle, enclosed in a 
circle ; traces of inscrip- 
tion in Roman letters, 
AVI 1 VcoAO, and in Runic 
letters Cnxlf 

M -15. Wt. 18-7. 
[PI. IV. 23.] 



Miut. Moneyer. 



24 



MEUCIA. 



No. 



OhvtTso. 



Mint. Moiieyer. 



^THELHED. 

A.D. G75 — A.u. 704 (Addicated). 



Do|?rftdf(l form of bust r., 
as in Tyi)e 5 of Sciultus. 
Dog-tooth pattern in 
frout. 



Same ; type 1. 



Same ; typo r. 



rplM RF^XC>Ep»ILIR^D) 

in two linos iKiuftrtiplndoii, 
eecond lino inverted ; 
triple border. 

M -5. Wt 19-2. 
[Tl. IV. 24.] 



F•pl^ RF-X (dotB) single 
border, m 5. Wt. 18-2. 



legend from right to left 

m -5. Wt. 200. 
[PI. IV. 25.] 



OFFA. 



25 



PENNIES. 



OFF A. 

A.D. 757— A.D. 796. 

Moneyers of Offa. 

•^* The list here given contains only substantially different names, and only 
Buch varieties of spelling as are necessary for the assistance of the student. 

The names printed in italics are those of moneyers not represented among the 
coins in the Museum Collection, and have in most cases been taken from 
descriptions of coins only. 



Alchmund [Alhmund, Ealhmund]. 

Aired [^Ired, Ealred]. 

Babba. 

Beaghard ? [Begherd = Beanneard ?]. 

Beanneard [Bannard, Bernard]. 

Botred. 

Ciolhard [Celhard]. 

Deimund. 

Dud[ = Udd?]. 

Eadberht. 

Eadhun [Eadmund ?]. 

Ealhmund [= Alhmund]. 

Ealred [= Aired?]. 

Eamal 

Eoba. 

E«elmod [= ESelno« ?]. 

E^elno^. 

ESelwald. 



Fehtwald [ =Pehtwald?]. 

Heagr [or Hearer ?]. 

Ibba[=Eobba?]. 

Ino« [for Wino« ?]. 

Lul [Lulla]. 

OeSelred [OeSelres = E^elred?]. 

Osmod. 

Oter. 

Pendraed [or Wendred ?]. 

Penwald [Wenwald, Pehtwald ?]. 

Regniht. 

Redwi7i. 

Eeudred [= Wendred?]. 

Udd[=Dud?]. 

Wenwald [or Penwald ?]. 

Wintred [Wendred, Winred], 

WiJhun {_=Wilmundi}. 

Wino?. 



First Series. 
Coins with head or bust. 



No. 


Ob\-erse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Sloneyer. 


7 


+ OFF7X REX + 

Dots in legend. 

dressed 
fashion. 


Bust r. ; 
hair ela- 
borately 
in Saxon 

[Pl.^ 


7\LH 
MWN 


in three lines with- 
in wreath ending 
in serpent-heads ; 
numerous dots 
in iield. 
M* Wt. lG-3. 


Alhmund 
[Alchmund]. 


8 


+©FFfl Rex+ 

(Dots). 


Same 
type. 


+7\ LHTUNO in spaces left 
by elaborate pat- 
tern, an orna- 
mental and a 












l)laiu cross form- 
ed into star of 








[Pl.^ 


V.2.} 


eight rays ; nu- 
merous liots. 
Ai. AVt. 191. 





• The inciusuremont of the pennies is so nearly unifonu tlitit it hsis l)een Ihouglit unnecessary tt> 
give it in eacli imliviUual case. lu the present series it only varies between 05 in. and -7 in. 



26 



MERCIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Kevcrse. 


Mint. Moiicyer. 


9 


OFFA REX Bust 


+ 7X L R E in four com- 


Aired 




(tlic lattir word r., hair 




partmcnts of a 






from right to inuoli 




cruciform pat- 






left). curUd ; 




tern, having in 






dots iu iicltl. 




centre compart- 
ment a small 
cross, and between 
limbs floral or- 
naments ; nume- 
rous dots. 

m. Wt. 19-5. 






[PI. V. 3.] 






10 


+OFFS REX+X Dust 


CELH 


A serpent coiled 


Celhard, or 




(Dots). r., huir 


ARO 


between lines of 


Ciolhani. 




much 




legend. 






curled. 




m. Wt. 177. 






[PI. V. 4.] 






11 


+ OFFrt REX+ Similar 


+ CIOL 


Similar type. 






(Dots). bust. 


HARD 


m. Wt. 180. 






[PI. V. 5.] 






12 


+OFF2J REX+ Undraped 

(Dots). diademed 

bust r. ; 

to r., branch. 


+ DW3 


in spaces formed 
by cruciform i)at- 
tern composed of 
one large circle 
and four smaller 
ovals ; in centre 
of largo circle 
quati;efoil with 
trefoils between 
loaves. 


Dud. 






JR (pierced). Wt. 18-2. 






[PI. V. G.] " 






13 


+OFFn REX MERCI- 


+ 0W0 


l)et\veen leaves 






ORWM (Dots). 


(Dots). 


of large qualre- 






Drajied and dia- 




foil, trefoils with- 






deiiKid bust r.; in 




in and between 






frout, long cross. 




leaves. 

m. Wt. lG-3. 






[Pi. V. 7.] 






11 


+OFFA REX MEREIOR" 


+ E AD 


HV N Cross 


Eadhun, ru- 




(Dots). Draped bust r. ; 


(Dots). 


having crosses 


Eadumnd ? 




hair plaited iu 




at end of lindis 






Saxon fashion. 




and voided; small 
cross surrounded 
by dots in centre. 








Ai. Wt. 17-2. 






[PI. ^ 


V. 8.] 







OFFA. 



27 



15 



Obverse. 



16 



17 



18 



(Dots.) 



Similar bust r 
dress varied. 



+G S3 HV WN Similar 
(Dots). type ; the 

small cross with 
dots (.-.) in each 
angle. 
[PI. V. 9.] M. Wt. 18-2. 



0FF7X REXTERCIORW 

Bust r., hair simply 
plaited round 
head. 



+ E AL TW NO 

(Dots). Lozenge- 

shaped compart- 
ment; in centre, 
floral ornament. 
m. Wt. 15-8. 



[PI. V. 10.] 



eSLRT^GO Bust r., dia- 
demed ; dots in 
field. 



(Dots). 



[PI. V. 11.] 



within four limbs 
of a cruciform 
pattern, having 
cross in centre 
with dot in each 
angle, and floral 
ornaments be- 
tween limbs. 
3i. Wt. 18-0. 



+0FFS REX+ Undraped 
(Dots). bust r., 

diademed or with 
hair simply plait- 
ed, as on No. 16 ? 



ES IL VR LO Cruciform 
(Dots). pattern 

composed of one 
large circle and 
four smaller ovals ; 
in centre of circle 
floral ornament 
(Comp. No. 12). 
M. Wt. 181. 



[PI. V. 12.] 



19 



20 



21 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Eadhun, or 
Eadmund ? 



Ealmund. 



Ealred. 



ESelwald. 



IBBT^L Bust r., diademed; 
(Dots). cross behind and 

another above 

head. 



O £. (Comp. No. 17). Cross 
R T flory, voided in 

centre, contain- 
ing cross with dot 
in each angle. 
m. Wt. 20-7. 



[PI. V. 13.] 



OFF7\ R Bust r., dia- 

EX (Dots). demcd. 



+1 B B S 

(Dots). 



[PI. V. 14.] 



OFF2S Similiir ; 

REX (Dots), dress varied. 

[PI, V. 15.] 



+1 B B x;; 



Same type. 
Ai. Wt. i6-7. 



M. Wt. 16-5. 



Ibba. 



28 



MEROIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


22 


+©FFA+X3a+ Bustr., 

(Dots). draped 

and diademed. 


+L H LL S Four bosses 
(Dots). surrounded 
by dotd between 
letters of inscr. ; 
in centre, floral 
ornament, as on 
No. 12. 

m. (thrice pierced). Wt 202. 


LuUa. 




[PL VI. 1.] 






23 


+ 0FFA REX+ Similar; 
bust imdruiied. 

[PI. VI. 2.] 


I) 


"m. Wt.'lG-5. 




24 


OF FA RE XX Undrapcd +LWLL71 as before. Simi- 
(Dots). bust r., liir type; lloral 
hair unbouud, oriiament varied, 
within lozenge- a\. \Vt. lG-8. 
shaped compart- 
ment having cross 
at each angle. 

[PI. VI. 3.] 




25 


0FFA4-REX Draped bust 
r. ; on each side 
long cross. 

[PI. "y 


OE »E 

^I. 4.] 


LR EO Cross 
with smaller 
crosses at ends 
of limbs, voided 
and containing 
quatrefoil and 
circle combined 
in centre. 

M. Wt. 18-5. 


OeSclrcd 
[ESelred?] 


2G 


-fOFFA REX+ r.ustr., 
(Dots). draped. 


PE H VA LO in circular 
.'spaces between 
limbs of a cruci- 


Penwald, 
Wenwald, or 
Wehwald. 








form figure, on 






[PI. ^ 


\L 5.] 


which is an or- 
namental cross 
llory. 

A\. Wt. HO. 




21 


OFFS REX on two bands; 

(Dots). between Uiem, 

a 8er])cnt coiled. 

JJust r., drapetl, 

hairmuch plaited. 

[I'l. ) 


-fREN 
ORED 
(Dots). 

a. c] 


In centre, oblong 

compartment 
within which two 
Berjjents inter- 
twined. 

Ai. Wt. lG-7. 


IteudroJ. 



OFFA. 



29 



28 



+0FF7\ REX+ Bustr. 



[PI. VI. 7.] 



+a a V [for DVD?] 
(Dots). Four bosses sur- 
rounded by dots 
between letters of 
inscr., as No. 22 ; 
in centre, cross 
witliin circle. 
M. Wt. 17-0. 



29 



30 



+OFF7\ REX+ 
(Dots). 



Bust r., 
draped. 



o m 



[PI. VI. 8.] 



U U 5 Cross flory, 
voided in centre, 
containing double 
cross. 

m. Wt. 16-7. 



OFF7X R Bust r. 
EX curled. 
(Dots). 



hair 



O _E 
RT 
(Dots). 



[PI. VI. 9.] 



Within four limbs 
of a cruciform 
pattern, having 
cross in centre 
and trefoil orna- 
ments between 
limbs. (Comp. 
No. 17.) 

m. Wt. 17-8. 



Mint. Muneyer. 
Udd [Dud?] 



Wino^ ? 



No moneycr. 



Second Series. 



31 



32 



33 



Coins without head or bust. 



■T\+ 



RE X Square 
compartment; on 
each side of which 
a branch divid- 
ing the legend. 



C H 



[PI. VI. 10.] 



0~ F Legend divided by 
R A cross; numerous 
dots in field. 



+ALH 



[PI. VI. 11.] 



^ _E Cross flory, voided 



R T 



and witli © and 
four dots in centre; 
numerous dot.s. 



+ 
S L H 
M 14N 

O 



[PI. VI. 12.] 



V I/I • Hexngram, 
in the centre and 
at eacli point of 
which a pellet 
surrounded by 
dots. 

M (fragment). 



MVHD Cross, 
with dots in 
angles ; numerous 
dots in field. 
M -65 Wt. 19-5. 



divided and en- 
cloijed by double 
anclior pattern ; 
numerous dots. 
Ai C") Wt. 19-0. 



Alcmund [or 
Alhmund.] 



30 



MERCIA. 



No. 



3i 



35 



3G 



37 



89 



40 



41 



Obverse. 



O -E Cross llory, voided 
R T and witli iind 

foui'dotsiiiccntiv; 

nuniL'ious dot.s. 



fOFFAREXT Double 
(Dots). circle, 

inner of dots, en- 
closing pellet. 



+ 
7^ L H 
M UN 

ID 



divided and cn- 

closid by double 
niichnr pattern ; 
numerous dots. 



Ai (pierced) 7 Wt. 16-2. 



BSBBS between two lines; 
above OTO, be- 
low XX ; dots. 
Si -75 Wt. 19-5. 



[PL VI. 13.] 



"T On eitlier side of 
OFFZS T, triangle; lines 
•i<REX dividing legend. 



4-0 FF 7\R EX Quatre- 
(Dots). foil over 

which a cross 
having limbs ter- 
minating in loops. 



M -8 Wt. 11-5. 



+B7\H in two lunettes, 
HARD a double cross 

between. 

m -65 Wt. 17-7. 



[PI. VI. 14.] 



T Dotted lines l)e- 
-fOFFS tween ; dots in 
REX field. 



-fBESi 
NEARO 
(Dots). 



[PI. VI. 15.] 



in two lunettes; 
traces of double 
cross. 
m -75 Wt. 19-7. 



-fO FF 7^R EX Round- 

(Dots). limbed cross, 

leaf - shapes in 

four angles; all 

with dots within. 



+ Beq 

HARO 



[PI. VI. IG.] 



OF FA (Dots). Floriated 
REX line between lines 
of legend ; dots. 



-f- 
+ O 
U D 

+ 



in two lunettes ; 
two long cro:5sos 
coimccted by dot- 
ted line between. 
m -05 Wt. 18-0. 



Floriated line 
dividing legend 
(as Obv.) ; nu- 
merous dots in 
iield. 
m •(•.5 Wt. 191. 



[PI. VII. 1.] 



O F (Dots). Cross cross- 
R T l<t voiiled, and 

with rcsctte of 
diits in ccntic'. 



GAD 
BERH 

Ten 



(Dots). Dolled 
liTies between 
liiK H of legend. 
M OS Wt. l8-(). 



|i']. VII. 2] 



Mint. Moncycr. 



Alcmund [or 
Alhnuuid]. 



Babba. 



Beanncard. 



Beagnard 
[Beannard ?] 



Du.l. 



Kadberht. 



OFFA. 



31 



No. 



42 



43 



44 



45 



4G 



Obverse. 

[O] _E Cross crosslct 
[R] T voided, and with 

rosette of dots in 

centre. 

OF FS (Dots). Lozenge- 
X3 fl+ 



sljapcd compart 
ment, in which 
circle enclosing 
quatrcfoil with 
trefoils between 
leaves. 

[PI. VII. 3.] 



Reverse. 



[E]SD Dotted lines bc- 
[B]ERH tween lines of 
[Tjer legend. 

M (fragment). 



E2JD 

BERN 

TGP 



(Dots). 
M -GS 



Wt. 18-3. 



T 

+OFFZt 
REX 



Similar to • EALHTVND (Dots). 
No. 38. Small open cross 

in centre. 
M (much broken). 
[PI. VII. 4.] 



47 



48 



Dotted compartment with € 
long cross through it B A 
(standard type as in 
No. 1 [Pcada].) In com- 
partment OF FS ; be- 
low, R T" ; numerous 
dots. 

[PI. VII. 5.] 



(Dots). Cross 

voided in centre 
and having cross 
of dots within ; 
limbs ending in 
broken circles. 
m -7 Wt. 17-8. 



[PI. VII. G.] 



€ B S Cross voided in 
centre, having 
small cross with- 
in; limbs of large 
cross ending in 
triangles ; nu- 
merous dots. 
M -05 Wt. 18-2. 



+ FF T^R EX Plain 
cross having 

quafrefoil over it ; 
numerous dots. 



[PI. VII. 7.] 



E O (Dots) in four circles 
A a joined by lines ; 

in centre, cross 
with dots in 
angles; between 
circles, trefoils. 
m -7 Wt. 15 0. 



T 

+OFF7^ 
REX 



Linos between 
legend as on 
No. 35 (rev.) ; 
numerous dots 
in field. 



EpEL 
NOt> 



[PI. VII. 8.] 



(Dots). Oblong 
compartment 
with bi-lobed 
ends between 
lines of legend ; 
pellets within it; 
ilots in field. 
Ai -75 Wt. 21-7. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Endberht. 



Ealhmund. 



Eoba. 



ESeluoTi. 



32 



MERCIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Ueverse. 


Mint. iMoneyer. 


49 


T Botweon liins 


EpEL 


(Dots) within com- 


E<5eluo8. 




+OFFZt of legend, Hues 


NOP 


jmrtment sliapcd 






REX of (lols, a3 in 




like Bceofian 






No. 38 ; nume- 




sliiold ; a cross at 






rous dots in field. 




each side joined 
by dots. 








M -75 Wt. 190. 






[n. VII. 0.] 






50 


OFFS in two lunettes; 


Ep>EL 


(Dots). Cross above 






REX between, two 


NOP 


and below; double 






crosses coiuiectcd 




anchor pattern 






by dotted line. 




between lines of 

legend. 

Ai 05 Wt. 18-8. 






[PI. VII. 10.] 






51 


^0 FF AR EX in angles 


hE -R 


E* R in circular 


Heagr, or 




of plain cross 




spaces between 


Hearer ? 




with quatrefoil 




limbs of cruci- 






in centre ; nu- 




form figiu'c (as in 






merous dots. 




Sceatfas Type 14 
rev.) in centre of 
which is an orna- 
mental cross. 
m -7 Wt. 17-8. 






[PI. VII. 11.] 






52 


.-. T .-. Dotted lines 


-f L H L in compnrt- 


Lulla. 




-FOFFA between lines 




mcnts of quar- 






REX of legend. 




tered quatrefoil. 
Tlireo pellets in 
each outer cusp, 
and numerous 
dots within. 
M -8 Wt. 21-3. 






[PI. VII. 12.] 






53 


T Plain linos be- 


OSMOD (Dots) between 


Osmod. 




»}<OFFA tween legend; 




two lines ; orna- 






REX dots in field. 




ments a)x)ve and 

below. 

ill -75 Wt. 14-7. 






[Pi. VII. 13.] 






54 


+ FF 7\R EX between 
limbs of cross 
botonnco over 
wliich is a smaller 
cross of same 
kind. 

[PI. V 


O SM 
[I. 11] 


between limbs 
of cross botonnt'o 
voided in centre; 
numerous dots, 
ill GS Wt. 18-8. 





* Or tJ. 



CYNETHRY©. 



33 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


55 


T 


(the T has a 


RE G 


Nl HT on limbs of 


Regniht. 




+ OF FIX. 


long limb divid- 




cruciform figure 






REX 


ing the word 
below) ; dotted 
lines between; 
dots in field. 




fcomp. No. 51), 
having double 
square in centre, 
and four dots in 
each space be- 
tween limbs. 
m -8 Wt. 21-1. 








[PI. VII. 15.] 






56 


T 


Dotted lines 


^UU 


(Dots). Compart- 


Wino«. 




+ OFF^t 


between lines 


ONI 


ment with bi- 






REX 


of legend ; dots 
in field. 




lobed ends between 
lines of legend, 
having dots with- 
in it, as No. 48. 
M -7 Wt. 19-5. 








[PI. VII. 16.] 






57 


)> 


„ 


UU8 

INO 


Same type. 
M -7 Wt. 19-1. 




58 


T 




[V]VJ 


Two crosses con- 






+OFF}K 




nos 


nected by dotted 






[REX] ■ 






line between lines 
of legend. 
M (fragment) -7. 

[PI. VII. 17.] 





CYNETHRY©. 

Widow of Offa, 796. 

Moneyer. 
Eoba. 



50 



60 



61 



€OB« (Dots). Bust r., 
hair in long curls; 
behind head, long 
cross. 

[PI. VIII. 1.] 

GOBT^ ; no cross behind 
head. 



+eyne<SryS REGINTX 

(Dots). In centre, witluu 
double circle, T ; 
dots. 
M -65 Wt. 17-4. 

„ _ reg'ntx 

T within single 

circle. 

m -65 Wt. 15-9. 



EOBR ; no cross. 



[PI. VIII. 2] 

-fCYNEDRYS RESIN 

T within single 
circle. 
SI -7 Wt. 19-7. 
[PI. vm. :i] 



Eoba. 



34 



MERCIA. 



COENWULF (CENWUIiF). 
A.D. 700— A.D. 822. 



Moneyers. 
Soi' note ou p. 25. 



Sahha. 

BoonifrcTi [I}iomfri<5, &c.]. 

Cfolboald. 

Ciollicunl [Ceolhcanl, &c.]. 

Deal la [Dcc.la, &c.]. 

Di(ir[mo(li = Diormod]. 

Diormod. 

Duda. 

Dun. 

Ealhstan. 

Eama. 

Eaumund. 

Ecgberht 

Edtfotr ? 

Elhun l=Elmu7ifW]- 

Elnmnd [ = AIchmHiid-?^. 

Eoba [Eaba = Oba ?]. 



E^elmod [=ET5elno? ?]. 

Ilereberht. 

Huntaell 

Ludoman [Ludaman]. 

Lul. 

Oba [=Eoba?] 

Fendivine [ Wt^iidwitu-']. 

Sigeberht [iScberht, &c.]. 

Sigestef. 

Sweflieard [Swefneard]. 

Tidbearht. 

Weriicard, [Wcrmeard, Werheard.] 

Wigherd [Withard ?]. 

Wilhun. 

Withard [Withed, Witncrd ?]. 

Wintrcd[= Withard?]. 

Wodel. 



First Series. 
Coins with head or bust. 



No. . 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


62 


"i^LOENVVLF REX T 

Bust r., diademed. 


►I^BIORNFREB TONETA 

Cross flory of pecu- 
liar form ; dot in 
centre. 
M -8* Wt. 21-7. 

[Comp. PI. VIII. IC] 


BiorufriS. 


C3 


+ QOENVVLF REX T 

Head r., diademed. 


+ B O T R E D (Dots). 
In centre, within 
circle, diamond 
compartment quar- 
tered diagonally, 
joined to circle by 
lines from centre 
of bides ; dots. 
M Wt. 21-8. 

II. 4.] 


Botrcd. 


C4 


+EOENVVLF REX T 

I'fuM r., laureate. 

[PI. V 


CeOLBeALO Cro.ss, dot 
in each angle. 
M -75 Wt. 200. 
[II. 5.] 


Ceolbcald. 



* The MC of tlio ciiiiis ill tliist series varies ijotween -8 in. and -SS, cxcapt in tlio few cases 
specillcd. 



COENWULF. 



35 



Xo. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


G5 


+LOENVVLF REX T 

Bust r. 


DERL LRMO NETT^ 

Circlti from which 
spring three cros- 
ses dividing the 
legend ; within 
circle, cross cross- 
let, with dots in 
angles. 

M Wt. 21-8. 

[PI. VIII. 6.] 


Dealla. 


C6 


,, Bust r., diademed. 


't'DESLLS M0NET7\ 

No crosses dividing 
legend, nor dots 
in angles of cross 
crosslet. 

M Wt. 20-5. 




G7 


)i )) >i 


MONETR 

In centre cross cross- 
let over St. An- 
drew's cross pcm- 
mee.* 

M Wt. 21-7. 






~ 


[PI. VIII. 7.] 




G8 


)> » )j 


►I<DIORTOD <T0NET7^ 

Cross flory as No. 62. 
M Wt. 21-8. 


Diormod. 


G9 


>> )) )) 


)> >> 

Cross moline. 
m Wt. 19-5. 




70 


„ no diadem. 


-I-DVN T0NET7\. Cross 
crosslet ; dot in 
each angle. 

m Wt. 22-0. 


Dun. 


71 


,, Bust r., diademed. 


►^E7\LH/T7XN TONETA 

Cross surrounded 
by crescents and 
wedges. 

[PI. VIII. 8.] 


Ealhstan. 


72 


+COENVVL F REX T 

no diadem. 


-fEAhHZTTXN T0NET7X 

Cross crosslet. 
M Wt. 18-7. 





" Botone." Hawkins, S.C, Uud eil., p. 40. 



D 2 



36 



MERCIA. 



No. 



Kevcrsc. 



Mint. Muncycr. 



74 



75 



7G 



77 



«i<IIOENVVLF REXT 
Bust r., diademed. 



no diadem. 



Bust r., diademed. 



78 



79 



80 



^OEUVVLF REX T 

Budt r., diademed. 



►i«COENVVLF REXT 
biime type 



^ L V L in the four com- 
jjurtments of a 
quatrefoil, enclos- 
ed in circle aTid 
having dots in 
outer cu.sps. 

M Wt. 21 -O. 

[PI. vm. 9.] 

Similar, m -75 Wt. 18-5. 



OB7\ TON ETA Legend 
divided by three 
crosses springing 
from circle in 
centre ; within 
circle, cross mo- 
line. 
M -75 Wt. 210. 

[PI. VIII. 10.] 

OBA TON ETA in 

centre eight-foil. 
M Wt. 22-2. 

[PI. VIII. 11.] 

*OBA«i<TON>i^ETA 

Cross with loaf in 
each angle. 

M Wt. 21-8. 

[PI. VIII. 12.] 



►^SEBERITI TONETA 

(Dot) Cross with wedges 

in angles (cross 

pommeo over cross 

pattt'e). 

m -7 Wt. 200. 



•JhSltlESTEF TONET 
In centre 7^ 
JR Wt. 16-8. 

[PI. VIII. 13.] 



Lul. 



Oba, or 
Eoba. 



Sebcrht. 



Sigeslef. 



"t-SWEFHERD MOHETA, Swefberd. 
Cross I'ourehee, wi 111 
dots in angles. 
ill Wt. 22-3. 
[I'l. Vlir. M.] 



COENWULF. 



37 



+ [:OENVVLF REXT 

Same type. 



Var : no division in legend. 
Same. 



OENVVLF RE-- 

Same type. 



SimUar. EOENVVLF, &c. 



Reverse. 



•t'TIDBEARH' TONETK 

Cross flory as on 
No. G2. 

M Wt. 21-7. 

[Compare PI. VIII. 16.] 

T0NET7X 

M Wt. 20-3. 

•i^TIDESRHT M0NET7X 

Same type. 
M Wt. 18-5. 

•i^TIDBE - H" TONETT^ 

Qua trefoil. 

M (fragment). 



>i<VERhESRDI TONETS 
Cross ijommee over 
cross pattee. 
m -75 Wt. 21-0. 
[PL VIII. 15.] 

i<[>ERI-ESRDI TO NETS 
Cross tiory as on 
No. 62. 

M Wt. 21-2. 
[PI. VIII. 16.] 



legend undivided. 



«^f>ERHEaRD M0NET7\ 

Same type. 

M Wt. 21-3. 



legend divided. ^P>ER|-E7^RD1T0NETA 

Cross moline with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 20-5. 
[PI. VIII. 17.] 



+COENVVCC R€XT 

lliiad r., diiukmud. 



►I^PINTRED (Dot.-;). 

Tribrach with dots 
in each angle. 
M -75 Wt. 21-2. 
[PI. VIII. 18.] 



+ COEHVVLF REX T 

lleiul r., diudLiiied. 



p>l Ht R ED Lozenge- 
shaped compart- 
ment from angles 
of which spring 
crosses dividing 
the legend ; cross 
in centre. 

M Wt. 22-5. 



Miut. Moneyer. 



Tidbearht. 



Werueard. 



Wintred. 



38 



MERCIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Money er. 


91 


+LOENVVLF REX T PO E L+ Similar 
Head r. diademed ; type, cross of dots 
traces of bust. iu centre. 

[PI. VIII. 19.] Si -75 Wt. 18-2. 


Wodcl. 



92 



93 
94 

95 

9G 



97 



98 



99 



Second Series. 
Coins without head or bust. 



»i-COENVVLF REX 

(Dots). Iu cuutre T 



„ (No dots). 



^EOENVVLF 
(Dots). 



O (Dot) 



COEHVVLF 
(Dot). 



+COENVVLF 

(Dc.ts). 



CIOL HS RD Tribrach 
moliiic, voided, 
dividing the le- 
gend ; dots in 
field. 

Ai* Wt. 13-3. 



D VD A (Dots). 

M Wt. 19-5. 



SI Wt. 18-0. 



ESN TV ND „ 

Si (Pierced). Wt. 19-2. 



►t'E OB Zt Tribrach mo- 
liuc composed of 
three lines to each 
limb ; dots in 
each angle. 

m Wt. 19-8. 
[PI. IX. 1.] 

Ep EL MOD Tribrach 

as ill No. 92; uu- 

I merous dots in 

I field. 

[PI. IX. 2.] Si Wt. 21-0. 



COENVVLF(Dot) 



T Broken LVDO 

COENVVL dotted TAH 

REFX lines be- 

tween legend ; 
dots in field. 

[PI. IX. 3.] 



flmall circle in 
each angle of tri- 
brach. 

SI Wt. 20-0. 



wilhin eoiii])Uit- 
ineiit shaped 
somewhat like 
Bdjofiaii shield ; 
dots in field. 

Si Wt. 21-2. 



Ciolhard. 



Duda. 



Eanmuuc 



Eoba, or 
Oba. 



E?.elmod. 



Ludomaii. 



* The size of tlie coins in tbi.-i scries is •75--8 in. 



COENWULF. 



39 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


100 
101 


^COENVVLF REX 

(Dot). In centre T. 
Similar to No. 92. 

+EOENVVLF REX „ 


Siq EBE RFT Tribrach 
moline, voided, 
dividing the le- 
gend ; pellet in 
each angle. Si- 
milar to No. 92. 
m Wt. 17-1. 

VV I3H SRD 

M Wt. 197. 


Sigeberht. 

Wighard [or 
Withard ?]. 



There can be no doubt that many of the coins of both Offa and Coenwulf were 
struck at Canterbury. This may be affirmed with most certainty with regard to 
the coins of the above scries bearing the type of the trihracJi, which probably 
represents the Archiepiscopal ^)«?i. See Num. Chron. N.S. vol. v. p. 351 seqq. 
(J. Evans), and 3rd S. vol. ii. p. 61 seqq. (J. Evans), and Introduction. 



40 



MERCIA. 



CEOLWULF I. 

A.D. 822— .\.D. 823 OR 82i (Deposed). 





Moneyers. 




See note on p. 25. 


^Ihun [ = Almuml, &c. ?]. Edtfotr. 

CeolbaM. E?ielno« [ESclraod]. 

CeoVieard. Hcreberlit. 

Deeding. Oha [ = Eoha ?]. 

Dimii. Bihelt [= Rimld ?]. 

JDiinuic. Sigestef. 

Eactu [= Eucsta ?] Wtrbold [WprbuKl]. 

Ead-ar ? Wcrtni^ [or PertuiS?]. 

Eallistaii. Wodcl. 

Eanwulf [Eoinvulf ]. 


First Series. 


Coins icith head or bust. 


Ko. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


102 


•i^CIOLVVLF REXT 

Bust r., diademed. 


*DVNN TONETA In 
Centre •'•^•'• 


Dunn. 




M* '\\'^.21-5. 
[PI. IX. 4.] 




103 


+CEOLVVLF REX T „ 
[PI. 1 


^EAEZ'V TOnE^-A 

Cross crosskt ; 
around, eight dots. 
M Wt. 21-8. 
X. 5.] 


Eactu. 


104 


+A«EONULF REX „ 
(Kudc letters.) 

[PI. I 


+ E A D Two long crosses, 
SVR nioliue at base ; 
(Rude cross and numc- 
letteis). rous dots be- 
tween ; the whole 
dividing legen<l. 
m Wt. 20-4. 
X. 6.] 


Eadgar ? 
[Sec also 
No. 111.] 


105 


^EIOLVVLF REXT-i^ 

[PI. I 


"fEALhKTAN TONETA 
Cross ; around four 
crescents and 
four dots. 

M Wt. 20-5. 
X. 7.] 


Ealhstan. 


106 


^'EIOLVVLF REXT „ 


•i^EALI-KlAN TOhET 
In centre A. 
JR W). in-T. 






• .Size f 


-85 In. 





CEOLWULF I. 



41 



No. 



107 



108 



109 



110 



111 



Obverse. 



•MIIOLVVLF REX T 

Bust r., diademed. 



+CEOLVVLF REXT „ 



Heverse. 



E7\N 

AALFTO 

ISETV 

(Dots). 



Lines between 
legend with 
crooks, one at 
r., the other at 
1. end. 
M Wt. 21-2. 



HER 
+393 
-LHy 



[PI. IX. 8.] 



Similar type, lines 
with crooks at 
both ends. 

M Wt. 21-0. 



+EELVVLF REX T 



f>ER Dots in field. 
BSLD M Wt. 19-2. 

TONE 



+ 
PERt 



[PI. IX. 9.] 



(Dots). Lines 
with bent ends 
between legend. 
M Wt. 19-6. 



EEOLVVLb + REXT 



Two long crosses on three 
legs, sideways ; between 
them, St. Andrew's cross. 
Above [E] >^ CO, below 

GAZ m Wt. 170. 



[PI. IX. 10.] 



struck at Canterbury (Dorobernia). 



112 



•J-EIOLVVLF REX TEI 



•l^DOROBREBIA CIBI 
T 
In centre -{ V 
+ 
(for DOROBERNIA 
CIVI-TAS) 
M Wt. 21-3. 
[Pi. IX. 11.] 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Eanvvlf. 



Hereberht. 



Werbald. 



Wcrtni^, or 
Pertni^ ? 



Uncertain, 
[Eadgar ?] 



Canterbury. 



113 



Second Series. 

Coin without head or bust. 

Struck at Canterbury (Dorobernia). 

+ EIOLVVLFREXMERCI ►t.SIGESTEF DORO- 

Lougcross, oneither I BERNIA Cross crosslet. 

side of which CR V I ^^ ^^'*- ^l^- 

[PI. IX. 12.] 



Canterbury. 
SiKostef. 



42 



MERCIA. 



BEORNWULF. 

A.D. 823 OR 824— A.D. 825. 



Moneyers. 
See note on p. 25. 



Juulicas [Eadwar for Eadgar ?]. 
Eucssta [= Eadii?'}. 



E«onn« [= E«clnoS ?]. 

HIouixi. 

Worljiild. 



No. 



114 



115 



Obverse. 



+BEORNp>VLF REX 
(Dots). Bust r., diademed. 



+BEORNf>VLF REX 

Bust r., no diadem. 



"i«Ef>ONOp> TONET* 

Cross crosslet. 
m -85 Wt. 19-2. 



t>ER 
BALD 
TOHE 



[PI. IX. 13.] 



Ai -75 Wt. 22-2. 



Mint. Moncycr. 



E^ono'ft, or 
Eaduo^? 



Wcrbald. 



LUDICAN. 

A.D. 825, SLAIN SAME YEAU. 

Moneyers. 
Eadcar [Eudgar]. Eadno^. 



Werhald. 



IIG ■i-LVDIEAR«I< HEf I ►^EADHOp> TOHET 

Bust r., diademed. Cross crosslet. 

' Ai -8 Wt. 22-7. 

[PI. IX. 14.] 



Eaduo"8. 



WIGLAF. 

A.D. 825. Deposed 829? Restored 830-839. 
Moneyers. 



Ilunnod. 



Red m and. 



117 



^VVItLAF REX T 
(Dots). Small cross 

with dots in 
angles. 



D D ami h in two 

4-REDTA luiiijtt(rtof(lot.s, 

h witli pellets on 

eitlur side. 

s. -8 Wt. 25-7. 



Itedmand 



[PI. IX. 15.] 

* If tlic reailiiin Ik: EADNOP •'"' iiuiin" ol'tlie muncyer is EudiiulS. Q is souietiiucs written 
f'T Di e.'^pprially on rnin.s of KiikI Aiinliu. 

t 'i'lie R and H ( = N) a]>iiarcntly traii.'^poscd. 



BERHTWULF. 



43 



BERHTWULF (BEORHTWULP). 

A.D. 839— A.D. 853. 

Moneyers. 
See note on p. 25. 



Brid. 

Byrnwald [Biiruwald]. 

Deneheab [Denemean, Denehean ?]. 

Eadwald. 

Eanhald. 

Eanna [Eana]. 

Eanrald. 



Liaba. 

Oswulf. 

Sigelicah. 

Tatel. 

Wigeheah [^Wigehean, Sigeheah ?]. 

Wine. 



FiKST Series. 
With bust. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


118 


BERHTVLF REX 

Bust r., diademed. 


•i^BRID TONETS 

Cross crosslet. 
M* Wt. 19-3. 


Brid. 


119 


[PI.: 


„ TOl/IETS „ 

M Wt. 17-3. 
^. 1.] 




120 


[PI.: 


^BVRNVV?^LD Cros3 
with annulet in 
each angle. 

M Wt. 19-5. 
X.2.] 


Byrnwald, or 
Burnwald. 


121 


HT 

[PI.: 


,, Cross having two 
limbs crosslet. 
M Wt. 17-5. 

L3.] 




122 


H" „ "i^BVRNVT^LD In centre 

A Ai Wt. 19-7. 
[PI. X. 1.] ^ 




123 


BERfl-VVI „ 


■ BVRNVVA • • Cross 
potent. 

M (fragment). 




121 


BERITVVLF REX „ 


't'DENENEAH Cross 
crosslet voided in 
centre. 

M Wt. 19-3. 


Deneheab. 



* The size of tlic coins nf this series is from -S-'So in. 



44 



MEKCIA. 



Obverse. 



125 



126 



127 



128 



129 



130 



131 



132 



133 



131 



135 



BERHTVLF REX 

Bust r., diiuk'iUL'd. 



Kcvcrso. 



Mint. IMuneycr. 



HhDENEHESH Cross, 

Iwu limbs ending 
in crosslcts, two 
moline, or ending 
inT 

M Wt. 20-3. 



[PI. X. 5.] 



BERHTVVLF REX 



BERHTVVLF REX 



-i.DENEI-E7^H 
Ai (two fragments joined). 



ESHHA TOI/IETT^ 

Cross crosslet over 
quutrefoil. 

M Wt. 20-2. 
[PI. X. C] 

»i<EA>I^m^7X T Cross 
moline. 

M Wt. 19-3. 



►i<LI7XB7^ TNO Cross 

crosslet, voided 
in centre. 

M Wt. lG-5. 

^LIT^BT^ TONET: 

Cross, voided in 
centre, with an- 
nulet in each 
angle. 

M Wt. lG-2. 



BERHTVLF REX 

liu.st r., diademed. 



BERKTVLF REX 



•J-BERITVLF REX 



BERHTVLF REX 



+0'^VVLF T 

Cross crosslet. 
M Wt. 187. 



►i-A/iEEHEAH 

Same type. 
M Wt. 17 0. 

,, Cross with dots in 
angles, three in 
iirst <iiiaiter, one 
in otlicrs. 

Ai Wt. 19-9. 

,, Cross, annulet in 
each angle. 

Si Wt. 19-2. 

A kind fif er<^isH 
ionrehc'e. 

m Wt. 18-2. 



Deneheah. 



Eanna. 



Liaba. 



Oswulf. 



Sigchcah. 



BEEHTWULF. 



45 



136 



137 



138 



Obverse. 



•J-BERKTVLF REX T 

Bust r.. diademed, 
dividiug legend. 



•l</vlEEHESH 

„ lu centre^ 

M Wt. 237. 



[P]. X. 7.] 



BERHTVLF REX „ 

legend undivided. 



BERITVLF REX 



►i<5IEEHE7XH J^ 

M (Ijioken). 

•i^VVINE TONNE 

Cross crosslct. 
M (broken). 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Sigeheali. 



Wine. 



Second Series. 
Without head or bust. 



139 +BERHTVVLF REX T 

Cross potent over 
plain cross. 



+TATEL MONETA 

Cross potent. 
M Wt. 22-3. 



[PI. X. 8.] 



Tatel. 



46 



MEEOIA. 



BURGRED (BURHRED). 

A.D. S53 — A.D. 87-1, DEP. ; DIED SAME YEAR. 

Moiieyers. 



Sec note on p. 25. 



Adhclm [Aldhclm]. 

BeaciUa [liecujUii]. 

Beagstan. 

Bearuefth [= Betinncah?]. 

Berhtel. 

Bernred. 

Bhlghlm ? 

BidrmcuJf I for Diarwulf ?]. 

Biorao<S i- Uiorno'&, Diorniod ?]. 

Bhhfla '? 

Con red [Ceinred]. 

CeSelwulf. 

Ce«liaf[ = Ce«clwulf?]. 

Ciallaf [CeoUaf]. 

Cunclielm. 

Cu^berht. 

Cu^helm. 

CuSherc — Gu'fthere. 

Dcalge [= Dcalla, Dela?]. 

Dela. 

Dialinc [Dialing']. 

Diarwald. 

Diarwulf. 

Diga. 

Dudda [Duda]. 

Dudecil. 

Dudoman. 

Diulhelm [for Cii^Uelm ?]. 

Dudwine. 

Eadno<5. 

Ealdwulf. 

Eanred. 

Elfear. 



Et5ellioah. 

E^clwulf. 

Efiered. 

Framric. 

Guf<hehn = Cuf'hdm. 

Gu?ihoro [Gu^.ncrc, GunT'^cre = 

GimTicr?]. 
GuTfimund. 
Ilatwic. 

Ileawulf [Hewulf]. 
Hercfer%. 
IleremeVS. 

IL'icig [ = Heawulf ?]. 
lingered. 

Hiissa [Hassa, Ilucca]. 
Ilu^here [_— Gu%hcre ?]. 
Idiga. 
Inca. 
Lefla. 
Liafman. 
Liafwald. 
Lialla, 

Ludo [= Ludiga?]. 
Liidiga. 
Lulla. 
Mamman ? 
Messa. 
Osmund. 
Tata[= Tatcl?]. 
Tatel. 
Tidehelm. 
Wine. 
Wulfheard. 



Description of Types. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Type a. 

Bust r., diademed. Legend in three lines ; the 

upper and lower p(irtion8 
encloBcd in lunettes. 
Pyramids, &c., of dots 
in one or more of the 
spaces left by legend. 

[Com]., ri. X. it, 1.').] 



BURGRED. 



47 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




Tyj)e h. 






Bust r., diademed. Legend in three lines ; 

upper and lower portions 
enclosed in lunettes 
broken in centre of curve. 
Dots as before. 
[Comp. PI. X. 12.] 






Type c. 






[Comp. P 


Legend in three lines; 
upper and lower portions 
each enclosed between 
line with crook at each 
end and curve; forming 
lunette, liroken at the 
angles. Dots as before. 
1. X. 13.] 






Type d. 






[Comp. PI. 


Legend in three lines ; 
lines with crooks at each 
end between. Dots as 
before. 
X. 10, 14.] 





140 
141 
142 

143 

144 
145 
146 
147 
148 





(Type a.) 








BVRERED RE-X M 




MOH 

TXDhELM 

ETZS 


M 


Wt. lG-8. 


Adlielm. 


BVRGRED REX^ 




„ 


m 


Wt. 22-2. 




" 




MON 

T^DhLEM 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 17-2. 






(Type «.) 








BVRERED REX'T 




rMON 

BEAE^TA 

ET7^ 


M. 
M 


Wt. 21-0. 
Wt. 210. 


Bcagstan 


REX--!- 






Ai 
Ai 


Wt. 20-3. 
Wt. 20-6. 
Wt. 19-9. 




REX + 


m ^ 


^. 0.1 


Al 


Wt. 20-8. 





* The size of Iho coins in tliis series is from ■75--f( in. 



48 



MERCIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Jlint. Moneyer. 


149 


BVRERED REX^ 


{Typ 


,' a.) 

rMON 

BEAEiTZt 

ETA 


AX Wt. 17 0. 


Bcagstan. 


150 


REX" 




M 


M wt. 19-5. 




151 


n V 




l/MON 


M Wt. 21-2. 




152 


REX 




HVION 


M Wt. 19-3. 




153 


BVRGRED REX-«^ 


dTyi 


w h.) 

l/MON 

BEZfE^TA 

EJ-R 


m Wt. 18-2. 




154 


^BVRERED REX T 


{Tyi 


)e 0.) 

MON 

"I^BEARNE 

ETA 


m Wt. 20-3. 


Bcanioali 'i 


155 


BVRERED REX M 




rMOH 

BERhEXf 

ETA 


M Wt. 19-3. 




156 


REX-4< 




rMwN 

«J<BERI-EZt 

ETA 


Ki Wt. 20-3. 




157 


.< 




M 


M Wt. 21 3. 




158 


REX-»i« 




(rMON) 


M Wt. 200. 




159 


RE-X+ 




rMOH 

BERhEA 

ETA 


M Wt. 21-2. 




IGO 


REX"-;. 




rMON 
^BERhEA 
ETA 


A\ wt. 220. 




IGl 


REX" 




.. 


m Wt. 22 0. 




162 


REX 




rMOH 

BEARhEA 

ETA 


m Wt. 21-2. 




163 


.. 




(BERhEA) 


.It Wt. 17-8. 




1G4 


„ 




(4<BER|-EA)iii Wt. 19-2. 




165 


.i«BVRER T ED REX 


M^N 

►I-BERANh 

ETA 


/It Wt. 20-7. 





BURGEED. 



49 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


1G6 


BVRERO^EDREX- 


ye a.) 

hMON 

•i-BER7\N 

ETT^ 


M 


Wt. 20-6. 


Beani<>ah ? 


167 


•1-BVRERED REX 


„ 


M 


Wt. 21-2. 




168 


•i-BVRERED REX 


MON 

►I^BEVRN 

E.TA 


m 


Wt. 19-5. 




169 


BVREREDREX" 


MON 
BERLM 
ETZJ 


M 


Wt. 20-5. 




170 


BVRERED REX M 


MON 

BIORHOO 

ETZ5 


M 


Wt. 17-3. 


Biorao'S 
[Diormotl ?]. 


171 


BVRERED REX T 


MON 

CENRED 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 180. 


Cenred. 


172 


BVRERED REX M 


., 


M 


Wt. 19-7. 




173 


REX 


(ETrt) 


Si 


Wt. 22 0. 




174 


» 


„ 


m 


Wt. 20-8. 




175 


» 


» 


m 


Wt. 19-7. 




176 


„ 


M-^-N 

CENRED 

ET7\ 


m 


Wt. 18-5. 




177 


)i It 


MOH 

CEIWED 

ETTt 


ai 


Wt. 21-7. 




178 


{Tyi 
•I^BVRERED REX M" 


■>e c.) 

MON 

^CENRED 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 20-6. 




179 


REX M 


(M4-N) 


JR 


Wt. 18-2. 




180 


REX 


(MON) 


M 


Wt. 20-2. 




181 


"tBVRERED REX 


ed.) 

M«<N 

^CENRED 

ETA 


Jii 


Wt. 19-2. 





50 



MERClA. 



No. 



Reverse. 



Jlint. Moneyer. 



182 
183 



►fBVRGRED REX 
RE 



{Tijpe d.) 

►^CENRED 

ET7\ M Wt. 198. 

(MON) m. Wt. 1SV8. 
[I'l. X. 10.] 



(Type d, rcir : lines dotted on rev.) 
MON 



1S4 

185 
18G 



187 



188 



189 



190 



191 



192 
193 



^BVRERED REX 



BVRERED REX 



►I^CENRED 

ET;K Si Wt. 20-5. 



m Wt. 20-7. 



(CENRED) 



M "\Vt. 160. 



CFype c.) 

I LF MO 
4<BVRERED REX M~ I ^CECELLV 

I I ETA M Wt. 21-7. 

[PI. X. 11.] 1 

(Type c.) 

; MON 

^BVRERED REX T "^EEDLIAF 

ETA M Wt. 24-0. 



HhBVRGR ED REX" 

Bn«t (lividintr legend. 



(Type c.) 

FMON 

ETTt M Wt. 20-2. 



F MON 
•^BVRGRED REX ' ►I^EIALLA 

Legend undivided. ETA m Wt. 19-0. 



^BVRERED REX 



BVRERED REX T 



(Type d.) 

F MON 
►l-Cl^fLLA 

ETA Ai Wt. IS;-). 

(Type a.) 

MVION 
CVNEI-EL 

ETA ^i Wt. 20-0. 

/CVNEHE\ 

\ r) M Wt. is-.\ 



Coniod. 



CCfolwiilf. 

[for 
iErelwulf?] 



Ce'Sliaf = 
CoTiclwulf? 



Ciallaf. 



C'nnrliolm. 



BUEGRED. 



51 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


194 


•I<BVRERED REX- 


e a.) 

MVIXN 

CVNEhEL 

ET7S 


m 


Wt. 21-0. 


Cimehelm. 


195 


REX 


MVION 

CVNEhEL 

ET7S 


m 


Wt. 20-1. 




196 


BVRERED REX T 


MVION 

CVNEHL 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 19-5. 




197 


,, 


(ET7^) 


M 


Wt. 17-1. 




198 


REX- 


(ETA) 


M 


Wt. 19-7. 




199 


REX 


" 


M 


Wt. 18-7. 




200 


(.Tyi 
BVRERED REX- 


oe b.) 

MVION 

CVNEHL 

ET7X 


M 


Wt. 20-7. 




201 


(Typ 
BVRERED REX T 


e c.) 

MVION 

CVNEhEL 

ET7X 


m 


Wt. 18-6. 




202 


REX- 


MON 

CVNEHLM 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 19-8. 




203 


►i^BVRER ED REX- 

Bust dividing legend. 


M*N 

CVNEHLM 

ETA 


Si 


Wt. 207. 




204 


BVRERED REX 

Legend undivided. 


MON 

CVNEHL 

ETA 


Si 


Wt. 21-3. 




205 


BVRERED REX- 


e d.) 

MVION 
CVNEhEL 

ET7\ 


Si 


Wt. 19-3. 




206 


^BVRBRED REX T 


(IVNEHL) 


Si 


Wt. 2 10. 




207 


REX 


,, 


Si 


Wt. 201. 





E 2 



52 



MERCIA. 



No. 



lu'Yorsc. 



iSlint. Monoycr. 



208 



209 



210 



211 

212 
213 

214 



(Type d, nir.) 
BVRGREDREX" I MOH Dotkd lines 

Doul.lo circle en- CVl-EHLM above and 
clotfiuK head. 1 ETA below crooked 

lines. 
jR Wt. 20-6. 



BVRERED REX 



{Type a.) 

MON 

DEALGE 

ETA 



BVRERED REX 

Obverse very rude 



(Type a.) 

MON 

►l-DELA 

ETA 



M Wt. 20-5. 



m Wt. 18-3. 



BVRERD REX T 
BVRERED REX- 
RE T 



{Type a.) 

MON 

DIARVLF 

ETA 



M Wt. 211. 
„ m Wt. 21-5. 

(MXN) M Wt. 21-0. 



Cunehelm. 



Dealge. 



Dela. 



Diarwulf. 



LMON 

DI7XRVF 

ET7\ 



m Wt. 20-8. 



215 



216 



217 



218 



21D 



BVRERED RE T 



^BVRERED REX- 



(Type b.) 

MON 
DIARVLF 

ETA 3i Wt. 21-3. 

[PI. X. 12.] 

in Wt. 20-0. 



BVRERED REX T 



•i<BVRERED REX 



(Type c.) 

MON 

DIARVLF 

ETA 

MON 

DIARVL 

F ET7\ 

MON 

DIARVLF 

ETA 



Ai AVt. 18-4. 



ill Wt. 19-2. 



M Wt. ISl. 



BUKGEED. 



53 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




{Type d.) 








220 


BVRERED REX" 


MON 

DIARVLF 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 21-3. 


Diarwulf. 


221 


►I^BVRERED REX 


„ 


m 


Wt. 20-0. 




222 


>> )> 


(M^N) 


m 


Wt. 201. 




223 


>) )> 


FMON 

DIARVL 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 22-5. 




224 


BVRERED REX- 


IMWN 

DIARVLF 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 20-1. 






(Type a.) 








225 


BVRERED REX M 


MON 

^'DIEA 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 20-1. 


Diga. 


226 


REX-qp 


„ 


M 


Wt. 160. 




227 


RE T 


(MWN) 


m 


Wt. 21-2. 




228 


REX--!- 


(MON) 


m 


Wt. 20-6. 




229 


REX- 


j> 


M 


Wt. 20-7. 




230 


REX 


" 


m 


Wt. 20-8. 






(Type a.) 








231 


BVRERED REX T 


MON 

►I<DVDDA 

ETA 


ai 


Wt. 19-9. 


Dudda, or 
Duda. 


232 


REX 




m 


Wt. 20-0. 




233 


n 


„ 


m 


Wt. 19-3. 




234 


)) >i 


MON 

DVDDA 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 19-6. 






(Type b.) 








235 


BVRERED REX 


MON 

^DVDDA 

ETA 


Ai 


Wt. 2 16. 





54 



MERCIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




(Type c.) 










23G 


"^BVRGRED REX M" 
Bust dividing legend. 


MON 

►l^DVDDA 

ETA 


Si 


Wt. 22-8. 


Dudda, 
Duda. 


or 


237 


BVRGRED REX 


,, 


Si 


Wt. 211. 






238 


^BVRERED REX M" 


(►I-DVDA) 


M 


Wt. ISO. 






239 


REX 


„ 


M 


Wt. 20-7. 






240 


►i«BVRERTED REX 


M°N 

^DVDA 
ETA 


Ai 


Wt. 20-8. 










[PI. 


X. 13.] 








(Type d.) 










241 


^BVRGRED REX 


M^N 

yaaAQ 

ETA 


m 


Wt. 18-8. 






242 


REX- 


MON 

«1«DVDA 

ETA 


M 


W^ 220. 






243 


•i^BVRGR ED REX 

Bust dividing legeud. 


M»*N 
^DVDA 
ETA 


M 


Wt. 19-2. 






244 


» 


(MON) 


m 


Wt. 20-1. 






245 


^BVRGRED REX 

Legend undivided. 


(MON) 


M 


Wt. 18-7. 







24G 



(Type d, var : dotted lines between the crooked lines.) 
M°N 



BVRGRED REX- 



•I^DVDA 
ETA 



3i Wt. 19-3. 



The throe following coins are much more barbarous than the otlicr coins of 
thia type, and may be barbarous imitations of the time of the Danish invasion of 
Mercia. 



247 
248 



«1«BVRGR ED REX" 

Bust dividing legeud. 



(Type a.) 

MON 

+ DADA 

ETA 



Ai Wt. 21 0. 



(+DVDy) Ai Wt. 19-9. 



BURGRED. 



65 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




{Type d.) 






249 


BVRGR ED REX" 
Bust dividing legend. 


MON 

+ DVDA 

ETA 


m Wt. 191. 


Dudda, or 
Duda. 




[PI. X. 14.] 








{Type a.) 






250 


^BVRERED REX M 


MON 
^DVDECIL 
ETA* 


M Wt. 20-8. 


Dudeeil. 


251 


«I<BVRER ED REX M 
Bust dividing legend. 


(M'5'N)* 


M Wt. 21-7. 






{Type c.) 






252 


4^BVRE RED REX 

Bust dividing legend. 


LMON 

•i^DVDECI 

ETA 


m Wt. 22-3. 




253 


«i<BVRER ED REX- „ 


ILMO 
^DVDEE 
NETA 


M Wt. 221. 






{Type d.) 






254 


^BVRERED REX 


ILM^* 
►I<DVDEC 
NETA 


M Wt. 22-3. 




255 


„ 


LMON 

^DVDEC 

ETA 


m Wt. 21-3. 




25G 


„ 


" 


m. Wt. 21-6. 






{Type d.) 






257 


"I^BVRERED REX 


N MON 

DVDEMA 

ETA 


Ai Wt. 22-G. 


Dudeman. 


258 


„ 


(MNON) 


^v wt. 211. 






{Type a.) 






259 


BVRERED REX M 


MON 

DVDf>INE 

ETA 


M Wt. 2 10. 


Dud wine. 


2Gl> 


REX-T 




AX Wt. 180. 





Xos. 1250, 251 arc somewhat baibaious. 



56 


MERCIA. 




No. 


obverse. 


Kevcrsc. 


Mint. Moncj-er. 




(Type a.) 




261 


BVRERED RE-X T 


MON 
DVDF>INE 

ET« m Wt. 210. 


Dudwine. 


262 


REX'T 


(DVDINME) m Wt. 21-1. 




263 


REX 1 


(DVDplNE) m Wt. 19-6. 




264 


REX- 


(DVD|>INE) M Wt. 204. 




265 


REX 


m Wt. 211. 




266 


>> i> 


(DVDp>INE) M Wt. 20-5. 






{Type d.) 




267 


BVRERED REX- 


MWN 
DVOpiNE 

ETA m Wt. 19-3. 




268 


)) ») 


MON 
DVDF>NE 

ETA M Wt. 19-3. 






(Type a.) 




269 


BVRERED REX M 


M 8N 
EADNOO 

ETA M Wt. 23-2. 


EailuoTi. 


270 


REX 


(MON) Ai Wt. 20-8. 






(Type a.) 




271 


BVRGRED REX M 


MON 
^EADVLF 

ETA Ai Wt. 21-3. 


Einlwulf. 


272 


„ 


Ai Wt. 18-5. 




273 


nn 


(EADLVLF) 

ill Wt. 191. 




274 


REX'X 


(4-EADLVLF) 

M Wt 19-4. 




275 


REX 


MON 
EADVLF 

ETA Ai Wt. 17-8. 




;J76 


REX- 


MON 
EALDVLF 

ETA M Wt. 161. 




277 


i> )i 


(EADLVF) Ai Wt. 202. 





BURGRED. 



57 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



{Type a.) 



"J^BVRERED REX T 
REX 



«I<BVRERE D REX M~ 

Bust dividiu'T letrend. 



^BVRER ED REX- 
REX 



MON 
^EZfNRED 

ETZ5 M Wt. 22-3. 

(M^'H) m Wt. 21-2. 



DMON 

►J-ETXNRE 

ETZt 

DM>«*N 

ETSNRE 

E.Tlk 

MON 

EZSNRED 

ETA 



m Wt. 21-9. 



m Wt. 21-5. 



M Wt. 18-0. 



The four following coins arc barbarous. (See p. 54.) 





(Type a.) 








BVRER ED REX 

Buat dividiug legend. 


MON 

E7XNRED 

ET7X 


& 


Wt. 19-5. 




REX" 


" 


MON 

a3yNV3 

ET/X 


M 


Wt. 20-0. 




!> >) 


>) 


MON 

a33aNV3 

3T7X 


M 


Wt. 20-8. 




I) I> 


" 


MON 

a3flNA3 

ET7\ 


M 


Wt. 17-6. 






{Type a.) 








BVRGRED REX 




rMON 

EOELhEA 

ETA 


A\ 


Wt. 20-5. 


E^iellicab 




{Type a.) 








BVRERED REX M 


MON 

EOELVLF 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 17-4. 


E?>cl\vulf. 


REX 1 




„ 


m 


Wt. 17-3. 




REX 




)> 


Ai 


Wt. 186. 





Eanred. 



OS 


MERCIA. 








No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


'291 


BVRERED REX T 


C (1.) 

MON 

EOEVLF 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 18-2. 


Erelwuir. 


292 


T 


(EDELLAF) 

.at 


Wt. 18-8. 




293 


BVRERED REX 


)( h.) 

MON 

ECELVLF 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 19 8. 




294 


(Tyic 
•i^BVRGRED REX 


e c.) 

F MON 

"^EOELVL 

ETA 


Ai 


Wt. 220. 




295 


BVRERED REX T 


FMXN 

►l-EOELVF 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 19-5. 




296 


BVPOR-fED res: 


(F MOH) 


Ai 


Wt. 20-2. , 




297 


BVRERED REX 


KM-frUI 

EOELAEL 

ETA 


Ai 


Wt. 13-3. 




298 


iTyp 
^BVRERED REX 


. d.) 

FMON 
HhECELVL 
ETA 


Ai 


Wt. 220. 




299 


,. 


'• 


Ai 


Wt. 21-3. 




300 


{Typ 

►^BVRERED REX M~ 
Uubt dividiuy legend. 


e c.) 

EMON 

►l-FRAMRI 

ETA 


Ai 


Wt. 182. 


Frainiic. 


301 


(Typ 
BVRERED RE T 


e (1.) 

MON 

l5V€)hERE 

ETA 


Ai 


Wt. 19-8. 


fiuMicro or 
(JuT^iiere [for 
(JuiitlierV]. 


302 


RE T 


MON 

EVCHERE 

ETA 

.. l.V] 


Ai 


Wt. 20(;. 





BUKGEED. 



59 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



BVRERED REX 



REX~T 
REX T 



{Type a.) 

MOH 

EVOHERE 

ET7J 

(MO-N) 

MWN 

GYCF^RE 

ETA 

(MON) 

MOH 

EVDERE 

ET7S 



M "Wt. 20-7. 

m Wt. 18-0. 

M Wt. 21 0. 

M Wt. 20-5. 

M Wt. 21-3. 

M Wt. 19-2. 



BVRERED REX 



RE'X 



(Type c.) 

CV€)HERE 

ETA ai Wt. 17G. 

M4-N 
EVei-ERE 

ETA 3i Wt. IS -8. 



Gu?liere or 
Gu'Snere [tor 
Guntlier V]. 



(Typ 


3ff.) 








REX T 


MON 

HEAVVLF 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 


20-3. 


REX 


„ 


Si 


wt. 


18-5. 


REX- 


(l-EAVVLF) 


M 


wt. 


lS-6. 


REX 


(HEAVVLF) 


M 


wt. 


211. 


REX'T 


F MON 

HEAVVL 

ETA 


Al 


wt. 


20-3. 


REX- 


„ 


M 


wt. 


20-2. 


REX 


MON 

HEAVVL 

ETA 


Ai 


wt 


20-3. 



Heawulf. 



DU 




MERCIA. 






No. 


Obverse. 


lUncrso. 


Miiit. Moneyer. 






(Ti/pf c.) 






318 


•i-BVRERED REX 




MON 

►I^HEVVLF 

ETA 


m Wt. 19-9. 


Iloawulf. 






(Type d.) 






319 


►i^BVRERED REX 




F MON 

HEAVVL 

ETA 


in Wt. 21-2. 




320 


» 




MOH 

•I-HEVVLI 

ETTS. 


31 Wt. 20-0. 








{Type a.) 






321 


BVRERED REX-qp 


€) MON 

hEREFER 

ETA 


m Wt. 22-3. 


HcreferTS. 


322 


•l^BVRBRED REX 




>> 


M Wt. 21-2. 








(Type d.) 






323 


BVRERED RE T 




€) MON 

hEREFER 

ETA 


m Wt. 19-5. 




32i 


REX 




„ 


M Wt. 2 10. 




325 


«i<BVRERED REX 




,, 


m Wt. 180. 




326 


» 




„ 


Si Wt. 18-2. 




327 


,, 




)i 


M Wt. 20-2. 








(Type a.) 






328 


BVRERED RE T 




D MON 

HVEERE 

ETA 


m Wt. 190. 


Hugcred. 


329 


REX 1 




„ 


M Wt. 177. 




330 


» 




„ 


M Wi. 18-2. 




331 


►i'BVRERED REX 




•• 


m Wt. 20-3. 








(Type c.) 






332 


'I'BVRERED REX 


1 


D MON 

HVEERE 

ETA 


Ai Wt. 197. 







BURGRED. 




61 


No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. IMoncyer. 


333 


(.Type c.) 
>I<BVRERED REX MON 

HVEERED 
ETA m 

{Type a.) 


Wt. 21-5. 


Hugcrcd. 


334 


►I«BVRERED RE T 


D MON 
HVEERE 
ETA M 


"\Vt. 20-0. 




335 


•l^BVRERED RE Jj 


„ M 


Wt. lS-9. 




33G 


BVRBRED REX- 


„ M 


Wt. lG-8. 




337 


REX 1 


„ M 


Wt. 19-5. 




338 


►I<BVRERED RE 


» M 


Wt. 20-0. 




339 


BVRBRED REX- 


M4.N 
HVEERED 
ETA M 


Wt. 21-8. 




340 


"^BVRERED REX 


(MON) M 


Wt. 20-5. 






{Type a.) 






341 


BVRERED REX T 


MON 

ET7X m 


Wt. 19-2. 


Hueea. 


342 


REX T 


{•hHyXlTX) M 


Wt. 21-2. 




343 


>' >> 


(•I<HV5$A) M 


Wt. 18-8. 




344 


RE T 


{HVSS^) M 


Wt. 19-3. 




345 


REX 


{<i>HMXn) m 


Wt, 17-8. 






{Type c.) 






34G 


BVRERED REX- 


MON 
►i^HVSSA 
ETA M 


Wt. 20-7. 






{Type d.) 






347 


►^BVRERED REX-.^ 


MON 
►tHVSSA 
ETA 31 


Wt. 20-2. 




348 


BVRERED REX- 


., Al 


Wt. 20-7. 




349 


,, „ 


„ M 


Wt. 19-0. 





62 



MERCIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


350 


^BVRERED REX- 


{Type d.) 

MON 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 200. 


Hiissa. 


351 


BVRERED REX" 




(M^-N) 


S. 


Wt. 20-5. 




352 


BVRGRED RET 


(Typ 


c a.) 

MON 

HVei-ERE 

ETA 


SI 


Wt. 19-5. 


Hu'cSlicre [for 
Gu^here ?] 


353 


REX 




" 


m 


Wt. 20-9. 




354 


^BVRERED REXI 


iTyi 


)e c.) 

MON 
HV-DhERE 
ETA 


m 


Wt. 21-8. 




355 


BVREIRED REX+ 


(Typ 


e a.) 

MON 

+ IDIE7X 

7XT3 


M 


Wt. 203. 


Idiga. 
[=Diga?] 


356 


BVRERED REX 


(Typ 


e 0.) 

MON 

►I'LEFLE 

ETA 


31 


Wt. 19-5. 


Lcfle. 


357 


^^BVRERED REX- 


(Tyi 


}e c.) 

NV14<N 

^LIAFMA 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 19-2. 


Liafmnn. 


358 


BVRERED REX 


(Typo n.) 

MON 

^-LVDE 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 21-2. 


Ludc. 


359 


BVRERED REX- 


(Tyi 


le c.) 
MON 
►I-LVDIE 
ETA 


Ml 


Wt. 207. 


Ludig[a ?]. 



BURGKED. 



63 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


3G0 


(.Tyi 
^BVRERED REX 


)e d.) 

MON 

"I^LVDIG 

ETZ^ 


M 


Wt. 19-8. 


Ludig[a ?]. 


361 


BVRGRED REX~T 


)e fl.) 

MON 
►I-LVLLTf 

et;r 


M 


Wt. 20-5. 


Lnlla. 


3G2 


REX 


" 


M 


Wt. 20-8. 




3G3 


BVRGRED REX T 


eh.) 

MON 
^LVLLA 


M 


Wt. 19-2. 




364 


REX- 


" 


M 


Wt. 19-5. 




365 


{Tyi 
BVRGRED REX M 


e ft.) 

MON 

05MVND 

ET7^ 


M 


Wt. 18-7. 


Osmund. 


366 


REX 


„ 


M 


Wt. 211. 




367 


REX- 


(0$MHND) 


m 


Wt. 20-2. 




368 


„ 


MXN 

0$MHND 

ETZ? 


M 


Wt. 22-2. 




369 


REX-T 


MOH 

O^MhHD 

ETA 


M 


Wt. 20-4. 




370 


iTyp 
BVRGRED REX- 


ed.) 

MON 

O5MHND 

ETZS 


M 


Wt. 23-n. 




371 


^BVRGRED REX 


(0$MhND) 


M 


Wt. 22-5. 




372 


)> )) 


MSN 

OSMhND 

ETA 


Si 


Wt. 22-6. 




373 


„ „ 


(M*N) 


Ai 


Wt. 20-7. 





64 



MERCIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Re\ 


erse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




(Type c.) 






374 


^BVRERED REX T 


MON 

'I'TATA 

ETA 


Ai Wt. 20-7. 


Tata. 


375 


„ 


>> 


m Wt. 20-8. 






(Type c.) 






376 


^BVRERED REX" 


MON 

^TATA 

ETA 


Ai Wt. 20G. 


Tata. 


377 


» » 


„ 


M Wt. 19-8. 




378 


BVRERED REX- 


., 


M Wt. 22-3. 




379 


„ 


" 


M Wt. 21-5. 






(Type (I.) 






380 


BVRERED REX- 


MON 

^TATA 

ETA 


m Wt. 21-5. 




381 


)> II 


>> 


M Wt. 21-5. 




382 


>> 1) 


„ 


M Wt. 22 G. 




383 


i> )) 


» 


^i Wt. 20-1. 




384 


i> >) 


(M*N) 


m (broken). 






Tlie following coin is barbarous. (S 


?o p. 54.) 






(Type ,1) 






385 


►tBVRER ED REX- 

Bust dividiug legend. 


TON 

►I-TATA 

ETA 


ill Wt. 20-1. 






(Type a.) 






386 


BVRERED REX M" 


MON 

^TATEL 

ETA 


^i Wt. 20-5. 


Tatcl. 


387 


„ „ 


(TON) 


M \\f. 211. 







BURGRED. 




65 


No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




(Type c.) 






388 


-i«BVRERED REX T 


MON 

4^VVINE 

ET7\ 


M Wt. 20-0. 


Wiue. 


389 


REX 


n 


M Wt. 20-4. 




390 


+BVRER ED REX- 

Bust dividing legend. 


(WINE) 


M Wt. 19-7. 






{Type d.) 






391 


+BVRER ED REX- 

Bust dividing legend. 


M>5<N 

»i<VVINE 

ETA 


M Wt. 211. 




392 


BVRERED REX- 

Legend undivided. 


(M*N) 


M Wt. 20-8. 






(.Type a.) 






393 


BVRERED REX M 


D MON 

VVLFER 

ETA 


Si Wt. 20-6. 


Wulfeard. 




(Type b.) 






391 


BVRERED REX T 


D MON 

VVLFEAR 

ETA 


M Wt. 20-1. 




395 


REX- 


» 


M Wt. 15-9. 




39G 


» 


>> 


M Wt. 21-8. 




397 


REX 


" 


M Wt. 18-5. 






(Type d.) 






398 


^BVRERED REX 


MON 

VVLFETXRD 

ETA 


M Wt. 15-8. 




399 


BVRERED RE T 


D MON 

VVLFEAR 

ETA 


M Wl. 2 10. 




400 


^BVRERED REX 


.. 


M Wt. 200. 




401 


„ 


„ 


Ai Wt. 17-9. 




402 


" 


MON 

PFFEARD 

ETA 


M Wl. 21 2. 





06 



MERCIA. 



CEOLWULF II. 

A.D. 874. DEPOSED BY THE DANES SAME YEAli. 

Moneyers. 
See note on p. 25. 



Dealing. 
Dudecil. 



Eadowulf. 
Liofwald. 



No. 


Obverse. 


r>ever?p. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


403 


CIOLVV LFREX Bust 


LIO FV 7\L DMO 


Liofwald. 




r., diademed. 




Diamond-shaped 
compartment, hav- 
ing cross at eacli 
angle, one limb 
of which extends 
to edge of coin. 
In centre of com- 
partment small 
cross. 

m Wt. 21-2. 






[PI. 5 


:. IG.] 







( 67 ) 



KENT. 



ECGBERHT.* 

A.D. 765— A.D. 791 ? 
Moneyers. 



Babha. 



Udd. 



Obverse. 



E6CBERHT Incentre, R 



Reverse. 



V D D : between two dotted 
lines ; above and 
below, cross with 
dots in angles, 
within a floral 
scroll. 
m 05 Wt. 17-3. 



[PI. XI. 1.] 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Udd. 



EADBERHT II. Pli^N. 

A.D. 796 — A.U. 798, DEP. BY COENWULF, KiNG OP MeKCIA. 

3Ioneyers. 
Babba. Etelmod. Jaenberht. 



EZJD 

BEARHT 

REX 



Dotted lines be- 
tween lines of 
legend ; nu- 
merous dots iu 
field. 



ET^D Plain lines bc- 

BERRH" twecn lines of 
REX legend ; dots in 
field. 



BRBBT^ Above, in lunette, 
AT'A ; below, in 
another lunette, 

Ai -751 Wt. 20-4. 



I7XEN (Dots). Plain 

BERHT lines dividing 

legend ; below, 

oriuunent, -[ + ]- 

M Wt. 22-3. 



Babba. 



Jaenberht. 



[PI. XI. 2.] 

* The Ecgberlit of this coin was formerly siipposcii to bo tlie son of Offa, who reigned for about 
Bi.x months in a.d. VM. Kcf^berht, \\n\i of Kent, is mentioned in charters only, but from these his 
reign is known to have extended for about twenty-live years. See Hawkins, S. C, 2nd ed. p. 31. 

t Size of all the coins of the kiims of Ivent, unless otherwise specified. 

F 2 



08 



KENT. 



Kent under the supremacy of Mercia. 

CUTHRED. 

A.v. 798— A.D. 80G OK 807. 



Bcornfri?;. 
Diulii 

Eaba. 



Moneyers. 
Sec note on p. 25. 



Ilfrcmod. 
Sif^obcrlit. 
Werlioard [Wcrncard]. 



First Series. 
Coins ti'ith bust. 



10 



►tCVORED REX CANT 

Bust r., diademed, 
dividing lefreud. 



Reverse. 



"l^BEORNFREO TOISETA 

Cross pommc'e over 
cross patte'e. 

M Wt. 211. 
[PI. XI. 3.] 



^DVDa TONETT^ „ 

M Wt. 19-3. 



►i^ET^BT^ TONETT^ „ 
(Dot.-^). Ai wt. 21-7. 



•1-HERETODITONETA 

Same type. 
Jii -7 Wt. 20-3. 



,, Legend undivided 



»I<$IEEBERH"I MONETA 
Same type. 
M Wt. 18- 1. 
[PI. XI. 4.] 



+EVORED REX CANT 

]>iviiled as b(for(\ 



4^VERI-EARDI MONETA 

Same tvpe. 
Ai Wt. 21-5. 

^'VERhEARDI TONETA 

Same type. 
M Wt. 19-8. 



Jlint. Moneycr. 



Beornfrit5. 



Duda. 



Eaba. 



Ilcrcmod. 



SiKcberht. 



Wcrlieard. 



CUTHRED. 



69 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



11 



12 



13 



U 



Second Series. 


Coins loithout head or bust. 


[IVO RED REX Tri- 


DVDS Cross molino 


brach voided in 


voided in centre. 


centre, dividing 


within which, 


the legend, hav- 


pellet. 


ing in centre 


M Wt. 21-1. 


smaller tribrach 




with wedges in 




angles. 




[PI. XL 5.] 


CV-DRED [REX] Cross 


[E] AB TH Tribrach mo- 


(Wedges in pattee 


(Dots). line havuig 


legend). witli dots 


three lines to 


in angles. 


each limb, divid- 




ing the legend; 




wedges in field. 




M (fragment). 


LVO RED REX Tribrach 


Siq EBE RIT. Tribrach 


voided in centre, 


moline with 


and havmg an- 


wedges in angles. 


nulet at end of 


M Wt, 2r5. 


each limb, divid- 




ing legend ; in 




centre, small tri- 




brach with dots 




in angles. 




[PI. X 


J. G.] 



^EVORED REX Cross 

pattee with 

wedges in angles. 



^p>E RHE SRD Tri- 
brach moline 
voided, in 
centre, wedges in 
angles. 

M Wt. 21-5. 



[PL XI. 7.] 



Duda. 



Eaba. 



Sigeberht. 



Werheard. 



70 



KENT. 



BALDRED. 
A.D. 806 OR 807 — A.D. 825 ; deposed hy Ecgberht, Kino op Wessex. 





Moneyers. 




See note on p. 25. 


Diormod. 
Dunun. 

E?ielniod. 


Sigcstef. 

Swofnciird [Swefhcard] 

Tidhrarht. 


Oba. 


Werncard [Werhcard]. 



With name of Mint. 
Canteiujury. 



No. 


Obverse. 


HCVCTSC. 


Mint. Monoyer. 


15 


^BALDRED REX CRNT 
Head r., diademed. 


^DIORTOD TONETA 

In centre ^^ ^R 
CI TS 

[DOROVERNIA 

CIVITAS]. 

M -85 Wt. 20-7. 


Canterbury. 
Dioriuod. 



[PI. XI. 8.] 



Without name of Mint. 
i. Coin tvith hitst. 



16 



BALDRED REX II •.• 

Bust r., diademed 



i^EDELTOD TOl/ETA 
Cirtdc surrounded 
by six long wedges, 
forming star. 
M S (broken) 
[PI. XI. 9.] 



E?)elmod. 



ii. Coins wilhoul head or bust. 



17 



18 



VJ 



•fBELDRED REX CANT 

Cross jiatteo with 
dots in angles. 



►^ O B A 



[I'l. XL 10.] 



L( geml di- 
vided by four 
limbs of a cross 
molinc voided, 
within wliich 
circle enclosing 
cross i>iitte'o with 
j)cliets in angles. 
Ai -8 WL 22-0. 



•^BELDRED REX LAfsT ; '^SVVEFN[ER]D Cress 
Cross crosnlet. imttee. 

Ai (two fr.igmenls 
I jomed). 



•^BELDRED REX 

Cri».ss pattcc 



►i-I^ERNEARD Cross 

pMtlee. 

M Wl 2L2. 
[LI. XI. 11] 



Oba. 



Swel'neard. 



Wenieard. 



( 71 ) 



ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY. 



JAENBERHT. 

A.D. 766— A.D. 790. 

With the name of Offa, King of Mercia, a.d. 757-796. 



Obverse. 



20 



+IENBERHT T^RP 

Cross potent ; rays 
diverging from 
angles. 



Reverse. 



OFFT^ (Dots). Between 
REX lines of legend, 
double anchor 
pattern ; above 
and below, cross. 
M -65 Wt. 18-0. 



[PI. XII. 1.] 



21 



+IZ[ENBRHT T^REP 

Star of eight points. 



0FFA 
REX 



[PI. XII. 2.] 



(Dots), Similar 
type, but double 
anchor pattern 
extending to en- 
close all the le- 
gend, and to form 
a compartment 
shaped like Boeo- 
tian shield. 
M -65 Wt. 18-2. 



Mint. Moneycr. 



72 



ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY. 



^THELHEARD. 

A.D. 793— A.D. 805. 
1. With the name of Ofta. Struck between a.d. 793 and a.d. 79G. 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moncyer. 



i«AEDILHEARD_AR : C 
In coutre EP''» 



•l-O FF 7\R EX Lomond 
divided by limbs 
of a cross patk'i! ; 
in centre,_cii'cle 
enclosiu;; T 
3i -7 Wt. 21-3. 



[PI. XII. 3.] 



23 



-J-TXEDILHEARD ARC 
In centre EP' 



HP divided by lines; 
►J"OFFA numerous dots 
REX infield. 

m -75 Wt. 20-3. 
[PI. XII. 4.] 



2. With the name of Cocnwulf. Struck between a.d. 796 and a.d. 805. 



24 



AEDILHEARD A'R 



In centre, EP ; 
(wedges in le- 
gend). 



CO ENV LFRE X 
V T 

Tril)rach voided ; 
dots in field. 
m -75 Wt. 21-9. 
[PI. XII. 5.] 



Tiicre exist also coins of JEtln llicard on wliich bis name appears witli tlio 
title PONT (Poutifex) instead of ARCEP. Tiiesc coins iire regarded as liaving 
been struck between tlie time of his luaiig nominated to tlu^ See and that of his 
receiving (he palliuin from Rome. See J. Evans, Num. Citron., N.S., vol. v. 
p. 351, Scqq. 



WULFJIED. 



73 



WULPRED. 

A.D. 805— A.D. 832. 



Liming. 



Moneyers. 
Sc-cberht [ = Sigeberht ?] 



Ssvefheard. 



No. 



25 



2G 



27 



28 



Obverse. 



^VVLFRED ARCHTEPIS 

Bust facing, head 
tonsure!.* 



Reverse. 



[PI. XII. 6.] 



DORO 
BERNIA 
CIVITA 
• S • ^ -75 



AVt. 220. 



^VVLFRED: A RCHIEPi 

Bust facing, ton- 
sured, dividing 
legend. 



^SSEBERHTMONETTX 

Monogram 



[PI. XII. 7.] 



(for DOROBERNIA 
ElVI). 
M -8 Wt. 20-9. 



[+V]VLFREDI AREHI- 

EPI5EOP. Bust facing, 

tonsured ; on 

either side, pellet. 



•i^VVLFRED ARCHTEPIS 

Bust facing, ton- 
sured; on either 
side, pellet. 



+5aEBER[H]T TONETT^ 

Same monogram. 
M -7 (broken). 



^SVVEFHERD MOHET 
DRVR 
CITS 

M -8 Wt. 20-8. 



In centre 



[PI. XII. 8.] 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Sa;berlit. 



Swef heard. 



There is a series of coins of Canterbury bearing only tho names of the place 
of minting and of the moneyer. These are generally believed to have been 
struck during the interval (sede vacante) between the death of one Archbishop 
and the investiture of his successor. The moneyers whose names appear in this 
way are — 

Diormod. Sfeberht. Swefneard. 

Luning. Sigestef. Werheard. 

Oba. 

Tlicse are moneyers either of Wulfred, CcolnoTi, or of Baldrcd, King of Kent 
(Doj). 82.5). The coins probably tliereforo belong to the interval between 
Wulfred and CeolnoTi, and their types are consistent witli this supposition. 



* The head apjioais at fust sight as if it wore some sort of ruuiul liat. On comparison of the 
bust, liowcver, witli some of the figures in illuminatetl M.SS. it becomes evident that a tonsured 
head is mcanl. See West wood, Aiif/ln-Siixim and irisli .VSS.. V\. XIX., .St. Peter from a MS. of 
the eighth (.cnliiry ; compare also the coins of Ccoluo'5 following. 



74 



ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY. 



Biarnrcil. 

Biarnwulf. 

Biornmotl [Diormod]. 

Cciilmotl. 

Ccnwald. 

Diala. 

E^elwald. 



CEOLNOB. 

A.u. 833— A.D. 870. 

Moneyers. 
Sec note on p. 25. 

Heboca. 

Ilorcberht. 

Lialiinpj. 

Lil[l.illa?]. 

Swobhcard [ = Swcfiicard ?]. 

Tocga. 

Wunherc [Wunnore]. 



Olivcrsc. 



Ucvcrso. 



Mint. Moncyer. 



29 



30 



31 



33 



34 



Tijpe 1. 

•I-CEOLNOO ARHIEPI 

Tonsurt'd bust, 
facing:, dividing 
legend. 



Fnll-facf Jimt. 

►fDOROVERNlA i- 
CI VI T A$ in angles 
of a plain cross. 
Ai* ^Vt. 17-2. 



[PL XII. 9.] 



^CEOLNOD ?iRCHIEP- 

thrcc pellets .-.on 
either side. 



^BISRN RED MO 
NETS written upon 
limbs, and be- 
tween angles of a 
cross outlined in 
dots. 

M Wt. 24 0. 



[PI. XII. 10.] 



one pellet 
either side. 



4<CIALHOD ARCEPIS 

no pelk^t. 



4'CIALNOO ARCE5 



MO 



►tBIARN VLF 
N E T A 

Same type. 

Si Wt. 21-3. 



"I^BIORHTOD TOhETA 

In centre, Cliris- 

tian monogram 

^; dots in angles. 

Jii Wt. 20-2. 

►l-BIORNTOD TOhET 

.K Wt. 21-3. 



Biarnrcd. 



Biarnwulf. 



Biornmod. 



[PI. XII. 11.] 

^EIALNO O ARCE „ i «l«BIORNTOD MONET 

i\Inni)giiiiii libindcr- 

1(1 (Inr DORO 

BERNIA LIV?) 

M Wt. ll»-2. 

[PI. XII. 12.] 

* Average meofiuroiticnt to end nf sericB uf Aithbishops of Canterbury, -^--sn in. 



CEOLNOB. 



75 



No. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



35 



3G 



37 



38 



39 



»i«CIALNOO ARCEPIJ 

Tonsured bust, 
facing, dividing 
legend. 



«i«BIOBNTOD TONET 

Christian monogram 

m Wt. 21-8. 



[PI. XII. 13.] 



►i^CEOLNOO 7\[RCHIEP- 



►tiCET^LM 
N E T A 



•I-CEOLNOO 7XRCHIEP 



"i^CEOLNOO AREHIEP 



OD TO 

upon limbs 
and between an- 
gles of outlined 
cross. 

m Wt. 21-0. 



N E T A 



: OD MO 
M Wt. 20-5. 



HhEENV-T^E MO N ET7X 
Same type. 
M Wt. 18-2. 



«^DI7\L7\_ MONETT^ 
DORO Lozenge-shaped 
compartment, hav- 
ing cross moline 
dividing sides, 
and smaller plain 
cross in centre. 
m Wt. 20-5. 
[PI. XIII. I.] 



40 ^CEOLNOO AREHIEP" 



41 



42 



"t-EEOLNOti 7\RCHIEP 



►REDELY 7XLD MO 
N E T 7\ upon limbs 
and between 
angles of out- 
lined cross. 

m Wt. 20-4. 



►j-hebe:- EA MO 
N E T A Same type. 
Ai Wt. 195. 
[PI. XIII. 2.] 



MON 

HEBECA 

ETA 



Tlie upper 
and lower lines 
within lunettes, 
as on coins of 
Puricred, Ti/pe a 
(p. 40). 

Ai (broken). 



Biommod. 



Cealmod. 



Cenwald. 



Diala. 



E^elwald. 



Hebeca. 



76 



ARCHBISHOrS OF CANTERBURY. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



43 



4i 



45 



46 



47 



48 



49 



50 



51 



5:{ 



54 



•i«i:EOLNO£) ARCHIEP" 

Same type. 



►1«LE0LN0€) 7\RCHIEP" 

throo pelk'ts .•. ou 

either side of bust. 



►i^l-EREBETX Rfl- TO 
NETS on limbs and 
in angles of out- 
lined cross. 

M Wt. 20-2. 



»i<LISBIN :-; EG MO 
N E T A !Sarae type. 
M "NVt. 19-8. 



•i-EEOLNOO ARHIEPI 
Similar bust, wear- 
ing pallium. 



m Wt. 17-3. 



^LILMONETTX DORVER 
In eentre, El VI T 
A$ in an.<j;les of 
a cross jiattce. 
[PI. XIII. 3.] M Wt. 20-1. 



^ElALNOp AREE^ 
(D) 

►i^EIALNOD AREEi 



^EEOLNOQ AREHIEP 
Bust facing, ton- 
sured. 



►^SVEBMEARD MOHE- 
In centre ^ 

M Wt. 21-0. 

►I<$VIBHEARD MOI : 
„ ^ ; wedges in three 
angles. 

M Wt. 20-0. 

►I^SVEBHEARD MOI 
,, dots in angles. 

M Wt. 18-4. 

^SVEBHEARD MO: 
„ no dots. 

M Wt. 21-7. 

^$VEBHEARD M- 

„ dots in angles. 

JR Wt. 19-6. 



Hereberht. 



Liabing. 



►I'TOEE A TO N E T A 
(Dots). upon limbs and 
in angles of out- 
lined cross. 
[PI. XIII. 4.] M Wt. 22-2. 



^EIALNOO AREEPI5 
Tonsured bust, fac- 
ing, wearing pal- 
lium. 

4-CIVLHOO AREEPI^ 
Same tyi>f . 



►fVVVNHERE MONETA 
lu centre P 

Ai Wt. 191. 



>^VVV^MER MONETA 
j\i (lirukfii). 



Lil. 



Swebbcard, 

or 
Swcfncard? 



Tocga. 



Wunhere. 



CEOLNOB. 



77 



55 



56 



57 



58 



59 



Obverse. 



"i^CIALNO O ARC 

Tonsured bust, fac- 
iiiLT, wearing pal- 
lium. 

^CIALNOO SRCE^,, 



^CIT^NOO ARCES 



Reverse. 



►I«VVYNNERE MONETA 
In centre P 

M Wt. 19-0. 



^VVNNERE MONETA • 
„ dots in angles. 

M Wt. 19-3. 



[PI. XIII. 5.] 



no dots. 

M Wt. 19-1. 



►i-EIIALNO D ARC 



^VVhERE TOhETA 

Monogram (^ 

[DOROBERNIA 
CIVl] 

M Wt. 21-9. 
[PI. XIII. 6] 



►J-CIALHO DARCE 



►I^VVHERE MONETA 

Monogram ^ 

[for DOROBERNIAC?] 



[PI. XIII. 7.] 



M Wt. 22 2. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Wunhere. 



GO 



Type 2. Profile bust. 
Type a of Burgrcd, King of Mcrcia, p. 46. 



^CEOLNOO 7\RCHIEP- 


MON 


The upper 


Bust r., diademed, 


►I^TOCGA 


and lower 


dividing legend. 


ETA 


lines within 
lunettes. 




M Wt. 20-5. 


[PI. X] 


II. 8.] 





Tocga. 



78 



AKCIIRISUors OF CANTERDUUY, 



^THERED. 

A.i). S70— A.u. HH'J. 

Moiieytr. 
ETSercd. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


Gl 


«i-EOERED TXRCHIEPI 


EO ER ED MO 


E^ered. 




Bust r., diademed, 


N E T 7\ within and 






dividing legend. 


without leaves of 
a quatrcfoil, over 
which cross pat- 
tee, having circle 
ill centre and 
werlges in angles. 
M Wt. 31 1. 






[ri. XIII. 9.] 





PLEGMUND. 



79 



PLEGMUND. 

A.U. 890— A.D. dU. 

Moneyers. 
See note on p. 25. 

Biarnwald [BioiiiwaM or Diarwald ?]. 

BuTVed [=:I3iariiwald?]. 

Desaud [= Diarwald ?]. 

Diar^vald [= Biarnwald?]. 

Eicmund. 

Elfstan. 

ESelstan. 



ESolwulf. 

Efernd. 

Herefrefi. 

Hunfre'ft. 

Sigehelm. 

Tidweald. 



Many of the coins with the name of Plegmund arc of barbarous work and have 
blundered lepjends. They are very probably either the work of Danes or uf 
ignorant artiiicers working in the anarchy which prevailed over large portions 
of the country during miiny years of -Alfred's reign. Some still more blundered 
coins are described under .iElfred (see below). 

Almost all of these coins are from the great Cuerdale Hoard, Num. Chron., 
vol. V. p. 1. 

1. With the name of ..Alfred. Struck between a.d. 890 and a.d. 901. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


G2 


"I'ELFRED REX PLECI/1 

Small cross patte'e. 

[PI. X] 


E07\L 
YYbM* 

II. 10.] 


In field, five 
pellets • • • 
M Wt. 24-8. 


E^elwulf. 



G3 



G4 



65 



GO 



2. With the name of Plegmund only 
►I^PLECMVHD EP 
In centre 



oa 
oa 

[for DOROBERNIA]. 



PLEEMVHD EDI5C~_ 
In centre, XDF 
(for XPS) 



BIRHV 

iiD mo 



In fieU 



Wt. 21-5. 



DIARV 



[PI. XIII. 11.] 



Ji Wt. 19-5. 



•i-PLEEMVND AREiqfl 

oa 
OH 



OROaUVMEOELP^^ 
(for +PLE6MVNDD0R0 
retn )grade) 

Small cross puttee. 



DIAIY In field pellets ir- 
ADLO regularly disposed, 
Ai Wt. 19-8. 



DE57\ 
VDMiC Infield 



M Wt. 21 0. 



Bimwald, or 

Biarnwald 

[Diarwald]. 



Desaud ? 



80 



ARCHBISIIOrS OF CANTERBURY. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Jloneyer. 


67 


^PLEEMVNDARCHIEP EICMV 
Small cross pattco. ND M ©N 

[PI. XIII. 12.] 


In field >i« »1< ►!< 
M Wt. 22-6. 


Eicnumd. 


G8 


^.PLEEMVISDTXREHIEP 
DO 
RO 


ELFJTA 
N MOi 


.at 


Wt. 20-8. 


Elfstan. 


G9 


i> >> 


" 


M 


Wt. 24-0. 




70 


„ 


(ELFiTTX) 


m 


Wt.'23-7. 




71 


^PLEEM/ISD 7XREHIEP 

Small cross pattee 


ELFiT 
7\NVIC 


m 


4^ 
Wt. 20-2. 




72 


,, 


ELF$T 

TXNMiC 


>> 

M 


Wt. 210. 




73 


AREHIEP 


ELF^TT^ 
N M«i 




Wt. 22-3. 




74 


^PLEEMVHD EPRC- 


EUT7X 
N MC 


m 


Wt. 24-8. 




75 


"i^PLEGEMVND M „ 


ELF$T7\ 
M MO 


.at 


Wt. 20(3. 




7G 


ORODNVMEGELP^ 
(See No'.'ee.) 


(ELF^TA) ,, cros.s and 
(lots irregularly 
disposed. 

Ai Wt. 2ir). 




77 


►tPLEBMVND EPI$E~ 
Siiiall cross patte'o. 


EOEL$T 
ANMO 


In li( 


•Id • 
Wt.'2'21. 


E^.clstan. 



PLEGMUND. 



81 



Obverse. 



I\Iint. ifonevcr. 



78 



80 



81 



84 



85 



86 



87 



«i<PLEBMVND EPjSC" 
XD$ 

Small cross laattee. 



79 >i<PLEEMVND7\RCHIEP 

Small cross pattec. 



Blundered legend. 



(E£>EUT) Infield, • 

m Wt. 22-8. 



EDELV Infield, • 
LF Mi<5. 

M Wt. 23-5. 

,, „ pellets ii-- 

regularly disposed. 

M Wt. 21-5. 



►J-PLEEMYNDT^RCHIEPi HVISFRE Infield, • ^ • 

In centre D'O i C M-C- >h 

in centre, p. ^ | ^ ^.^ ^y-i. 

[PI. XIII. 13.] 



82 ►I'PLEEMVKDTXRCHIEP" 
DO 
RO 



83 



HVNFR 
EO MiQi 



(P) 



M Wt. 20-G. 

■ ^ • 
M Wt. 2 10. 

» T* T T 







M 


Wt. 22-4. 


(P-) 


,, 


>> 


*r"T"T' 






M 


Wt. 23-5. 


•^PLEEMVHD 7XRCP „ 


HVHFR 
hOE MC. 


M 


. ^ . 
Wt. 24-5. 


PLEEM/ND T^REHIE 

Small cross pattee. 


HVI-FR 
EO M^ 


3i 


Wt. 22 0. 



ESelsbim. 



E^elwiilf. 



Himfrcfi. 



82 



ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY. 



No. 


Obvor^o. 


H 


ncrsc 




Mint. :\K>ncyor. 


88 


•tPLEEMVND TXRCHIEP 

In ci'utii', DO 

RO 


TIDV7X 1 
LD MO. 


u field, • • . 
m Wt. 23-5. 


Tidwcald. 


89 


^'PLESMVND TXRCHIEP" 
Small cross pattuo. 


M 




"\Vt. 22-5. 




90 


•> » 


TIDVE: 
7\LD MC 


Ai 


Wt. 23-2. 






[PI. XIII. 14.] 








91 


•l^PLEEMVND EPI$E- 

Small cross pattc'c. 


TIDVbA 
LD MO 


Zi 


Wt. 22-2. 





For a series of blundered imitations of tlie Canterbury coinajj:e of iElfred and 
Plegmund which read sometimes AELFRED REX DOROi sometimes 
7\REHIEP REX DORO, see the coins of Alfred (vol. ii.). 



( 83 ) 



EAST ANCtLIA. 



BEONNA (BEORN?) 

ClKCA A.D. 760? 

If we assume that this king is the same as the Beoma mentioned by Florence 
of Worcester (nnno 758) and Alured of Beverley (Ajinal. lib. vi. p. 41, ed. 
T. Hcarnc) his date would fall about a.d. 760. We can scarcely place the 
following coin at an earlier date than tjjis. See Introduction. 

Moneijer. 
Efe. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


1 


+gEOiir REX 

[B BONN A REX partly 
in Runic letters]. 

Cross. 

[PI. X 


+ E F 
IV. 1.] 


E in angles formed 
by cross, having 
open lozenge in 
centre, within 
which five dots 
; - ; ; before and 
after initial cross 
and each letter 
dots ••• 
m. 6. Wt. 16-3. 


Efe. 



^THELBERHT. 

Murdered by Offa, king of Mercia, a.d. 794, 

Moneyer. 
Lul. 



+E8l^BERrT •:• r^^ 

[Iiisciiptiou partly in 
Kunic letters]. 

Bust r. diademed. 



REX 



[PI. XIV. 2.] 



Dotted compart- 
ment within 
which wolf 1. and 
twins ; numerous 
dots in exergue. 
Si. 65. Wt. 16-8. 



Lul. 



G 2 



84 



EAST ANGLIA. 



Eaduo?. 



EADWALD. 

Circa a.i>. 819 — Ciuca a.d. 827. 

Moneyers. 
licgiiiht. 



Wintred. 



Obverse. 



ZfrO Dotted Hues di- 
EZfDV viding Icgcud. 

REX 
(Dot). 



E SD H Ot^ 

four 



[PI. XIV. 3.] 



within the 
compart- 
ments of a quar- 
tered quatrefoil. 
M -75 Wt. 210. 



Mint, iluiipycr. 



EaduoTi. 



Eadwald and the following three kings, -^thelstan I., iEthclwcard, and 
Berlitric, are luikuown io history, and the dates assigned to tlicm mu»t be looked 
upon as merely conjeetural. The name of Berlitric (IJeorhtrie) occurs upon 
cliartirs of Berhtwulf, king oi Mercia, of the dates a.d. 840-845, as filius nyia. 
This personage is possiMy the same as Berhtrie on the coins of East Anglia. 



^THELSTAN I. 

Circa a.d. 828 — Circa a.d. 837. 





3Ioneyers. 






See note on p. 25. 




Eadgar. 




Rerner [Werner ? ]. 


Eadno?!. 




Torhtlielm, 


EariathJ. 




Tuduivine. 


E^elhelm. 




Werner? 


Mon. 


First Series. 






Coins with head or bust. 



EE>EUr7^H RE 



+ E7\DEHR rOOH 
Bust 1. (Dot). Cross crosslet. 

Ai* Wt. 20-3. 
[Tl. XIV. 4.] 



«J<EI>EL^2;aH REX I ►^fOOH numerous dots in 

Head r. POOHE field. 

TA m Wt. 18-8. 

[n. XIV. 5.] 

* Average mciusuroiiicnf >< in. 



Eadjjrar. 



]\Ion. 



^THELSTAN I. 



85 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Second Series. 
Coins without head or bust. 



•i<EDELroTAri RE 

Cross pattce over 
saltire pattee. 



►fEZfDSJAR mOUE 

Cross pattee over 
saltire pattee. 
M Wt. 19-8. 
[PI. XIV. 6.] 



►i<Ef>ELcoTANI I i^EADHOp) WOH 

Cross pattee. Cross patte'e. 

I M Wt. 21-5. 
[PL XIV. 7.] 



^Ej>ELcV)TAHi 

In centre, 7X 



INVTcoLEDE^ 



^EADHD|> mOH 

Cross patte'e over 
saltire patte'e. 
M Wt. 20-7. 
[PI. XIV. 8.] 



^EADNOD mo 

(Dot). Cross pattee with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 20-7. 



EpELcoTAH RE Al 

Cross puttee with 
dots in an^rles. 



AE&ILcoTAH p> 



►t'hMOH hNOHET 

Cross patte'e with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 18-8. 
[PI. XIV. 9.] 



►^Ef>ELcoTANI 

In centre, • A 



mOH mOHET 

M Wt. 20-6. 

►pmOHH POOH ETA „ 
Ai Wt. 20-3. 



[PI. XIV. 10.] 



+E[>ELSTl/ll 



A 



fOOfO Numerous dots 
►tmOOOE in field. 

TA M Wt. 20-8. 



+ RERNHER Circle on- 
closing dot. 
M AVt.'2U-8. 



Eadgar. 



Eadnoth. 



►t'ERNHPER 



[PI. XIV. 11. 



Jj Wt. •; !•.">. 



Mon. 



Rerncr [cor- 
riii)ied troin 
AN'erner ?]. 



8(5 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 



Olivers 



Mint. Moneyer. 



16 

17 

IS 

19 

20 



+ Ef>ELcuTANl _- 

In centre, A 



"i^EpELwTAHI 

Dots in lifkl. 



►^E;>ELa>TANI 



»l«EDELa)T?\K-l 



►i^EDEECoTAN 



►l-TORHTHELm 

Cross pattco with 
dots iu angles. 
Ai. ^\i. 18-7. 



M Wt. 22-2. 

^ORHTHELW 

M Wt. 21-2. 



Torhthelm. 



►l^REX ANG lurentrcj, 
(Dots). M Wt. 21-U. 
[PL XIV. 12.] 



^REX AAIE 

(Dots). m Wt. 21-0. 



No moncycr. 



^THELWEARD. 



87 



^THEIiWEARD. 

Circa a.d. 837 — Circa a.d. 850. 

Moneyers. 

See note on p. 25. 



.^Selhelm. 
Dudda. 
Eadmund. 
Eanbald. 



Rsegenhere ? 

Tuduwine. 

Twicga. 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



21 



22 



23 



24 



25 



26 



27 



28 



E£)ELf>SRD REX 

Cross patte'e with 
crescents in 
angles. 

E£)ELl>ARD REX 

(Dots). 



T^EBELNELMvl 

Cross patte'e with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 20-4. 

SEBELHELHH 

(Dots). 

M wt. 21-4. 



SE^ELNELMJ 

(Dots). Cross pattee with 
wedges in angles 
(cross pattee over 
sal tire patte'e). 
[PI. XV. 1.] M Wt. 21-5. 



E£)ELJ>SRD REX„ 



►fE»ELp>SRD REX 
(Dot). In Centre, 5 



(No dots iu 
legend). 



M Wt. 21-3. 



►^DVDDS COOnE 

Cross pattee with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 17-8. 



(Dots). 



»i<EBELp>SRD RE 

(Dots). 



*AEBELVVEARD REX 
(Dot). 

In centre TX 



[n. XV. 2.] 



M wt. 20-3. 



DVDDS mOHE 
(Dots). 

M wt. 20-9. 



Cross pattee with 
dots in angles. 
Ai Wt. lJ-3. 



^«elhelm. 



Dudda. 



Eadmund. 



* Many of the A's of East Anglia, from this reign to the end of the series, are distinguished by 
a rather iieculiar form, e.g. A A instead of 7^ J^, As the two forms run into each other, it 
has not been possible to show tliis distinctive type throughout. 



88 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 
3C 
31 



Obverse. 



TVEDELVVEARD REX 



32 



33 



Cross pattc'C. 
Si Wt. 20-9. 



Same type. 
M Wt. 20-4. 



[PI. xy. 3.] 



^TVDVf>LNE CO 

(Wedge). Cross pattoe 
with wedges in 
angles. 

M Wt. 21-7. 
[PI. XV. 4.] 



►t'EDELVVEARD REX 
In ecntrc, ^ 



^Tp>IEqA COON 

(Dots). Cross pattec with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 21-3. 
[PI. XT. 5.] 



M Wt. 20-2. 



Mint. Moneyor. 



Eadmuud. 



Tuduwine. 



Twicga. 



The following coin has been thought to contain on the reverse the name of an 
unknown king, EN HEBE T. RAEX. It is most probahlc that, like the other 
coins, it bears simjily tlie name of a moneyer (Rasgeuherc) spelt with the llimic 
X(G), RAEXENHERE. 



3^ 



«i«AEBELVVEARD REX 
In centre 7X 



RAEXEHHEBE- T 

Cross patte'o with 
dots in angles. 
m Wt. 20-1. 
[PI. XV. C] 



Ra^genherc ? 



^THELWEARD ? — BEPJITEIC. 



89 



Obverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



^THELWEARD ? 



35 



►i'Ep'EhKHTR 

lu centre, A 



•i^lEhEHRER <V 

In centre, cross 
pomme'e. 
M Wt. 207. 
[PI. XV. 7.] 



Kffifrcnliere ? 



The above piece is placed by Kenj-on (Hawkins' English Silver Coins, 2nd ed. 
p. 60) among the coins of ^Ethelstan I. The type and lettering closely resemble 
tliose on some of his coins. But they do not greatly difier from those on some of 
-ffithelweard's coins ; and by the transposition of a single letter the obverse of the 
piece before us may bo read Ej)elwart. No possible transposition of letters on 
either side can give the reading E];elstan. 



BERHTRIC (BEORHTRIC). 

Circa a.d. 852 ? 
Moneyers. 



Beocthun (Peocfhun). 



Ecghard. 



3G 



►1<BE0RHTRIC REX 
In centre, A 



•^ErCHSRD In centre, 
(Dots). cross with 

dots in angles. 
M Wt. 181. 
[PI. XV. 8.] 



Ecghard. 



90 



EAST ANGLIA. 



(ST.) EADMUND. 

Slain by the Danes, 873. 

Moneyers. 

See note on p. 25. 

.^Ticlhclm (Eycllielm). 

Ah'X. 

Bajpholm. 

Boornliculi. 
UoorntVr?!. 
Dehiiilex [Desaulex'}. 
Dudda. 



Eadbcrlit. 

Eadmund. 

Eadwakl. 

Erielwulf. 

Sigcrcd [Sibered ?]. 

T\vic£ra. 



No. 



37 



38 
39 

40 

41 

42 
43 

44 
45 



Obverse. 



EaDMVND RE TKU 

Cross iiuttce witli 
crescents in aujrles. 



Reverse. 



KEDELHELm Cross 

(Dots), pat too with 

Wedges in 

angles. 

M Wt. 21-5. 



Mint. Moiicj'er. 



[PI. XVI. 1.] 
D 



NS ER DLnVMDSE „ 
(ESDMVND RE 7XN 
written Ijaclvwards). 



•I^EaDMVND REX- 

Iii centre, JOi 



& 



m Wt. 23-2. 
m Wt. 21-2. 



T^EBELNELW 

Ai Wt. 20-3. 



^BSErHELM MO 

Cross pattre with 
dots in angks. 
ill Wt. 210. 
[Tl. XVI. 2.] 



^EADMVl/ID REX 

Cross pat tec with 
dots in angles. 



^EADMVUD REX 



"J^BErhELM MO" „ 

Ai Wt. 19-8. 

HhBAErHELM m:- „ 

(Dot). ill Wt. lS-2. 



►t-BAErHELM M- „ 

Ai Wt. 21-5. 

[n. XVI. 3.] 



^EAOMVHD REX- 



MO „ 
m Wt. 21-4. 



TErolhelm. 
See also 
E?elhelm. 



Breghelm [or 
Btelhelmy] 



(ST.) EADMUND. 



91 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


4G 


•i^ESDMVND REX AN 
(Dots). H^ 

(la transformed.) 


BEORNFEER& HO 

Cross pattee with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 21-7. 


Bnomfer"8. 


47 


* „ (No dots). 


BEORNFER& hHO „ 

M Wt. 19-7. 




48 


t „ (Dots). „ „ (Dots). „ 

M Wt. 2 10. 
[PI. XVI. 4.] 




49 


RX SN 

(Dots). 


„ (No dots). 

M Wt. 21-2. 




50 


"i^ETXDMVUD REX 

In centre, 7^ 


►^BEORHHT^EH M-„ 
M Wt. 21-0. 


Beornheali. 


51 


>> >) 


"i^BEORHHAEH- „ 
m Wt. 20-0. 




52 


•^EaDMVIND REX AN 
In centre, ^ 


►^DVDDs monE 

(Dot). M Wt. 21-3. 


Dudda. 




[Pl.X 


VI. 5.] 




53 


►^ESDMVHD REX 

In centre, /Oi 


ESDBERHT MO-.- 
(Dots). 

^v Wt. 20-8. 


Eadbcrht. 


54 


•i«EaDMVND REX AH~ 


►i-ESDMYND MONE-,, 
M Wt. 20-8. 


Eadmuud. 


55 


» >j 


MONE „ 
m Wt. 21-9. 




56 


SN 


MONE-.- 
M Wt. 21-0. 




57 


T^N-.- 


m Wt. 18-5. 




58 


►I^ESOMVNO REX AN 


^EaOMONV MONE „ 
M Wt. 20- 1. 






[PI. X 


VI. C] 




59 


^ESDmVl/ID REX 

In centre, JR 


M Wt. 20-5. 





92 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Jloncyer. 


GO 


•i-ESDmVUD REX 

111 cciitrc, A 


+ E7\D1+1VND miSi 

Cross patlce witli 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 22-0. 


Eadmund. 


61 


"i-ETXDMVUD REX 


^E7\D[>7XLD: M0I/IE- 
^ Wt. 21-4. 


Eadwald. 


C2 


►^EADMVND REX: 


'^EADf>7\LD M0M-.- „ 
ill Wt. 220. 




G3 


►JhEADMVUD REX 

lu CLiitrc, 7^ 


«^ERDI>7\LD M0 

m Wt. 21-2. 






[Tl. XVI. 7.] 




C4 


» 


MO 
(Dots) 

Ai AVt. 20-8. 




65 


)> >> 


M0- „ 
Ai AVt. 19-1. 




66 


)» )> 


M0-.- „ 
M Wt. 210. 




67 


REX-_ 
III ceutrc, A 


" (Dot). 

^v wt. 19-3. 




68 


+EADMVHD REX 
(Dots). 


^ESDwaLD Mom 

(Dots). 

M Wt. 200. 




69 


^EADMVI/ID REX 
(Dot). 


NOM QJTXnaT^B'^ „ 
m Wt. 20-2. 




70 


EADMVND REX 7\N 
Cress pat toe with 
crosconts in angles. 


•I-EBErNErM MO 

Cross pattoo •with 
dots in angles. 
Ai Wt. 22-5. 


E?elhelii.. 


71 


»1<EADMVHD REX- 

Cross ]iatt('e witli 


4-EDELI>VLF M©T 

Cross jialtee with 


ESolwulf. 




crescents in angles. 


wedges in angles. 
M wt. 23-5. 




72 


(Xn dot). 


^i Wt. is'o 




7?. 


►fEADMVND REX T^N : 


T1V<JJ3€]3 hOm^l- 

(Dots). 

;i{ AVI. 21 i;. 





(ST.) EADMUND. 



93 



Obverse. 



►^E?iDMVND REX SN : 

(Dots.) Cross pattee with 
cresceutd iu augles. 



^ETXDMVIID REX T^M 



►J-ESDMVUD REX 



A 



Reverse. 



(No dots). Cross pattee 
with wedges in 
angles. 

M Wt. 19-5. 

4^FH0H EBEFTXVLE 

Cross pattee with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 20-7. 

►I<WOH EDEfT^ALE 
(Dot). 

M wt. 20-0. 



^$irERED MOM-.- 

Cross pattee with 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 20-0. 

MOM 

M Wt. 21-1. 



•A- 

[PI. XVI. 8.] 



A 



^ETXDMVND REX- _ 
■7X- 



^ERDMVND REX SN 
In centre, ^ 



M0E 

M Wt. 19-5. 



MO-.- 

M Wt. 19-0. 



Hint. Moneyer. 



^^elwulf. 



Sigered. 



4<$irRED mon:- 

M Wt. 22-2. 



^Tf>icqs COOP 

(Dots). Cross pattee 

with dots in angles. 

M Wt. 19-7. 

(No dots). M Wt. 19-8. 

m Wt. 18-6. 



J. 

[PI. XVI. 0.] 



(Dots). M Wt. 20-7. 



Ai Wt. 230. 



Twicga. 



94 



EAST ANGLIA. 



Coins which have beoi attribuhd to an uncertain King Oswald (circa 870). 

The two following coins nre apparently of East Anglian typo, snd belong to 
about the year 870. The nioneycr on No. 88 is probably " Beornheiih," and by 
this name, as wi'U as by tlie Fabric and the formation of the letters, the coin is 
couneotcd with tlie money of St. Eadmund. 

The obverse type of Xo. 88 is probably a dogmded form of what is called the 
temple or Christiana luIi(iio type of Charlemagne, Louis the I'ious, and their 
successors. It represents the fa(;ade of a Christian temple, or rather basilica, 
undoubtedly meant for the basilica of St. Peter, Rome. By its types, as well 
as by the name of tlie moneycr. No. 88 is connected with two coins bearing 
the name of ^Ethelrt'd which will be di'scribcd in the next voluiuc 'I'iiese ])iece8 
are the only coins whicli show the timple type in connection with the name of 
any known English king. Mr. D. H. Haigh, in his monograph uj)nn the coinage 
of East Anglia, p. 20, gives it as his opinion, that in these coins of Oswald and 
^thelred we have the names of two otherwise imrecorded successors of Eadmund 
during the troubles of East Anglia (indeed of the whole island), between the 
years 870 and 878. Undoubtedly tlu^re are difficulties in the way of assigning 
to yEthelred. the king of Wessex, jiicces which difl'er so greatly in eliaracter from 
the rest of his coins. But these difliculties are not sutiicient to authorise us in 
removing the coins with the name of iEtlielred from the only known king of that 
name who was on the throne at the time at which the pieces" were struck. More- 
over, the adoption of the temple is, as Mr. Kenyon has argued, consistent with the 
close relations subsisting between the kings of Wesses and Cliarles the Bald in 
France about this period (Hawkins' .Silver Coins of Emjlaml, 2nd ed. p. 119). 

The case stands somewhat diflerently with the two uncertain coins which 
follow. The coins struck in the name of ^thelred must have been struck in 
East Anglia, though they bear the name and were very likely issued by a lung 
of Wessex. All we can be certain of in respect to the two following coins is 
that they are coins of East Anglia, and that they precede the coinage of Guthorm- 
.^thelstan in 878. In fact they were probably struck very near to the year 870. 



87 



88 



Obverse. 



«^0'*'I>AJDDE 
(Dot). In centre, 



Reverse. 



•^OI>L7XaNM3 
A Cross pattee. 

m Wt. 22-6. 
[PI. XVI. 10.] 



• • aLP>DE Uncertain 

(Dot), design (front of 

temple ?), 



•i^BEOR MO 

Cross pattee with 
dots in angles. 
m (fragment). 
[PI. XVI. 11.] 



Mint. Moneycr. 



Uncertain. 



Beomheah 



^THELSTAN II. 



95 



^THELSTAN II. 

GuTHORM, Baptised with the n.vjie op ^Ethelstan after tue 
Peace of Wedjioue, a.d. 878, died a.d. 8J0. 



Abeiiol. 

Bericbe. 

Berter. 

Ciolwulf. 



Moneyers. 



Ecgwulf? 

Elda. 

Enodas. 

Guiitere. 

Judelberd. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


89 


^ED EL I7X RE 

III centre, ^ 


EDEL 
7^A RE 


In centre, dot. 
M Wt. 210. 


No moneyer. 


90 


»> » 


T^BE 
NEL 


M Wt."20-0. 


Abenel, 


91 


^ED EL m RE 


txel:- 

VEN 


M Wt."l8-9. 


iElven. 


92 


^ED m EL IVNI 


BER 
lEBE 


M Wt."21-7. 


Bericbe. 


93 


[►I-JED EL m RE 


BER 
TER 


M Wt."211. 


Berter. 


94 


^ „ 


BER 
ZJER 


M Wt."21-8. 




95 


ED EL T7X RE 


ClCiL- 
•VVLF 


Ai Wt."211. 


Ciolwulf. 


96 


•i^ED EL \1\ RE 


EEt> 
nLF 


M AVt."l93. 


Ecgwulf? 


97 


[1-1. X^ 


ELD7^ 
ME FE 

^I. 12.] 


M Wt."210. 


Elda. 


98 


)> )> 


)) 


Dots above ami 
bulow (■.■), and 
three dots (. . .) 
between lines of 
legend. 

M Wt. lU-7. 





96 



EAST ANGLIA. 



Xo. 



99 

100 
101 

102 

103 
104 
105 



Obverse. 



4«ED EL T7XN RE 

In ceutrc, »}• 



^ED EL lA RE 



L'i'l 



•J-ED EL 57\N RE 



^ED EL I7X NV 



Ecverso. 



ELDA :• Dots above 

ME FEC- and below 

(•••), find thrco 

dots(. ..)bet\vrcu 

liuos of legend. 

m AVt. 21-3. 

EfDTW- 
ME FEC- m Wt. 191. 



Jlint. Monej'or. 



ENO 
DAS 



GVNT 
ERE 



IVDEL 
BERD 



Dots . . . 
M "\Vt. 22-2. 



In centre, dot. 
M Wt. 21-9. 



In centre, dot. 
M Wt. 21-1. 



iva 

130 



Euodas. 



Gunterc. 



Judclberd. 



m Wt. 20-8. 
m Wt."21-4. I 
All these coins of Gutliorm-.ffitliel8tan arc from the Cuerdale Find. 



ST. EADMUND. 



97 



MEMORIAL COINAGE OF ST. EADMUND. 

STRUCK IN EAST ANQLIA. 

For the relationship of these coins to the earlier pennies of East Anglia as 
well as to the Dano-Norse series of Northumbria, see Introduction. ' 



Moneyere. 

*+♦ On account of the variations in the spelling of the names and the 
frequency of blundered inscriptions on the coins of this series, it is almost 
impossible to determine what are the distinctive moneyers of the "St. Eadmund" 
coinage, except after a detailed and careful examination of the coins themselves 
This list therefore comprises only moneyers represented in the National collection" 
As the immense majority of the St. Eadmund coins came from the Cuerdale Find" 
the greater part of which found its way to the British Museum, it is not probable 
that there are many moneyers of St. Eadmund beside those in the followin<^ list 

Many of the names in this series are apparently foreign ones. Some such as 
Hemmg, Sigemund, Quaran(?) seem to be Danish; many more, Adalbert Albert 
Adradus, Beringar, Ergcmond, Fredemund, Hlodovicus, Johannes, Milo' Otbert' 
Kotbert (Robert), Wandcfred, Wineger, &c., are Frankish or French No 
attempt therefore has been made to preserve the usual old English forms as has 
been done in the previous lists. ' 



Abboo [= Abboncl ?]. 

Abbonci.* 

Adalbert [Adelbert = Odulbcrt? = 

Albert ?] 
Adiret ? 
Adradus. 
-iEdinwine [ = Aoe(lwine = Ead- 

wino ?]. 
Aifa. 
Ainmcr. 

Albert [ = Adalbert?]. 
Alus. 

Ansier. [ = Ansiger]. 
Ansiger [Ansicar]. 
Arbronoe [Abbonel ?] 
Arus. 
Asten. 
Bado. 
Bascic. 
Beringar. 
Beslin. 

Bomecin [or Bosecin]. 
Chenapa. 
Comm? 
Cunernet ? 

Degemund [Dagcmund, Deimund, &c.l. 
Dcnuta) ? 
Doinolt. 
Deomunha) ? 
Dohrneis ? 
Domundan ? 
Drome. 

Dumeoa, or Dumeda ? 
Eadrcd. 



Eadwino [Jj^dwine]. 

Eadwulf. 

Eiondremun. 

Eldecar. 

Elismus. 

Elofroed ? 

Eratinof? 

Erdnunc ? 

Ergcmond. 

Erlefrannio ? 

Erlefredus ? 

Ersalt. 

Ewram ? 

Franoundo ? 

Fredemund. 

Gislefred. 

Grim. 

Gulcreo ? 

Gundbert. 

Haiebert. 

Hartmari ? 

Hcming [Hamin]. 

Hfirudoic ? 

Hlodovicus. 

Hoilumrbedo? 

Hu.scam. 

Jaord [Jaocd]. 

Jemso'^^? 

Johannes. 

Isiemund. 

IMartinus ? 

Meu?cr. 

Milo. 

Oandcrt ? 



Abcin.'! occurs as a moncycr uf Gutborm-.Ethelstan (878-S90). 



98 



EAST ANGLIA. 



Oiloinoncr. 

O.lulbert [ = Aanlbert?] 

Odulf. 

Oid? 

Onnonpft ? 

Oswiilf. 

Otbert. 

Otibuinro. 

Otie. 

Quaran ? 

Eathcr. 

Rcart [Rerar]. 

Ecmigius. 

Hi sicca [or Sislcca]. 

Robert. 

Sigcuniiul [Siiomontl, &c.]. 

Sisleca ? see Riisleca. 



Siliefa? 
Snofroii. 

Ston [Stein]. 

Stcjjliau. 

Tcdreclo. 

Tcdwiiie [Tid\vinc = Tidu\vine].* 

lldareuo. 

Undcla. 

Usca. 

Utfiof? 

Walter. 

Wiindefrcd. 

"Wniuc. 

AVi-bdld [Widbnld, &c.]. 

Wiiiedulf [W:cdulf] 

Winegcn- [Wiuiccr, Wiiiicr]. 

Wulfold. 



No. 



lOG 

107 
108 

100 

110 

111 
112 
113 
IH 
115 



Obverse. 



»tSC ETXDMVND R 

lu centre 7^ 



^coC ETXDN 



Reverse. 



^SC ET^DMVND RE 

Cross puttee. 
m Wt. 236. 

[ri. XYii. 1.] 



1017X3 OW^ 



►I'COEMDC 



[Pi. XYII. 2.] 



m Wt. IGl. 



m Wt. 22-5. 



►I^coC E7XD11VN 



^wC ETXDIOIfVNDE 

lu ccutre, A 



►i^coC ETXDIOVNI 
>i<aiC lADIOIVllDE „ 
•i^coC lADMVNE 



►l^CETXNlVlDiE 

Ai Wt. 17-5. 



^TXBBOE M/lllREt „ 

Cross pattco. 
M Wt. 20 -S. 

^TSBBOE IVWIIE 

m Wt. 19-3. 

"i-TXBOE M/1IIIE 

Ai Wt. 22-5. 



Ai Wt. 181. 

HhABllOE MIIIE 

Ai Wt. 20-3. 



Ai Wt. 15-8. 



Mint. Monej'cr. 



Abboe ; 
perl Kips for 
Abboucl. 



* Till' iianio or a moneyr of Kiulwiaril {c. H:i7-H.')(i). 

+ lOI f'T IVI- 'I'liis form freiiuoiitly occurs throughout the periop. 

X Tbese liiial letters arc probably a blundcreil contraction of ilie word monctarius. 



ST. EADMUND. 



99 



Obverse. 



►J^COC EADIOIVNE 

In centre, A 



•I-SC ET^DMVND RE 

In centre A 



•J<a)C E7\DI0VNI 
•I'COC E7XDI0IVND RE 



«i<C0C E7\DI0IVNDE „ 



^COC ET^DIOIAIII 7^ 
^COC ET^DIOVII A 

•i-COC E7X: DHIIE 



«I<EI07^VDI/17XC 
(Dots) Blundered legend. 



>i^SC EADMVUD RE 
lu centre • A 



^TXPBOE ITNIIE 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 20-5. 



^SBBOEIEL M0NE7\ 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 19-3. 

«i^7\BOI\EL MONE „ 

M Wt. 21-3. 

•I-T^BBONOE MRT^IE 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21-5. 

MRAE „ 
M Wt. 22-6. 

MRIE „ 
m AVt. 18-4. 

MRE „ 
M Wt. 21-8. 

MIE „ 
M Wt. 21-8. 

ME 
m Wt. 21-5. 

NVIE 
M Wt. 220. 

"i^TXBONELLO : 7X 

M Wt. 20-5. 



M Wt. 20-6. 

»i«ABBONOE WHE „ 

M Wt. 20-2. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Abbiie ; 
perhaps for 
Abbonel. 



Abbouel. 



•i^TlCOTXLBERT MONE 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 20-4. 
[PI. XVII. 3.] 



A 



•h^C EMDMVNE A 



MOE „ 
Si Wt. 19-8. 

NE „ 
M Wt. 2 11. 

^T^DT^LBERT M 

ii; Wt. 21-4. 



Adalbert, or 
Adell)ert. 
[See also 
Odulbcrt.] 



H 2 



100 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


IJcvcrso. 


Sllnt. Moncycr. 


133 
134 


^COC E7XDMVH 

In ocutro, A 


^7\DaLBERTE 

Cross patte'e. 
m M't. 17-3. 

M Wt. 23'r). 
[PI. XYII. 4.] 


Adalbert, or 
Adclbirt. 
r^ee also 
Odulbert.] 


135 


•i^wCIT^MIID 


M Wt. 21-5. 




136 


»i<C0CI7\IIVIE 


m Wt. 23-2. 




137 


►J-wC EAIDIVIVI 


•J-TXDSLBER NE 

m Wt. 21-5. 




138 


•i«a)C E7\INVM 
(Dot). 


M Wt. 21-5. 




139 


►i^wC ETXDHIIDE 


►I'TXDTXLTXR MO 

Ai Wt. 21-3. 




140 


^COC EADI/IIID 

(Three crescents and 
dot between HI). 


M Wt. 22'(). 




141 


^coC EADMVND R „ 


>1-7XDEL7\RT MO 

Ai Wt. 17-4. 




142 


-i^SC ETXDMVND REX 
In centre ■'.■7^'.- 


•i^ADELBERT MEEEIC 
.ai Wt. 23-4. 




143 


►J^SC ET^DMVND RE^ 


><7^DELBERT ME FEO 

Cro.ss pat tee. 
m Wt. 22-0. 




144 


»i«8C E7XDWVND RE „ 
(Dot). 


•1<7\DLLBRT NE EEC 
Si Wt."22-0. 




145 


» >> 


•i-TXDELBERT ME EEC 








Ai Wt."2r4. 




14C 


^SC E71DMVND RE.- 

•A- 


►J-TXDELBERT ME F 

Ai Wt."210. 




147 


W RE „ 


►I-ADELBERT MEEC 

M Wt."20-7. 




148 


►i-WC ET^DKiVvJD RE ., 
(Dot). 


«i«ADELBERA MEECC 
Ai Wt. 191). 





ST. EADMUND. 



101 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Sllnt. Moneyer. 



149 '^COC E7XDI1VIID REX P* 
111 ceutre -i-A- !• 



>h^C ETXDMVNIE A 



"I-SC EADMVl/ID RE „ 



►I^SC ET^DNVND REX 



^COC ETXIDMVNE A 

^COC E7XID|v|VI A 

it >) 

^coC lAl^llDI R 

^coc e7xdmvnie a- 

^odc eadhiide a 

►i^coC CAIDI|V|I| A 

"^■odc E7\di/iiide a 

(Dota). 

«i«coC E7XDMVH 
■i^cflC LTXDMVN RE 

■A- 



►^AOTXLBERT NEDAIEf Aoalbert[for 
Small cross pattee. Adalbert], 
M Wt. 21-]. 

NIE 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21 0. 



m Wt. 21-4. 

NHE „ 
M Wt. 20-3. 
[PL XYII. 5.] 

NE „ 
ai Wt. 201. 

Nl 
Small cross pattee. 
M Wt. 23-3. 

^T^OALBERTE 

Cross pattee. 
M AVt. 21-9. 

►tAOALBERTI 

m Wt. 19-8. 

^AOALBERTII 

M Wt. 18-3. 

■^TXOAbBER M 

M Wt. 19-0. 

^AOLBRT NIIME „ 

M Wt. 19-9. 

^AOALBIERT 

M Wt. 20-3. 

^7\07\LBIERTE 

Ji Wt. 19-2. 

i^AOTXLBIERAt 

3i Wt. 22-4. 

^AOLBIERAI 

Ai Wt. 19-9. 

.^AObBER M 

M Wt. 210. 

►i<AOLBRA NIIME „ 

M Wt. 20-1. 

* The P scorns to be (iorived from a, form of REX I M P. of which some traces are found in 
other legends, and whicli is imitated from the Carlovingiun coinage. 

t It is impossible to say what these letters were dcslguixl to represent. ^J A ^^^' T- 



102 



EAST ANGLTA. 



No. 


Obvcr>o. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Slonoyer. 


IGG 


^odC E7XDMVNIE 

■A- 


^TXOLBRT NIME 

Cross pattco. 
M Wt. 20-5. 


Aoalbert [for 
Adalbert]. 


167 


•^coC C7\DMVN R „ 


►^TXOLBRA IIIME „ 

Ai Wt. 20-5. 




168 


>) )> 


^7\0LBR nil ME „ 

M Wt. 19-8. 




169 


'i'CnC CTXDIVIVN A- 


^7\OLBR7X IIIIYII „ 

Ai Wt. 2 10. 




170 


„ 


IIMVI „ 
M AVt. 22-5. 




171 


•I-wC CADIVII R 


M Wt. 190. 




172 


►tcoC I7XI1VIE A 


■^TXOABERTI 

m Wt. 20-5. 




173 


^WC C7XDMVN R A- 


►i^TXOLERIIII lYIE „ 

Si Wt. 20-8. 




174 


^COC C7XDIVIVII R „ 


►I^T^OLERIII lYIE „ 

m Wt. 21-8. 




175 


3fl VN97Xn 9-CO^ A 


•l-T^OLRRT NIIE „ 

Si Wt. 190. 




17G 


^roc CTXDivivN-: r:- 

(Dots iu legend). A 


^T^oiRT^Mi ivi-:i:- 

(Dots in leg.) „ 

M Wt. 210. 




177 


^030 IT^DIOIVNDE A 


►^TXDIITE MIME 

Cross pattc'e. 
M Wt. 19-7. 


Adirct [for 
Adalbert V] 


178 


►t'SC EAD^VND R „ 


HItTDIRET MOIIETA „ 
Ai Wt. 21. 




179 


^SC E7\DMVND RE[X] 
In centre A 


•^ADRTXDVS ME FECIT 

Cro.cis pattc'e. 
211 Wt. 23-1. 


Adradus. 




[PI. X 


VII. 6.] 




180 


4-SC E7\D1/IVI/ID REX IP 

:A:- 


►fADRADUS VVONE 

Ai Wt. 22-8. 




181 


►taC EADMVND RIE 


>^ADRADV^ VVOUE 

M wt. 23-3. 





ST. EADMUNU. 



10:3 



No. 


Obvereo. 


Revcr.se. 


MiQt. Moneyer. 


182 


^SC E7XDMVND REX 
(Dots in legend). -'.T^'.- 


►I<^DR7\DVS VVONE± 
Cross patte'c. 
M Wt. 19-9. 


Adradus. 




[PI. XVII. 7.] 




183 


RE 


VVONE± 






m Wt. 21-0. 




184 


^8C ETXDMVND PC „ 


VV0NE 
M Wt. 22-7. 




185 


►P3C E7VDWVND RE 


VVONE 






(Dot in legend). • A ■ 


M Wt. 22-2. 




18G 


►^SCE C7\DMVIID RE 


M Wt. 22-8. 




187 


^SC E7XDMHD PE 


»I<7\DR7\DVS VVOH „ 

M Wt. 18-5. 




188 


^3C E7\DMVND PC 

A 


VVOE „ 
M Wt. 21-4. 




189 


►I^SC E7XDMVND RE-;- 


VONET 






-.A:- 


M Wt. 20-2 




190 


"I^SC EADMVNDI RE 


4-/XDR7\DVw MONE 






jR Wt. i's-s. 




191 


» 


MOT „ 

2R Wt. 21-8. 




192 


^3C ET^DMVMD RT 


►I<ADR7\DV3 VVOUE 






m Wt. 'l'7-5. 




193 


^SC EADMVMD RC 

■.A.- 


►i</\DR7XVS VVONF .. 

3 Wt. 20-5. 




194 


•^SC ET^DVND RE A 


►t'TXDRADco VON El ., 

Ai Wt. 21-3. 




195 


►I^WC EADMVN Rl 


^iXDRTXDVco VVOI ., 

JR Wt. 190. 




190 


^3BE 6ADlAiVH 

A 


3 VVOI/IE 






M Wt. 20-2. 




197 


>^coC E/\DHIIDE 


w VVOI „ 
M Wt. 201. 





104 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Obvorsi'. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


198 


•^030 IDI0IVMDE 7^ 


ADRADVe VV0HE 

Cro.-^s patk'c. 
St Wt. 18-2. 


Adradus. 


199 


"J-SC E7\IMVND REDX 


•J^ADRTXDVS MOTh „ 

Bi Wt. 20-9. 




200 


'i'cnC E7XINVMD RE;Ci 


CO VVOI „ 
M wt. 20-7. 




201 


C R „ 


m" Wt. 2'i-5. 




202 


►i<coC E7\INVMD 


S MO 
M Wt. 18-5. 




203 


VID 


m Wt. 18-7. 




204 


►I-coC ET^INVMD RE„ 


coVVONE,, 
M Wt. 200. 




205 


EAINVMD 


VVOI „ 
M Wt. 21-8. 




206 


>> 1) 


vvo „ 

M Wt. 18-G. 




207 


" >) 


vv 

M Wt. 19-3. 




208 


-^coC EmNMD R „ 


't'TXDRADVco AAO 

M Wt. 20-7. 




209 


»' I. 


VVOI 
M wt. 21-8. 




210 


)« „ 


"J-ADRAVW VVOI 

.aj Wt. 18-5. 




211 


" » 


VVOIE „ 
ill Wt. 209. 




212 


" ») 


WOE 
in Wt. 20-2. 




213 


E 


"i-ARADVO) VVOI 

M Wt. 191. 




211 


" » 


'i'ADRVco VVOIE 

M Wt. 21-8. 




215 


>h(^C EAINM R 


•J-ADRADVco won 

m Wt. 2 1-0. 




210 


•i"SC lAI/IIID RE 


•I-ADAR NONET 





Ai Wt. 21-8. 



ST. EADMUND. 



105 



Obverse. 



Jlint. Monoyer. 



•twC E?kDHVND R A 



"i-roC C7XDIV1VH A 



CII/IVIiaAl: Oro^ 

In centre, A 



"J^J.CE 67XDVIND RE 
In centre, A 



^8C E7\DMVHD RE 
►fcoC CT^EIMVN R „ 

►tcoC ECT^DMVHDE 

«i<coC EADMVNIE A- 

>tEC IIAO'QTX A 



S1SE GADMVND REX 
In ccntic, A 



•i<coC EADMVND R „ 

"JiCoC E7XDMVIIC 

•t-wC ITXDMVNT 
* f^r AIFA ME FECIT? 



»^7XDVCV3 VOHRE± Adrurlus. 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 237. 



^TXEDIMVIVN iEdwiue. 

(Dot in M). 

Cross pat tee. 
M Wt. 18-2. 



•^•i«-.-AI37X10lhbD* Aifa? 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 22-0. 

•i^^:- 7\nTI0FIEIV„ 

^ wt. 22-1. 



^7\IEMNET MON33t Ainmer. 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 18-9. 

•.•7XI1/1MER MOUCT,, 

M Wt. 21-7. 

4<[C?]7X1R0EDRVME Uncertain. 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 18-6. 

►^AIICONREIOIITRTX „ Uncertain. 
M Wt. 20-4. 



•i<7\LBRT NllrtOE Albert. 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt.21-5. 



■^T^LVco VVOEE Alu3. 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 19-8. 



^^RNSIGER M0NET7\ Ansiger, or 
Small cross patte'e. Ansicur. 
m Wt. 220. 

•^TXNcoiaTtR lOI 

Cross patte'e. 
« Wt. 21-2. 



M Wt. 21-5. 

■i^i^i/iriaAR oiYi 

M wt. IS'7. 
t I'ui AINMER MONET? 



100 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Olivcrse. 


Kovorse. 


Mint. MonP3-er. 


231 


^coC lADMVNIE 


A 


^TXNriQAR 


lOlVI 

Cross pattec. 
JB AVt. 20-3. 


Aiu-igar, or 
Ausicar. 


232 


►i«c/5C lADMVNE 


" 


M 


M "wt. 20-3. 




233 


" 


A 


^/XNCOIQT^R 


101 
Ai Wt. l'J-8. 




234 


" 


A 


»> 


iB Wt. 201. 




235 


- 


■A- 


►^7\Ma3lD7\R 


101 

m Wt. ITS. 




23G 


•tCoC E7XINVM 


A 


►I-7XNC0ia7\R 


101 
M wt. 20G. 




237 


" 


>> 


" 


10 

M Wt. 21-2. 




238 


" 


-' 


)) 


01 
M Wt. 200. 




239 


►i^coC CT^INVII 


" 


>) 


o 

M Wt. 20-6. 




240 


^COC EANVMI 


>> 




101 

Ai Wt. 19-5. 




241 


.j<roa o?;a>^dii 


•A- 


" 


M Wt. 22-5. 




242 


"fCOC ITXDMVHE 


A 


^TXNIIQTXR 


lOIV 

3i wt. 21-5. 




243 


^S^E 67XDMVND REX 


•I^T^I/ICOIER MOHETKI 

Small cross puttre. 
iR Wt. 20-4. 


Ansicr for 
Ausigir? 


244 


•i«SC E7XDMVND 
(Dot). 


RC„ 


►PANSIER 


NONETKI 
.11 Wt. 2i-9. 




245 


^co-GE GADMVNDE R 

:• A •: 


►PANSIER 


H0NT7X 
Cross patte'c. 
M Wt. 18-5. 




24G 


^^COCE CADMVHDE 

A 


i> 


M Wt. 21-3. 




247 


•i^SCE C7XDMVNDE A 


" 


ii: Wt. 221. 




248 


CO H 


A 


HhAHc/5lER 


MOMET „ 
M Wt. 21-7. 





ST. EADMUND. 



107 



No. 


Obvcrso. 


Reverse. 


Hint. Moneycr. 


249 


►i-coCE CT^DMVHDE 


^SNcolER MOHEI 

Small cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 18-5. 


Ansier for 
Ansiger ? 


250 


" 


" 


►i^TXNcolER WON 

Cross patte'e. 
51 Wt. 231. 




251 


^COC E7^DHVND+E_ 


M Wt. 22-4. 




252 


.^coCE CADMVHI 


A 


•i^TXNcoIER MOIE 

M Wt. 22-9. 




253 


" 


" 


MOE 
M Wt. 20-6. 




254 


" 


>i 


HON 

m Wt. 21-6. 




255 


►J-coC ET^DMVHI 


A 


m Wt. 19-8. 




256 


►tcoC E1\\M Ml 
(Dots). 


A 


•i^T^NSCR.EDM 

(Dots). M Wt. 20-4. 




257 


^COC E7XDIVMN 


A 


>^7X0EDIMVIVN 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 21-0. 


Aoedwino 

[for 
^dwine ?] 


258 


«i«SC ET^DIOIVH RE 

A 


►^TXRBROHOE \A1\E 

Cross patte'o. 
M Wt. 19-8. 


Arhronoe ? 
[Possibly for 
Abbonel, q.v.] 


259 


<i>UiC ET^DIUVND 


A 


»i«7XRVC0 VVOEIC 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 23-3. 


Arus. 


260 


•I^COC ETXINMD R 




"m Wt. 22-3. 




261 


" 




„ VVOEIIC „ 

M Wt. 190. 




262 


"I-coC E7XINVMD 




„ VVOEIC 

M Wt. 21-5. 




263 






„ VVOEIIE „ 

M AVt. 187. 




264 


►^ODC ET^INM R 




„ VVOEIC 

^v Wt. 14-4. 




265 


" 




., VVOIIC 

55 Wt. 15-5. 





108 



EAST ANGLIA. 



Xo. 


(.>bvorsc. 


Itovoiso. 


Mint. Muncycr. 


2GG 


^030 EADIVIIR -A- 


.i<ARVa3 VVOEIIC 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 21-3. 


Arus. 


2(37 


^SC EAIDMVNDE _ 


►FASTEN IMONET 

Cnws paft(?e. 
at Wt. 21-5. 


Aston. 


268 


^coC CT^DIVII R A- 


^BADO AAIIE 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 21-8. 


Dado. 


2G9 


4-coC CT^DIVIVN R A 


„ AANE 

M Wt. 20-7. 




270 


►i-coC EA DMVI 

(Between 7\ nnd D 
figure meant for 
front face). 


„ AAIIE 
(Four dots after D.) 
.as Wt. 20-8. 




271 


(Same figure be- 
tween 1\ and D). 


„ AIIEN 
(Four dots after D.) 
M Wt. 18-2. 




272 


►I^COC E7XDNV 

(Nothing between 
letters). 


„ ANEII 

(Three dots after D.) 
M Wt. 22-0. 




273 


^SC E7\DMVHD RE[X] 

A 


^BASCIC ME FECIT 

Cross patte'e. 
Ai Wt. 22-7. 


Bascic. 


274 


^cnC ETXDNVN 


-^BERIHCARI 

Cross patte'e. 
Ai Wt. 21-0. 


Beringar[ius]. 


275 


^roC EIIUVI/I 


^BERIi/IICARI 

Ai Wt. 221. 




276 


'i'U^C I7\DMVHE A- 


^BERIHICARI 

.li Wt. 18-2. 




277 


^HcoRCT^IIVMF A 
(Dot.s). 


Si Wt. 16-8. 




278 


-J^SC E7\DMVI/ID RE 

A- 


'I'BCSLIN MINET 

Cross pattt'e. 
ill Wt. 200. 


Bcsliu. 


279 


4-50 EADWVND RE 
(Dot). A- 


4^BESLIN MNET „ 

Ai Wt. 20-3. 




280 


^WC E-I-DNV RE A 


►I-BESLOIH MiyDA „ 

M W(. 22-0. 





ST. EADMUND. 



109 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


281 


►i-coC EADIIVIID REX P 


^BOMECN MONA 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21-9. 


Bomecin, or 
Bosecin. 


282 


1 


M Wt. 2U-G. 




283 


„ 


MONI „ 
M Wt. 21-8. 




284 


>^coC E7XD1/II1D RE P „ MONA „ 

M Wt. 21-8. 
[PI. XVII. 8.] 




285 


)) )) 


1 „ 
3i Wt. 2 10. 




286 


^coB E7XDMVN Rl 


MON „ 
M Wt. 20-6. 




287 


^coC E7XDMVN R-.- 


MONA „ 
M AVt. 21-7. 




288 


-J^WC ETXDHIID RE_ 

:A-: 


^BOIVIICN IVION „ 

Ai Wt. 18-1. 
[PI. XVII. 9.] 




289 


XSS EADMVND REXNP 


>{BO$ECIN MONETAINR 
Small cross pattee. 
M Wt. 22-0. 
[PI. XVII. 10.] 




290 


^coC EADIIVNDREX IP 


►I^BOSECIH MOHETA 






" 


M wt. 2'6-3. 




291 


„ 


^BOSECIN MONA „ 

M Wt. 19-5. 




202 


^coC EADIIVIID REX P 


M Wt. 20-5. 




293 


VND IP 


^BOSECIN MONTA 

M Wt. 19-5. 




294 


VIID P 


^BOcoECIN MONRA 

Ai Wt. 23-5. 




295 


XSGE eADMVND RE P 


'i'BOSECIN MONETA 
Ai Wt. 22 -6. 




29G 


^SC EADMVND REX 


^BO$ECIN MOINTT 

Cross pattiio. 
ai Wt. 220. 





110 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


OliYprso. 


Reverse. 


;\Iint. Hlonoycr. 


297 


^SC E75DMVND REX 


•i<B05ECIN M0IN7\ 

CronH puttee. 
Ai AVt. 18-2. 


Bomccin, or 
Boeecio. 


298 


^coBE C7XDMVND RE 


^^bOcoECIN MOUE,, 

M Wt. lG-6. 




299 


^WC ETXDhHVND RE 


^BOSECIN M0NET7X 






m Wt. 21-7. 




300 


^SC ET^DMVND Rl „ 


m AVt. 21-2. 




301 


^coC E7XDHIID RE 


^BOSECIM MO 

M Wt. 220. 




302 


75i 


i^BOcoECIN MO „ 

M Wt. 17-4. 




303 


^SC E7\DMVND R /Ov 


►i'CI-ENTXPA MOKE 

Cross pattcV'. 
M Wt. 18-3. 


Chenapa. 


304 


^SB E7XDNVND RE„ 


ME FECIT 
Ai Wt. 25-9. 




305 


>! )) 


MONET,, 
.51 Wt. 24-5. 


, 


30G 


1! ») 


MO^E „ 
M AVt. 21-5. 




307 


4<SC ETXDNVND RE:- 


M Wt. 180. 




308 


»i«SC E?iDMVN RE^ 


MON „ 
m Wt. 21-4. 




309 


^co-C E7XDNVD RE „ 


MONE 
Small cross pat tee. 
ill Wt. 19-5. 




310 


.J^coC ET^IMVMD A 


MONE „ 
Ai Wt. 2 10. 




311 


^WC ET\\D\ A 


►I-COH/I 101 

Cross patteo. 


Comm? 



312 



[PI. XVII. 11.] 



m Wt. 190. 



^UiC E7\DMVNI A 
(Dots). 



"i-CVNRNET IVIE 

Cn)s.s pattdc. 
Ai Wt. 21-5. 



Cunemct? 



ST. EADMUND. 



Ill 



313 



314 



315 



316 



317 



318 



319 



320 



321 



322 



323 



324 



325 



>i'\G EADMViai A 



•hlG Ey^DMVDE A 



^coCC T^LIIMN A 



^WC ITXmiD R 



^COC ET^DNVI A 

Four anuulets nrouud. 



>{SeE 67^DMVI/IDE REX 
IHR 

lu centre, .-.A.-. 



•J^CVNRIIETE 

Cross pattec. 
M Wt. 20-3. 



►^CIAIIMIV IIOE 

Cross patte'o. 
M Wt. 17-3. 



"i^EIVTXIIIIVRH 

M Wt. 15-4. 



►I^EIAIICIECV 

M Wt. 17-G. 



■^CDBVINI -.-TX- 

Crot'S pattee, witli 

anuulets in angles. 

M Wt. 20-2. 



^DECEMVND MONETA 

Small cross pattee. 

.55 Wt. 20-0. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



[PI. XYII. 12.] 



►I^SISE eSDMVND RE 
"i'WC EDI-JiiVM RE^ 



J<SeE GTXDMVUDE REX 
IHR .-.M.-. 



►I'SSE GSDMVND RE 



^SB ESDMVND RE 

A 



4^ooEE 6ADMVND RE 



M Wt. 20-1. 

•J^DEGEMVUD MOl/ETS 

m Wt. 21-4. 

^DTXGEMOND MONET 
M Wt. 20-6. 
[PI. XYII. 13.] 

>^DSGEMONE MONETS 

Ai AVt. 20-9. 
^DSGEMOND MONET 

m Wt. 2CI-3. 
^DTXCEMOND MONET 

M Wt. 2'i-5. 
•i-DAGEMO NOHEIT 

m Wt. 191. 



Cuneruct ? 



Uncertain. 



Uncertain. 



Uncertain. 



Uncertain, 



Degcmund, 
DagemunJ, 
&c. 



112 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneycr. 


326 


^3BE eiZDMALD R 7Si 


^DXIGEMOUD OT 

Crotis j)atte(>. 
Ai Wt. 220. 


Dcgomund, 
Dagcmuud, 
&c. 


327 


•i«8CE CiZDNV^D RE 

A- 


•tDVCENOND pxjET 

Small cross pattee. 
m Wt. 17-6. 




328 


'J'SCE E7^DMVHDE>M/IR 


►I^DTXIEMOUD MOTT^ 






.-.M.-. 


« AVt. 21 -1. 




329 


►i«SlSE eTXDMVUDE VR 

A 


"^DT^IEMUD MT7\ 

Cross pattee. 
JR Wt. 22-5. 




330 


^SeE eaDIIVMD RE P 


^DTXIEMOND MOA„ 

m Wt. 22-3. 




331 


•i'SISE eSDMVND RE 


J^DaiEMOUD MOl€Ta 
m Wt. 20-5. 




332 


» 


7X „ MOTA 

m Wt. 21-2. 




333 


w » 


'I'DAIEMOIID MOI 

Small cross pnttco. 
m Wt. 20-1. 




334 


•i^SEE esDMVND R 


N 

Cross pattc'o. 
.at AVt. 20-2. 




335 


►i^SGE G7XDMVHDEXR 


>^DAIEMOHD MOTA 

m Wt. 200. 




336 


^coBE GADMVNDE R 


i« Wt. 2C)-9. 




337 


" >> 


^DAIEMOND MOA„ 

iii Wt. 2 IS. 




338 


» 


OA „ 
M Wt. 20-7. 




339 


►i-coBE 67\DMVNDE 


MOI „ 
M Wt. 21 -O. 




340 


., 


NO „ 

M Wt. 22 4. 




341 


^coBE GADMVND RE 
>> 


i'DAlE MOI/ET MONA 





Ai Wt. 21-7. 



ST. EADMUND. 



13 



Xo. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


342 


't'W-eE GADMVND R 


«I<DAIEMOHT MONA 

Small oross pattee. 
m Wt. 22-0. 


Degemimd, 
Dagemund, 


343 


^coC E7\DIHVND RE 


«I«D7\IEMOND HOI 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 22-6. 




344 


^coC EADIHVNE „ 


S H0I7X 

51 Wt. 21-0. 




345 


^colS E7XDMVN Rl 


MO „ 
M Wt. 211. 




346 


«I«coBE7\DMVRNE.-.7SJ.-. 


NOI „ 
M Wt. 21-0. 




347 


•■■TSi:- 


Viom 

M Wt. 20-9. 




348 


^coC E7\INVMD ^ 


^-DTXIEMOND NO „ 

M Wt. 21-3. 




349 


"^coC EAINVM 

[PI. X\ 


^DSIEMOND MO „ 
M Wt. 20-0 
11. 14.] 1 




350 


^coC ETXDIIVIID REX 1 

-.A:- 


^DTXEMOND MOTI „ 

m Wt. 20-0. 




351 


^coB EADMVN Rl 


m Wt. 19-5. 




352 


^CflC E7\DMVN Rl „ 


MOT „ 
M Wt. 221. 




353 


'i'CoB 


MTI „ 
M Wt. 23-8 




354 


„ 


Ml 
M wt. 19-5. 




355 


►I"8CE GNVUDE REXl/lR 


►^DAGHOHE HOHETA 

Small cross pattoe. 

Si Wt. 22-7. 




35G 


^SBE €SDMVND RE 


KDEIMVHD MOHES 






m Wt. 21-4. 




357 


►I-SC'EADMVND REX 


MONEA 
m Wt. 220. 




358 


>I<S1S EADMVND RE 

Cross [ml too. 


>{DEIMVND MONETA 

-.A-.- 

m Wt. 21 5. 





114 



EAST ANGLIA. 



Xo. 



Obverse. 



359 

360 
861 

362 
863 
364 
365 

366 

367 
368 

369 

370 
371 



^SC EADNVND REX 



•i«coC IT^DMVNT A 
•J.COISE GADMVL 



Reverse. 



XDEINVND NONE 

Ci'oss pat tec. 
Ai Wt. 23- 1. 

^DAGIEMVND ME F 
m Wt. 23-2. 

^DEGEIIVMD II 

Smull crot-s pattee. 
M Wt. 22-8. 



The ten followiug coins are of more barbarous work. 
^J,CE e^DVIND RE 



^3C E7\DMVND REP 



^WC EADIIIVIIHE „ 



'J'SCE CiiNRDAI A 



^8C ESDIVIVHD RI3 



^SC EDAIIOIVMDIE 



4<0C EARMVNE -.A- 



^^DAIENVOIVEDINC 



■A 



«I«DAIEM©I3T M0N3 
Cross patteo. 
3i Wt. 19 0. 

►t'DAIENOND MONTA 

M Wt. 18-i. 

^DAIEMOIIT MOIIA 

Small cross patte'e. 
M AVt. 18-3. 

.J-DAIEp^OUD VNE 

Cross pattee. 
M AVt. 20-0. 
[PI. XVII. 15.] 

^DAIEMVUD MONE 

Cross patte'e. (In 
3rd and 4th quar- 
ter pyramid of 
dots .-.) 

.ai Wt. 16-5. 

MOI/E,, 
(No dots). 
iB Wt. 18-6. 

►J-DAIEMVND NOUE 

yiuall cross patteo 
with dot in each 
angle. 

SI Wt. 200. 

•i«DAIENOMDVI MOI 

Cross patte'C. 
Ai AVt. 20-8. 

•I<DAIENO!VED NOT,, 

Ai Wt. 212. 

4^DAIEN0N€& NOT,, 

Ai Wt. 21:5. 



Mint. Monoyer. 



Degemund, 
Dagemuud, 
&c. 



ST. EADMUND. 



115 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


372 


•i«3C EMVUHVT A 


>^DVMNVI/E ROT 

Cross pattee, 
m Wt. 18-5. 


Dagmuud ? 


373 


•i<SC ET^DMVD RE A 


^DEINOLT ME FEC 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 19-0. 


Deiuolt. 


374 


•i-coC E-i^DNV RE A 


•i«DEH/VT/E NOAE 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 20-3. 


Denutae ? 


375 


►I^coC NDVMOINE „ 


^DFOIVIHVUHAE 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 17-2. 


Deomunliae ? 


376 


^WC E7\DNVDE A 


•I^DOHRHIEIcoF 

Small cross pattee. 
M Wt. 20-0. 


Dohmeis ? 


377 


^BcoC l/IVNVET A 


4-Dl/IOVIVIDAII 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21-8. 


Domundan ? 


378 


^roe ETXDIVINVDE 

-.A-.- 


^DBOIVIE VIONET 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 23-5. 


Drome. 


379 


^^EroVIVIBAM A 


^DVIVIEOT^ HOI 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 22-8. 


Dumeoa or 
Dumeda? 


380 


►J^coB ETXDMVUDI RE 

A 


^EADRET M0NET7X 

Cro.ss patte'e. 
M Wt. 15 5. 


Eadred. 


381 


•i«SC EADMVND RE[X] 


EDVVIHVS HE FC^T 
Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 19-9. 


Eadwine. 


382 


^COlS E7XDMVND1 RE 


^EDVLFVS ME FECIT 
Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 200. 


Eadwulf[us]. 


383 


NC ETXNDMVN R A 


^EIONDAEMVN IVI 

Cross pattee. 
SI Wt. 180. 


Eiondaomun. 



I 2 



116 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Oliverpc. 


Reverse. 


]Mint. Moneyer. 


384 


4-wC ETXDI (Dots). A 


►^ELQECTiR 

Cross pattc'e. 
m Wt. 17-7. 


Eldecar. 


385 


^CPC E7\D1IVNE 


^ELlwMVco. AAO 

Cross pntte'e. 
M Wt. 18-5. 


Elisnuis. 


386 


^COC L7XMVHI A 

Crescent after 1\ in 
legend, and over 
larger 1\ 


^ELOFROED Rl/I* 

Cross jiatto'e. 
m Wt. 19-3. 


Elofroed? 


387 


Crescents as last. 


"I^ERATINOFINO* 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 20-5. 


Eratinof? 


388 


^coC ETXmVMD A 


►I-ERDNVCHE Yl 

Cross patte'o. 
.54 Wt. 18-8. 


Erdnunc? 


389 


^3CADMVMD RIE 
(Duts). A 


>^3RDNVFIIEVSII „ 

(Dots in 1( gend). 

M Wt. 19-0. 




S90 


^COC EADMVMIIOI 

-.A-.- 


3RDNVCIIEV0 
(Dots in legend). 

M Wt. 21-3. 




391 


^NSE GTXDMVND RE 

A 


^ERGEMOND MONEA 
Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 200. 


Ergomond. 


392 


)) )> 


m Wt. 20-7. 




393 


^coC E7\DNVHD RE 
(Doti:;). A 


"fERLEFRANNIO: 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 22-3. 


Erlefrannio? 


394 


^CflC E7XDNVHE 
(Dots). 


ERLEFANOI (Dots).,, 

Ai Wt. 18-8. 




395 


►I-c/)C EADNVHE- A 
(Uots). 


►I-ERLEFIuEDVco 

(Dots). Cross pattee. 
Ai Wt. 21-6. 


lOrlefredus? 



• Ah the obvers'8 of these twn iiieces arc frnm the hiiiiic ilie, one is Uiii|iif,l t<> lliiiik tliat the 
rcvcrscB must likewise really hoth liave l>ccn made by the i^aine moneycr, unlike as they are. 



ST. EAD.MUND. 



117 



Xo. 



3'J6 

897 
398 

399 

400 

401 
402 

403 

404 
405 

40G 



408 
409 



•I-SC E7XDNVNE RF_ 

^bDREHlDTXH :A- 
(Dots). 



^hDRENIDT^NAC 



■A- 



^DDREHID7\N7\E 7^ 
►i^CDRENIDTXNC A- 

►^CDRENIDANT^E A- 



►^[coJC EADMVN R 



A 



^coVC CRDU Hi A 



^coC C7XDIIV1ET 



►J-ElcompxlVDCI A 



407 ►I'S-G EADHVND REX 

.-.A. 



»^SC E7XDMVHD R 



A 



►I<SC ETXDMVNDI RE 
-.A- 



Reverse. 



►i^ERSTXLT MONI 

Small cross pattce. 
M Wt. 20-5. 



►^ERcoTXLT MOM 

M Wt. 18-9. 

MON 
(Dot over M). 

Cross patte'e. 
51 Wt. 17-5. 

^ERcoALT MON 

(•.•over M). (Dotsin3r.l 

and 4th qu. of cross). 

M Wt. 14-5. 

^CRcoAL" MOII 
(Dots). 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 16-0. 

NOM-IT^ronn-^ 
(Dot). M Wt. 21-2. 

4<CRaD7\L-MON 

(Dot in k'g. and over M) 
M Wt. 15-7. 

^ESTTXLE MONEI „ 

m Wt. 24 0. 



^EVVRAM HO 

(Dot). Cross pattJo. 

M Wt. IS'G. 

^EVR M0BI7\DT „ 

M Wt. 19-7. 



^FRANOVUDO 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 19-5. 



►^FREDEMVN MO 

Cro^s pattee. 
M Wt. 2ro. 



-pFREOEMVND NO,, 

M Wt. 2 13. 

►I-FREDEMVN MOT., 

M Wt. 22-8. 



:\Iint. Moneyer. 



Erealt. 



Ewram? 



Franoimdo ? 



Fredemuud 



118 



EAST ANGLIA. 



Xo. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. ^loncycr. 


410 


I\l QMUDAe ECW A 


►I-EREDIIVR IVO 

Cross patti'o. 
m Wt. 17-3. 


Frodeiiiuud. 


411 


4-wC E7\D1MVNIE A •^GIwLEFREDO 

l)L'Io\v ^. Cross pattec. 
M \Vt. 21-3. 

[n. XVII. 1(3.] 


Giblefrcd. 


412 


^coC EADIHVI A 


m Wt. 220. 




413 


►I^coC E7XDIHVNIE A 

Below, s^ 


►I<GI05LEFREDOA „ 

Ai Wl. 21-7. 




414 


^WC E7\DMVN A 


►I'GISLER-.-AA 

M AVt. 20-5. 




415 


•iXPC ET^DII 


►i^GlcohsELR 

M Wt. 23-0. 




410 


•I-SC EKDHVHD RE-.- 

■A- 


^GRIN MO ME FECIT 
(Poiut in legend). 

Cross pattet". 
M Wt. 22-8. 


Grim. 


417 


>> >) 


^'GRIMO ME FECIT 

Small cross pattec. 
Ai AVt. 22-8. 




418 


>> >) 


•I'GRIME FECIT MO 

Cross pattec. 
M AVt. iy-5. 




410 


"i^SC EADMVND RE-.- 


"I^GRIMO MONETA 

Small cross patteo. 
M Wt. lU-5. 




420 


►I-SD EADMVD RE 

-.A-.- 


"I-GRIMO ME FECIT 

Cross pattec. 
M Wt. 18-5. 




"421 


"i-aJC EADN A 


►I'GVLEREO 

Cross pattec. 
iff Wt. 22-6. 


fi iilcrco ? 


422 


►l^SB EADMVD REX 

A 


►I^SVNDBERT MON 

Cross patte'c. 
ai AVt. 21-8. 


(iundbert. 


423 


>< t> 


MOUE 
M Wt. 21 0. 





ST. EADMUND. 



119 



No. 


Obverse. 


Revorpe. 


Mint. ^Moneycr. 


424 


•l^SB ET^DMVND REX 


^hTXIEBERT M07\ 

Cro88 pattee. 
M Wt. 19-4. 


Haiebert. 


425 


•J<SC EADMVN RE 


M wt. 19-2. 




426 


scE CT^DMviiD •:-^:- 


►^HTXMIN pxjOI/IE 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 22-2. 


Ham'n. 

[ = Hemiug?] 


427 


4^05 EAIDMVHDE A 


►J^HARTAAARI 

Cross pattee. 
M wt. 21-5. 


Hartmari. 


428 


►J-WCE 67\DITIVIIRI 

[PI. X^ 


►I^IIEHHUEX REX E* 

M Wt. 21-8. 
Cross pattee. 
^11. 17.] 


Heining-. 


429 


4«wCC C7XD+1VIRI „ 


M wt. 2'2o. 




430 


►J-OTC EANIVID A 


^HFIRVDOIC 

Cross patte'c. 
M Wt. 17-4. 


Hfirudoic ? 


431 


•i'CnC L1\\DV\ RE A 

[PI. X\ 


•^HLVDOVIDVN 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 180. 
^III. 1.] 


Hlu'lovicus. 


432 


^coC E7\NIVID 


ai Wt. 16-8. 




433 


"i^coC CTXDIVI 1 A 
(Dots). 


►I^HNEET DEO 

Cross pAtt^e. 
M Wt. 170. 


Uncertain. 


434 


„ 


M Wt. 16-5. 





* The reverse of No. 423 has been thou!.;ht by some nvimismatists to give the name of an 
unknown king, possil)ly a Dane. It would in this sense be read Heming rex E. The name 
Hemming occurs more than once among tlie Danish leaders on the Continent at a somewhat earlier 
and again at a somewhat later date than this (Langebek, S'cr. Rer. Dan. i. p. 496 ; Pertz, Scr. Cer. 
1. 198, 200, 355, :i6l ; Sym. Dun. tl. R. a. 1009). The coins 42S-9 are however too much blundered 
to allow us to draw any" conclusions from their legends, and it is probable that the REX on the 
reverse has simply been transposed from the obverse. The final letters of the obverse are some 
blundered form of the word " monetarius." 



120 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Ri'verso. 


Mint. Mouoyer. 


435 


«i<E8DAl€|XiRVL€ A 


►^HODVf^RBEDO 

Cru88 iiatii'f. 
M Wt. 18-0. 


Ilodururbodo ? 


436 


•i<05C lAIIVIE A 


►i-HVwCAM MO 

Cross pattc'e. 
m Wt. 21-5. 


Iluscam? 


437 


•tSC m\A\\D RE 


«I<HVSCM- MO (Dot). 
Jt Wt. 23-6. 




438 


►I<S13E 6RDMVND A 


«I<I7\0CD1-EDTIE 

Cross pattdc. 
m Wt. 19-0. 


Jaocd, or 
Jaord ? 


439 


•i-colECC7\DIII A 


ill Wt. 187. 




440 


^coC C7XEIMVII Rl A 


►J-IIAOrO MET MEI 

Ai AVt. 18-5. 




441 


-^coaCTXDMVUC A 


^lAOFD nCTIIC „ 

M Wt. 21-5. 




442 


^HcoRCTXIIVIIC- A 
(Dots). 


•MAOED IICT ME „ 

^i Wt. 20-3. 




443 


(No dots). 


^IT^ORD MET ME 

M Wt. 21-0. 




444 


"J-coC ADHVND IIEA 
(Dots). 


^'lEMcoODHR DOT 

M Wt. 20-8. 


Jeuiso'Sr? 


445 


►i^coC ETXINVMD A 

[PI. X\ 


4<ION7\NNEM 

Cross pattcc. 
M Wt. 170. 
an. 2.] 


Johannes. 


446 


►i^coC ET^INVM 


►J-IOHANNEM 1 
(Dot.'*). M wt. 16-5. 




447 


^c/5C EADIOIVI/IET 

A 


►MC0I3V1VHCRIOT 

Crfies jiattde. 
Ai Wt. 21-3. 


Isicmund. 


448 


►t-wC CADIIVN A 


►MwTPNADDIwO 

( 'roHR pattdc. 
A). Wt. l[)■r^. 


Uufortain. 



ST. EADMUND. 



121 



No. 


Obverse. 


Eeverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


449 


^coC C7XCIV1VN R A 


^LT^IROEDBV ME 

Cros3 patte'e. 
m Wt. 18-4. 


Uncertain. 

Martinus ? 

see 

S. Martin, 

p. 135. 


450 


•h3C TXDMVMD RIE 
(Dut). A 


Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 23-0. 


Meu'Ser. 


451 


3m aMVMQTXI^ „ 


MEVI^NbJ 31VI 
(Dot). M Wt. 230. 




452 


►^odC eadioivhet 
A 


«i<MREVCHDT lOT „ 

M Wt. 190. 


Milo, see 
Oandert. 


453 


►i^SE E7XDMVMDE A 


►^NRNIVTXDNVS NE 

Cross pattee. 
m Wt. 22-2. 


Uncertain. 


454 


►i<Se ETXDMVD RX 

■A- 


"J^OAUDDERT ME 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 18-5. 


Oandert ? 


455 


EADMT^D 


M Wt. 2'i-2. 




456 


►I^MILO ME EETS „ 


N IVE ., 

M Wt. 21-0. 




457 


«i«SC EADMVND Rl 

A 


•i^ODOMER LT^EX 

Cross patte'e. 
m Wt. 21-4. 


Odomoner. 


458 


)> >i 


^ODOMONER LI7\X 

M Wt. 19-5. 




459 


A- 


M Wt. 22-0. 




4G0 


^cfiC E7XDINVNE A 

[PI. X\ 


^OOVLBERT MOI 

Cross pattoo. 
Ai Wt. 17-5. 

nil. 3.] 


Odulbtrt 

(for 

Adalbat.-'; 



122 



EAST ANGIJA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


l!(.verso. 


]\Iint. Jloiieyer. 


461 


^coC EADMVN R-.- A 


►i^ODVLBER MON 

Cross pixttoo. 
M Wt. 21-5. 


Odulbert 
(for 
Adalbert ?) 


462 


R „ 


MOIT „ 
M Wt. 210. 




463 


^coC CTXCIMVl/l R „ 


^'ODVLBER MOIIR ., 

Ai Wt. 21-0. 




464 


^coC CADVVN R „ 


't'ODVLBNR |V|0 „ 

M Wt. 18-0. 




465 


^coC CTXDIVN R 


MO! „ 
m Wt. 2 10. 




466 


>i>OiC ETXDMVN R „ 


^ODVLBE IVIRE „ 

Al Wt. lOf). 




467 


„ 


„ -.-IVIRO „ 
m Wt. 200. 




468 


)> >> 


„ IVIROI „ 
M Wt. 19-5. 




469 


+COC ETXDIIVIhD REX 1 

•:A:- 


^OQVLBEROI 
(Dot). m Wt. 19-2. 




470 


►i«VVIEDVLE HOl/ET 


►I^ODVLBNR MON „ 

M Wt. 200. 




471 


SB ET^DMVND RE A 

[PI. X\ 


^ODVLF ME FECIT 

Small cross patteo. 
M Wt. 230. 
III. 4.] 


Odulf. 


472 


*SB ET^DMVNDE „ 


4<0DVLFVS ME F „ 

m Wt. 21-5. 




473 


►J-SC E7JDI0IVIIDI A 


►I-OID MOHEAimi 

Cross pattco. 
M Wt. 22-0. 


Old? 


474 


•i<8C EAIDMViyD .A. 


►J-OHEONET^ MAE 

Cross pattoc. 
m Wt. 18-5. 


Onnonea ? 


475 


•i^coC ET^DMVN III 

•. A-.- 


^Omi/iONTXE 11 

ill Wt. 220. 




476 


>^C EADVNV [REX] 

A 


[•^jOIINONEA NAI „ 

M Wt. 22 3. 





ST. EADMUND. 



123 



Ko. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Hint. Moneyer. 


477 


>I<SC ET^IDMVND 
(Dots in le 


RE 

gend). 


^OIIIIONET^ lEII 

Cross patte'e. 
m Wt. 21-8. 


Onnonea ? 


478 


)> >> 


A 


IIT^IX „ 
M Wt. 20-7. 




479 


>> >» 


" 


117X1 „ 
m Wt. 22-0. 




480 


(No dots iu legend). 


IIAX „ 
m Wt. 19-8. 




481 


^3CE 67XDMVND 


RE 

A 


M Wt. 21-5. 




482 


^SC ET^IDMVND 
(Dot). 


RE 


"I^OIINONETX \m\ „ 

M Wt. 218. 




483 


►i^SC EADMVND 


^'a. 


►^OIIIIOHENITX^ 

M Wt. 22-5. 




484 


«I<coC ET^DMVNI 


A 


►^OIIHONTXIIA IRI „ 

M Wt. 22 '0. 




485 


<i^coC E7\DIV|VNI 
(Dots). 


" 


•I'ONHONA 117X11 

M Wt. 22-5. 




486 


►tcoC E7XDMVNI 


" 


M Wt. 2'6-7. 




487 


" 


" 


II7X 

m Wt. 19-5. 




488 


IVIVII 


A 


117X1 

M Wt.22-5. 




489 


«I«HcoRC7XIIVIIC 

(Dots). 


" 


"i^OHHOHTX II7XT „ 

M Wt. 17'0. 




490 


►i<SCL7\MVI/II 


A 


►I<0HII0HI7X IRI 

M Wt. 200. 




491 


.-.30 ET^DMVUD 


REX 


OZVVLF M0HET7X 

Small cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21-8. 


Cswulf. 


492 


^coC E7XID|V|VND 7^ 
(Dots). 


►^OTBERT |V|0 

(Dots •.• after Rand |V|). 
Cross pat tee. 
M Wt. 20-4. 


Otbcrt. 








[n. XYII. 5.] 





124 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


KcYcrse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


493 


WC E7XIDMVND A 


^'OTBERVMDTO 

Cross pattc'o. 
M Wt. 190. 


Otbert. 


494 


coC EAIDMIVN 


"I^OTBERT IVI 
(Dots R •••) zi Wt. 23-7. 




495 


7\IOBII7X30a)-^ 


oaviTfldaro^ 

(Dots). M Wt. IS"). 




49G 


►J-coC EAIDIVIVND „ 
(Dot). 


^OTDR MONI 

SI Wt. 18-7. 




497 


^030 E7XDMVD RE A 


^OTIBVIHRO ME 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 17-7. 
[PI. XVIII. C] 


Otibuiuro. 


498 


^coC E7XDI0IVNE A 


►^0~IBVINIO ME „ 

(Dots). Ai wt. 22-0. 

[PI. xviir. 7.] 




499 


•i^coC ET^DMVMD R„ 


M wt. 23-2. 




500 


,, 


^0~IIBVIINO ME „ 

Ai Wt. 22-3. 




501 


ODC ESDMVD RE „ 


4-OTIBVIHEV HE ., 
(Dots). M Wt. 2UG. 




502 


•I«coC EADIOIVNE „ 


»I<0~IBINIO ME 

(Dots). M Wt. 21-0. 




503 


»1<C0C ET^DMVD RE „ 


►^0"IBVINIO ME 
(Dots). Ai Wt. 23G. 




504 


^3C E7XIDMV1/D A- 


(Dots)! Si Wt. 190. 
[PI. XVIII. 8.] 




505 


„ 


^E 

(Dot). m Wt. 20-0. 




506 


►i'Sa 7\DNVD RUE A 


ME „ 

(Dot). Small omss patt('(>. 
A\ Wt. 220. 




507 


►I<c/3C EADMVD REI„ 


►I'O-IBVIHIO MIE 

Cross pattc'p. 
Si Wt. 18-3. 





ST. EADMUND. 



125 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


508 


LDaVIVIOTX 3)fl>^ A 


^0-|BVIHO MH 
(Dots •;• after 1). 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 20-5. 


Otiljuinro. 


509 


►i^coC EA-.-^DOM-iC 


^0"BU7^NI01: IVE „ 

M Wt. 24-0. 




510 


^050 7\V03Vai 


►i'OTIB MOIcolHQ 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 19-0. 


Otie. 


511 


^coC ET^DMVNI A 


-I^QVRTtN MO-.- 

Cross patte'e. 
M AVt. 19-6. 


Quaran ? 


512 


^WC CTXDIOIVN TSk 


•i<0VR7\N MOIC 

M Wt. 18-5. 




513 


^coC ETXINMID R „ 


-^OVRTXN MOIE 
(Dot). M Wt. 21-5. 




514 


[PI. X^ 


•I-QVRTXN MO-.- 

M Wt. 19-0. 
an. 9.] 




515 


^ODC ET^IDMVNE A 


M wt. 210. 




516 


►i^wC E7XINMID R A 


't'OVRT^N MIE 
(Dots M -.-) 

M Wt. 19-0. 




517 


-tSC EADMVND R^ 


•I'RTXTI-ER MONETA 

Small cross pattee ; 
dot above. 

M Wt. 2 10. 


Rather. 


518 


^SC ETXDMVUD R „ 


■i^RTXTHERVS MEG 

,, no (lot. 
Ai Wt. 18-0. 




519 


^SC ET^IDMVNDE A 


►I-JRET^RT |V|ODI 

Cross pattee. 
Ai AVt. 20-4. 


Reart, or 
Rerar ? 


520 


M >» 


VVODll „ 
Ai Wt. 2 10. 




521 


>> >> 


VIODII 

-i: Wt. 21-.=i. 





126 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


ncvorsc. 


Mint. Moncycr. 


522 


^030 CTXIDMVN A 


4-FIE7XRT VIODI 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21-3. 


Heart, or 
Kcrar ? 


523 


^cv)C EIIMVl/I 

(Crescent on cither 
side of W). 


iiaov T;1A3R»^ 

M Wt. 20-0. 




524 


►I^WC C7XIDMV 


^^jqETXRT VIOD 

Ai Wt. 22-7. 




525 


•i^SC E7\IDMVNDE „ 


"l^flERTX MODIIIE „ 

Ai Wt. 22-4. 




526 


^wC CTXDMVN RE •^• 


MODIC 

M Wt. 22-3. 




527 


^coC EADIHVND RE 

A 


►I-HERTXR MODI 

M Wt. 18-5. 




528 


4^SC EAIDMVNDE „ 


M Wt. 22-0. 




529 


►I^coC ETXDNVN 


m Wt. 21-2. 




530 


^COC ET^DMVD REA 


•tREMIGIVS ME F-.- 

Cross patteo. 
M Wt. 21-7. 


Eemigius. 


531 


>i>cnC EAIDMVUE A 

[PI. XV 


•I^RHDHMR REX 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 180. 
III. 10.] 


Uncertain. 


532 


►1<WC E7\DMVN Rl 

lu centre, ►t'A'J" 


►^*g-|wLEE7^ MOE 

Cross pattt'e. 
Ai Wt. 21 0. 


Rislcca, or 
Sislcca. 


533 


-i«C0C E7XDIHVND RE 

A 


Si Wt. 20-0. 

[ri. xviii. 11.] 




534 


>) >) 


NOE „ 
m Wt. 21-5. 




535 


»> 1) 


S MOIE 

Ai Wt. 2'l0. 





• The first letter of tliis word is on Bome coins R, on others f\~, on others ""S. anil on one S- 
It is not easy to say therefore whether it should be an R or an S. tlumgh the former letter Is of 
the most frequent occurrence. The letter R has accordingly been written throughout. 



ST. EADMUND. 



127 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


536 


-ho^G EADIUVNICA 


•^g-|coLEEA NO! 

Cross patte'e. 
Ai Wt. 21-8. 


Kisleca, or 
Sisleca. 


537 


►I^coC ETXDIHVNMC „ 


NOIE,, 
m Wt. 21-0. 




538 


"i^coC E7\INMD R „ 


NOE „ 
M Wt. 190. 




539 


•J-coC ETXINM RZi „ 


^RIcoLECA MOE „ 

Ai Wt. 21 0. 




540 


•i'Hco RCTXIIVIIC 
(Dota). 


m Wt. 19-0. 




541 

542 


"J^EIWINMVDCI 
>i<3C ETXDIVIVUni 


"l^fl'icoLEA l/IEOI 

3i AVt. 20-2. 

►J'SIBLEEA MJOEC 

M Wt. 17-2. 




543 


'ha^C E7\DMVDI A 
(Dots in legend). 


►f'RO-BETVcr MO-.- 
(Dot in legend). 

Cioss patte'e ; in 
third quarter dots 

M Wt. 20-3. 
[PI. XVIII. 12.] 


Robert. 


544 




►i^POIDIBCRT NO „ 

no dots. 
3i Wt. 21-5. 




545 


}<aDC EADMVND RE 

A 


^COIEMOUD MOHETAI 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 21-0. 


Saemond, or 
Sigemund. 


546 


H HIE 


^colEHOHD NONET 

Small cross patte'e. 
m. Wt. 20-0. 




547 


►J<CC7XDMVND IE A 


•l^WiClAIOND MOUC 

Cross pat lee. 
M Wt. 220. 




548 


ER DIIVIDAE C!'^-^- 
(SC EADMVND RE 
retrognide and blundered). 


m Wt. 21-0. 




549 


'J » 

[PI. XVI 


dot in second and 
tliird quarter of cross. 
Ai Wt. 20-8. 
II. 13.] 





128 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 



Obverse. 



550 

651 
552 
553 
55i 
555 

556 

557 
558 
559 
5G0 

561 
562 
503 
564 

565 
566 



3fl anviAiQTXB oat. 



^SC ET^DMVUD R „ 
•ixxi-C ETXDMVUDi: „ 

^COC ET^MHID RE „ 



^colS ETXDMVUDI RE 



^coTS ET^DMVNDE „ 

^coC EANIVDIE 
^coC ETtDMVNDlE „ 
►t'COC ETXDIHV 
wis ETXNIVIDE 



^SIEMVND MONE 

Cross pattoc. 
M Wt. 21-9. 

^SIEMVl/ID MOUE,, 

Ai AVt. 20-3. 

►I-co MOE „ 

.at Wt. 20-9. 



jR Wt. 210. 

TOm aUVMBIW^ „ 
M AVt. 19-4. 

^coEMOUD l/IOHETA 
Small cro.<8 patteo. 
M Wt. 19-5. 

^wEMOHD NOE 

Cross pattee. 
JR Wt. 19-8. 

M wt. io-i. 

JR wt. 20-5. 
M Wt. 2'i-8. 
m Wt. 200. 



[ri. XYIII. 14.] 



4<C/31S ETXNIVID 



^EC ETXaHVITI A- 
(Dots in Icgeiiil). 



*C E7XDMVH REcoT 

A 



M Wt. 17-4. 

NO 

^i Wt. 18-7. 

^COEMONQ 1/10EH,, 

M Wt. 220. 



«I<coERMVDH CEOT,, 

JR Wt. 18-8. 
[PI. XVIII. 15.] 



^SC E7\ailVIIDllETI ^SlCIIIVI/ia MOHETI 

Small cross patloe. 
Ai Wt. 20 0. 



4-COC E7\DNVDE A 



^COIGENVNDEI 

Cross patt(?o. 
JR wt. 181. 



:Mint. Moncyer. 



Sncmond, or 
Siffemund. 



ST. EADMUND. 



129 



^co\S ESDMVND RE 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



J^colGEMVNDMONEA P 
Small cross pat tee. 
M Wt. 21-8. 
[PI. XVIII. 16.] 



3fl anviAias3 os-i* 



►I<colS E7\DMVI/ID RE 



XcolS ESDMVND RE 

A 



»i<Ki1S E7XDIIVH RE 



■^WC CDIO 



■A- 
A 



^coC CTXDNDVIE A 
(Dots in legend). 



"i^C ET^DVNVM R A 



'h(r>C CAhAIOIvi A 



►I-SC EMDMVNDE A 



^SIGEIIVIID ]AOlET\ P 

a{ Wt. 20 7. 
•J^colMVI/ID M01/IET7X 

m Wt. 20-2. 
'i'SIMVNDV^ M0KET7\ 

m Wt. 19-7. 

►I'SMIVIIDVI NOI/IIT 

Cros.s pattee. 
M Wt. 21-5. 



•1-co 1 07X 1 Cross pattee. 
54 Wt. 20-2. 



<i>cn\Q-EFl\ MON (Dots). 
Cross pattee ; in 
first and fom-th 
quarter dots .-. 

M Wt. 18-2. 



•i«8NEFREN MH7X 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 23-4. 



3II0VI33TW^ 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 20-1. 



Saemond, or 
Sigemund. 



•i«coTEN WONET^ 

Small cross patteo. 
M Wt. 21-8. 
[PI. XVIII. 17.] 



.i«SC E7XIDMVNDE 
►I«co€ ETXDMVNDIE 



^coTEN IWONEJ^ „ 

Ai Wt. rj-8. 

XwTEHOHD NONET 
SI Wt, 2'6-3. 



Uncertain. 



Si?iefii, or 
Sisleca ? (See 
Risleca). 



Snefren. 



Uncertain. 



Sten, or 
Stein. 



130 



EAST ANOLIA. 



No. 



Obvcrgc. 



Mint. l\Ionc'ycr. 



579 

580 

581 
582 

5S3 

584 
585 

58G 

587 

588 

580 

590 
591 



•J-CTXIDAIVUDE A 

(Very ruilo letters). 



'i'UiC E7XDIIVNE A 
[PI. 



•i<SC EJXDINVND R 



A- 



•J-SC EADMVND RE 

A 



►J-coC E7XDMVB R-.- „ 

>i>cr>C ETXDMVDI A 
(Dots in legend). 

•i«COC E7\MVD REI A 



'i'Ui 7\ENNV0NED III 



►i-SC CTXDMVMID [A- 

(Very rude lettera). • 



4<coC CTXDMVNIE A 



•Ih wc ediiiveiiie a 

(l'(jiutB in legend). 



^WTIEM/NOIIE 
(Very rudo letters). 

Cross pattt'c. 
m Wt. 20-0. 



«J«coTEPH7\N acol 

Cross imttec. 
m AVt. 20-5. 
XIX. I.] 



m Wt. 21-6. 



•i^TEDREDO MONE 

Small cross pattc'O. 
M Wt. 21-4. 



^TEDVVIl/IVS ME FC 
Cross patteo. 
M Wt. 21-(3. 

►fTIBVINIO ME R „ 

m Wt. 18-5. 

•J<TBYiHRO Mi 

(Dots in legend). 

M Wt. 21-0. 

►i^TBYlNRO MEID „ 

.ai Wt. 17-5. 



>l«V37XRENO IVE DNOT 
Cross pattc'O. 
m Wt. 22-5. 



-fVI/IDELA N01C7X 
(Very rude letters). 

Small cross pattc'o. 
M Wt. 18-7. 



►I^VSCA MOHETTX 

Cross pattJe. 
m Wt. 23-3. 



•i<:VTFI7\0FII^ 

Cross patfeo. 
Ai Wt. 210. 

■l«:-VTFmOI33'^ „ 

Ai Wt. 220. 



8 ten, or 
Stein. 



Stephen. 



Tedredo. 



Tcdwinc, or 
Tiftwine ? 



Udareno ? 



Undcla. 



Usca. 



Utfiof? 



ST. EADMUND. 



131 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


592 


^SC EODMVND RE ^y^sLLlER MONET 

7^ Small cross pattee. 
m Wt. 20-2. 
[PI. XIX. 2.] 


Walter. 


593 


«J<coC E7XIDMVNE A 

(Dots iu legend). 


•i'VVANDEFRED 

(Dots). Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 19-5. 


Wandefred. 


594 


^MC EAIIIVIID A 


•I-PTXRVa VVOCIC 

Cross pattee. 
M wt. 19-7. 


Waruc? 


595 


•i«S-G ET^DMVD REX-.- 


^VVIEBALDVS ME-.- 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 20-0. 


Wigbald 
[^Vidbold?]. 


596 


3fl aHVMaS303«^ „ 


3I/10N ajTtaivv^ „ 

M Wt. 20-2. 




597 


*SC E7XDNVND RE-.- 

A- 


^VVIDBVLD MOIIE 






dots (.-.) in 

first quarter. 

M Wt. 21-8. 




598 


►tEC EADNVMD TA 


^VVIDBOLDVS NE 

no dots. 
M wt. 21-8. 




599 


•I^MISE e7\DMVDEl/R 

A 


8 IE,, 
M Wt. 230. 




COO 


►i^Hco RC7XIIVIIC A 
(Dots). 


m Wt, 18-5. 




GOl 


^3SC E7XDMVHD „ 


•i^VVIDBOLDco l/E „ 
(Dots). M Wt. 20-3. 




G02 


"i^SC ET^DMVUD RE 

A 


^VVIEDVLE l/IONET 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 20-2. 


WaBilulf, or 
Wincdulf. 


G03 


'i'Oy-CE 67XDMVI/IDE 

A 


MO^ET,, 
M Wt. 21-5. 




G04 


►^DTXCIEMVNDIE „ 

Cross pattee. 


\AOVE A 
M Wt. 23-6. 




G05 


*3C E7\DMD RVE A 


^VVIEDVIR NOT 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21 0. 





K 2 



132 



EAST ANGLTA. 



No. 
606 

607 

608 

609 
610 
611 

612 
613 

614 

615 
610 
617 

618 



■i-S^ EADMVND RA 

^SC EADMVIIDI RE 

-.A-.- 



•J-SC E7XDMVND REX 



RE 
"fSlB ET^DMVND REX 



•t«VVlNEDLF MO 

C'ross ])atto'e. 
Mi Wt. 21-0. 

^VVINEDVLF MOhET 

m Wt. l''J-0. 

^VVIl/IECE-R AAT 
(Dots ). 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 18-5. 

^VVINEGER MONE 

Small cross pattcc. 
M Wt. 220. 

}<AAIHEGER MOl/ETA 

M Wt. 2i-5. 

►I-VVINIGER MONETA 

' M Wt. 20 5. 



Mint. Mi'iipver. 



Wacdiilf, or 
AViuLilulf. 



[PI. XIX. 3.] 



"^SGE 6ADMVHD FUR 

A 



►i«SG EADMVND REX 
-i«ODG EADMVNDE A 



HhSC EADMVND RE 



REX 



Cros.s patt(5o. 
m Wt. 16-7. 

«l«VVINEG~R-:VONT 

m Wt. 21-0. 

AONT 

Ai Wt. 21-8. 

^VVINEGR AONT „ 

m Wt. 21-0. 

C 

Ai Wt. 180. 



Small cross pattee. 
m Wt. 21-8. 

»i«VV0ME6E"R: AAT 

Cross pattc'e. 
Ai Wt. 20;?. 



Wiiieccr, 
Winogcr, or 
Wiuitrcr. 



N 



Ai \V1. 220. 



ST. EADMUND. 



133 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


620 


»^co1BE e7XDMVLOE/K 


^VVIVR-Ol/IETrtl 

Small cross pattee. 
ai Wt. 24 7. 


Winecer, 
W^ineger, or 
Winiger. 


G21 


"J-SC ET^DMVND REX 

A 

uumerous dots above 


►I^VVINIER MONET7\l 

Small cross pattee. 
M Wt. 21-7. 


Wiaier. 


G22 


►I<S1SE GSDMVND RE 
-.A:- 


JR Wt. 23-6. 




G23 


RE 1 

A 


M Wt. 22-6. 




624 


►I«SCE GADMVND RE 1 

-.A:- 


„ HOHETAI 






JK Wt. 21-2. 




625 


^-SGE eSDMYHD RE 1 

A 


^VVII/IIER MOHETi^l 






M Wt. 2'6-4. 




626 


^coBE esDMVND R 1 


MONET7XI 






A 

[PI. X 


aj Wt. 21-0. 
IX. 4.] 




627 


►i<SC E7XDMVI/ID R I 

■A- 


►t'VVIHIER MOHEIT^I 
Cross pattee. 
M wt. 20-7. 




628 


^SC ET^DMVND RE 

■.A-: 


►I-VVINIER NONET 

Small cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 20-y. 




629 


►I^SC EADMHD RE ., 


M Wt. 21-0. 




630 


^colSE G7XDMVN A 


"I^VVINEIR MOIE 

Cross pattee. 
M Wt. 19-5. 




631 


>> >> 


MOI 

M Wt. 22-3. 




632 


7\ m 


MOMJiCE 
Small cross puttee. 
.at Wt. 20-7. 




633 


•i«S€E 6ADMVND RE 1 

A 


•TWINER MONETM 






Si Wt. 20-5. 




63 1 


coG R 1 


M Wt. 2'lO. 





134 



EAST ANOLIA. 



No. 



635 

C36 
C37 
638 

639 

640 

641 

642 

643 
644 

645 
646 
647 
618 



•fcoCE €nDMVND R I 

k 

<i>Ui€. E7\DMVNDE ,. 

E7XDMVNDI „ 

>i<S-eE 6RDMVND Tk 

[PI. XIX. 5.] 

*coB EADIYIVND ^ 



►tS^ E7XDMVD REX 

75i 



Reverse. 



■^VVIHER MOHETV 

^rnall crcias imttee. 
M Wt. 20-2. 

•I^VVINER MONETI „ 

M Wt. 20-5. 



^coC E7\DIVM RE „ 
^co1SE enDMVND R I 

k 

<i>cnC EADMVNIE A- 



MONE „ 
m Wt. 19-8. 



M Wt. 199. 



Cross pattec. 
M Wt. 220. 



M 



m Wt. 220. 



^VVIl/IER MOUE 

Small cross pattec. 
ill Wt. 20-0. 

i^VVINE MR0NET7XI „ 
m Wt. 22-5. 



MRONE „ 
m Wt. 19-5. 



m Wt. 18-3. 



Tho three following coins aro more barbarous. 



<i>co-eE 6RDMVMD R I 

A.. 



•I"CE eADMVIID R I 

7^ 



3llYNaA3 Ocu+ A 

above, •!-< 



•i^VVINEMRONETI 

Cros.s patte'e ; clot 
in each angle. 
M Wt. 22-2. 



(Dot ill each angle)- 

^i Wt. 21-2. 



^VVIHEMROIIRE „ 

Ai Wt. 2;i-o. 



+w3a0px]fl31YIV 

Cross patti'O. 
Ai. Wt. 17-5. 



Mint. Moncyer. 



Wiuier. 



Winer ? 



ST. EADMUND. 



135 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


649 


»i«SC E7XDHVND RE 

A 

(Barbo 


XVVLFOLD MITFIT 

Cross pattce. 
irons). m Wt. 19-0. 


Wulfold. 




With the name of Yorh (Eboracum). 


York. 


650 


►i-coC I7X1/11ID R 

In centre A 


^ERmiCE CIV 

Cross pattc'e. 
M Wt. 19-7. 




651 


>i>UiC ET^DIIVN „ A 

[PI. X] 


^ERITXCE CIV 

M Wt. 17-5. 

X. 6.] 






With the name of St. Martin (Lincoln *) ? 


Lincoln ? 


652 


•i^COC E7XDMVN 

In centre A 


►i^MARTINVS 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 23-2. 




653 


•I-coC ET^DIOIVH ET 
A 
[PI. X 


►MVIT^RTIIVT SDtX „ 

M Wt. 22-7. 
IX. 7.] 




654 


i^coC E7\D10IVNE „ 


►MVIARTIIVT S X „ 

iu Wt. 210. 




655 


►i<coC EiiDIOIVUE „ 


MARTINVN 

M Wt. 21-0. 




656 


CO „ 
(Dots). 


i^MT^RTINVNI 
(Dots). M wt. 23-2. 




657 


►i^coC EiZDIOlVUE „ 
(No dots). 

[PI. X 


^B Mi^RTIHVN Ol „ 

M Wt. 21-7. 
IX. 8.] 




658 


►I^coC Ci^DIOIVNE „ 


"i^lVIT^RTNVNII 
(Dot). m Wt. 15-2. 





* It ia by no means certain that tliis Martinus is not merely a moneyer. t SD =SC •' 



136 



EAST ANGLIA. 



No. 



Obverse. 



Miut. Moncyer. 



659 

GGO 
661 
6G2 
603 

664 
665 

6G6 

667 

6G8- 
G92 



Blundered coins icith douhtfid legends 

»i<wCE €ADMVII RE | ►^aEIHUCX REXI 

^ I Cross patteo. 

[PI. XIX. 13.] 



^EDMSNRGHD A 

.J^coC lAl/IIIDR A 

^WC E7XINMIDR ^ 

4*coC EMDIYIVND „ 
(Dots). 

►i^llODIIOIVIDIllO -.A- 

►i^coC EADMVDREI A 



►I-SIEE 6i£DM75lyD R 



^SCCTXLIMIYHR 



►J-EONRyMDONC 

»i<icimnD7^ic 

»i<lKIIOMT(?)coy| 

•i<01IH01IAllVI 
4^01IVI10NA1ITII 

►fOlVITBERETO 

«i«ON3-|YN07XBfl 



Twonty-fivo moroof wbicli the reverse legends are wlidlly 
miiutelligiblo M Average wt. 15-9 gr. 



Possibly 
Heming. 



For 
Otibuiuro ? 



Halfpennies. 



C93 



G91 



G95 



^SC EADMVNDE •.• 
lu ceutre, /v\ 



»i<GILEN7\RT MONE 

Small crosspattcc. 
.ai-55 Wt. 9-0. 
[PI. XIX. 9.] 



►i«a3C C7\DHVNDC :A: 
(Kude letters). 



^odc eadmvnd re 
A 



"i^GILEURT px;OI\E 
(Kude letters). 

Cross i)attec. 
m -55. Wt. 9-2. 



►I^ODVLF ME FECIT 

Cross paltcie. 
Ai -G. Wt. 8-0. 
[PI. XIX. 10.] 



Gilcuart. 



Odul 



ST. EADMUND. 



137 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneycr. 




Barbarous coin. 




696 


^mC CT^DIVHIDF a AT310M IVQcv)^ 

Cross pattee. 
.aj -6 Wt. 9-3. 
[PI. XIX. 11.] 


Odulf. 


697 


^COC E7XDNVND REX »I«VVINICeR MONE 

„ Cross pattee. 
M -55 Wt. 8-8. 
[PI. XIX. 12.] 


Winiger. 



The coius which read on one side SC EADMVND and on tlie other AELFRED 
REX or AELFRED REX DO will bo found catalogued among the coius of 
Alfred in Vol. II. 



138 



EAST ANQLIA. 



Ecclesiastical Coin struck in the Diocese op Lincoln. 

The following coin has been placed in the East Anglian series, although 
strictly speaking it belongs rather to the coinage of Mercia. It is, however, 
closely couuecteil with the above series of coins with the name of St. Eadmund, 
as WLil as with the Northumbrian coins with the name of St. Peter. As the 
piece stands alone, it did not seem desirable to sever it from both these important 
series of coins by placing it at the end of the coins of the Mercian kings, with 
which it has no connection ; and as it was certainly struck south of theHumber, 
it has not been included in the Northumbrian scries. 



St. Martin. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Kovcrso. 


Mint. Moncycr. 


6'J8 


_ .-. Between lines of 
SCI M legend, a sword 
ARTI tor. 

± 

[PI. XI 


►I-LIUCOIA CIVlT(Dots) 

A cross voided, 

having smaller cross 

within. 

2i -75. Wt. 17-5. 

[X. 14.] 


Lincoln. 



( yoo ) 



NOETHUMBEIA. 

STYCA SERIES. 

English Kings. 

ECGPRID (ECGFER©). 

A.D. G70 — A.D. GS5 (slain). 



No. 


Obverse. 




Reverse. 


Mint 


Moneyer. 


1 


*+EI:GFRID rex Cross. 
[PI. X 


LVt 
X X 

X.I.] 


Cross, with rays 
streaming from it. 

Ml 






2 


» >> !) 


)> 


^ 







ALDFRI© (EALDFERD). 

A.D. 685 — A.D. 705. 



Fantastic animal walking 1. 
^§ Wt. iy-5. 



+MLbhRlbW3 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

[PI. XX. 2.] 

* AH but a very few of tbe crosses in the Styca series are of a plain form, which corresponds 
with the formation of the letters. It is therefore adopted throughout. 

f This inscription, LVX> has been thought to have a religious meaning in connection with 
the radiate cross, and it has been pointed out that EcgfriS is called rex piissimus by Symeon 
of Durham (fl. D. E. I. iv.). If this is the case, it affords the only instance of a religious 
legend on coins until tbe appearance of the hybrid coins, half English, half Prankish, which 
were struclv by the early Danish settlers in tNorthumbria, &c., and which are described later. 
With the exception of these coins, it would be the sole example of such legend before the time of 

Edward I. The letters may however be connected with the Latin inscrip. yy so extensively 

copied, and blundered in copying, upon the Sceattas (see Nos. 10-49, PI. I. 5-14). For the tj-pe of 
the cross we may compare the Merovingian silver coins in Dirks' Les Anglo-Saxons, &c. (o. c.) 
PI. D. nos. 22, 23, E. c. 

J The average measurement of the coins of the Styca series is -5 in., almost the same as that 
of the Sceatlas. 

5 Some few of the coins of this series are of silver, and of those which seem to be of nearly 
pure silver the weight is given. The silver pieces, at any rate those of the earlier kings, should 
perhaps be called Sceattas rather than Stycas. But even the copper coins have often a certain 
alloy of silver, and the silver ones have nearly always an alloy of copper. The question, whether 
the occurrence of these silver Stycas is to bo looked upon as the result of accident or design, has 
often been discussed. See Hawkins' S. C. 2nd ed. K. pp. 71, "4, 75; Sum. Chron. N..S. vol. ix. 
(1869), p. G2, vol. XX. (l«no), p. 62, aud I'rocccdivys, p. 8 (Address of the Prcsiilent); 3rd S. 
vol. iii. p. 26. With regard to the silver coins which occur in the later reigns. It seems probable 
that their occurrence is purely accidental, but that the earlier silver Stycas (or Sceattas) show a 
closer connection between the coinages norlli and south of the Ilimiber than existed iu later days. 
The connection was again established by the introduction of the penny into Northumbria. See 
Introduction. 



140 NOETnUMBRIA. 

Of tho live following kings no coins aro known : — 

EADWULF.* 
A.D. 705 (two months). 

OSRED I. 

A.D. 705— A.D. 71 G (slain). 

COENRED. 

A.D. 716— A.D. 718. 

OSRIC. 
A.D. 718— A.D. 729 ?t (slain). J 

CEOLWULF. 

A.D. 729 — A.D. 737 (took the tonsure) ; died 760 or 764. 

EADBERHT (EOTBERHT). 

A.D. 737— A.D. 758 (took the tonsuke) ; died, 768. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Tape i. 

With naiuo of liis brother Ecgbert, Archbishop of York 
(A.D. 734—766). 



Mint. Moneycr. 



EDTBEREhTVr 

Circlo of dots en- 
closing cross. 



ECQBERhT [AR ?] 

IMitrcd iigiire r., 
holding two long 
crosses. 
[PI. XX. 3.] M Wt. 17-7. 



See also No. 677. 



•EDTBEREhTVr 



Type ii. 

Fantastic animal walkini, 



Circle of dots cu- 
closintr cross. 



1., one paw raised. § 

ill Wt. 140. 



[PI. XX. 4.] 



Cross 



M Wt. 14-5. 



Animal r.,hornsand barbed 
tail; in field four circles 
of ilota, each enclosing 
pellet. 

Ai Wt. 19-2. 
[PI. XX. 5.] 

• Not mentioned in Chr. S. t '31, Chr. S. A.B.C. ; 729, D.E.F. ; Sym. Dun. n.n.K. T19. 

X In Chr. S. A.B.C. only. ^ Compare ikcaltas Nob. 183, 1'l. IV. S, for a type not dissimilar. 



EADBERHT. 



141 



Obverse. 



10 



11 



EDTBERhTVS 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross ; dot 
in each angle. 



Reverse. 



Similar animal ; arabesque 
below. 

M Wt. 17-5. 



[PI. XX. 6.] 



•EOTBEREhTVr 

Cross on boss. 



Animal without horns ; nu- 
merous dots in field. 

M Wt. 14-5. 
[PI. XX. 7.] 



ETTnBERhTVr 

Cross patte'e. 



rVTEREBTDE Cross. 



Animal, with horns and 
barbed tail, r. ; no dots in 
field. 

M Wt. 13-5. 



Fantastic animal to r., with 
horns and barbed tail ; 
arabesque below, cross 
above. 

Si Wt. 17-5. 
[PI. XX. 8.] 



Mint. Moneyer. 



12 I r-TREREBTnE 



Same. 



M Wt. 171. 



OSWULF. 

A.D 758— A.D. 759 or 760 (slain) 
No coins known. 



^THELWALD (called MOLL). 

A.D. 759 or 760— A.D. 765 or 766. 

For coins attributed to this king, and bearing the name of Ecgborht, 
Archbisiiop of York, see Num. Chron. N.S. vol. ix. PI. I. 1, la. 



142 



NOKTHUMBRIA. 



ALCHRED (AIiHRED). 

A.D. 765 or 766— A.D. 774 (devosed). 



No. 



13 

14 
15 



Obverse. 



+ALCHRED 
(Dot L-*) 



+Ar[:HRED 
(Dot r-) 

VrCH (Dot P). 
RED 



Cross 



Reverse. 



Fantastic animal walking 
r., with liorns and barbed 
tail ; below, cross. 

ill Wt. 170. 
[ri. XX. 9.] 



Cross. 



[PI. XX. 10.] 



m Wt. 13-5. 
Si Wt. 17-2. 



Mint. Moneycr. 



^THELRED I. 

A.D. 774. Deposed a.d. 778 or 779. Restored on the Expulsion of 

OSRED 11. (OtFRED), son OF .^LFWALD I., 790. Slain 796. 

For a coin which may have been struck by him during his second reign, eco 
No. 19. It is, however, more probably a piece of Eardwulf. 



^LFWALD I. (ALFWOLD). 

A.D. 778 or 779— A.D. 788 or 789 (slain). 

16 EhVA^av^ Cross. Fantastic liorncd animal 

walking r. ; above, circle 
of dots enclosing pellet ; 
below, cross. 

M Wt. 150. 
[Tl. XX. 11.] 



OSRED II. (OTFRED). 

A.D. 788 or 789. Deposed a.d. 790. Slain a.d. 792. 

No coins known. 



OSBALD.t 

A.D. 790. Deposed pame year. Died 799. 
No coins known. 

• On account of the great number and close resemblance of the coins of the Northumbrian 
eerieB, the posiliona of the dots in the legend are indicated. 

f Not in Chr. S. He reigned only twenty-seven days, Syni. Dun. //. Ji. } 5«. 



EARDWULF. 



143 



EARDWULF (HEAEDWULF). 

A.D. 796 — A.D. 806 deposed; restored; died same year. 

Moneyers. 

Seo note on p. 25. 



Eadwini. 
Eomund. 
Eresd [Herre%]. 
Erwulf? [ErvaUx?]. 



E«ilred? 
Herre^. 
Huaetred. 
Odilo. 



No. 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Obverse. 



3YaflA3+ Cross pattee; 
dots in angles. 



+EREeD 



+ERVVLIX 



Pellet in 
centre. 



Cross. 



HEXArr Circle of dots 
(Dots), enclosing pellet. 

Double struck on both sides. 

[PI. XX. 12.] 



EVRDV • • REX? I Ma3flJia3 

Cross ? (Dot -J) Cross pommc'e. 

I M 

[PI. XX. 14.] 
Possibly struck by .^thelredi. 



HEARDALF I xHERREO 

Cross patte'e. Cross pattee. 

[PI. XX. 13.] 



X3n VVaflA3 
(Dots -.-fl) Circle enclos- 
ing pellet 



•JVVaflA3+ 



Cross. 



aflT3AVH+ 



Cross pattee. 



ojiao+ 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Eresd (for 
HerreS ?) 



Erwulf? 



E^ilrod? 



Herre^. 



Husotred. 



Odilo. 



iELFWALD II. 

A.D. 806— A.D. 807. 
No coins known. 



144 



NORTHUMDRIA. 



EANHED. 
A.D. 807—841? 

Moneyers. 
Sec note on p. 25. 



Adulfire. 

At her. 

Aldutcs. 

Alfheiird\_ = Adnlfere'?']. 

Batli{,'ilji, or paiiigils ? 

Brockr [Brother]. 

Cutnred. 

Cudhurd [Cudhcard]. 

Cunwulf, Cymvulf, or Canwalf. 

Dacgberht. 

Eadwiiie. 

Eanred. 

Eardwulf [Eadwulf =IIeardwult]. 

Eunircd [=Fordred]. 

Ericin ne [ = Eadwinc ?]. 

E'ielno^. 

ESelwcard. 

Folenoft. 



Fordred [=Eordred]. 

Gndutcls, or Gadntcis? 

Hetinlwulf [= Eurdwulf]. 

Uendilherht [Wtndilbcrltt i'] 

Herreft. 

Huajtred. 

JJunlaf. 

Liofdegn. 

IMoniie. 

Odiln. 

Teven [Teveh]. 

Tidwino. 

Wenddherht. 

AVillieah. 

Wiiitred. 

Wulfheard, or Wulfrcd. 

padigila ? 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Monej-er. 


24 


+ERHRED REX 

Cross pattc'e. 


+SU DACES- 

Cross pattee. 
M 


Aldates. 


25 


„ RE »> 


(No dot). M 




2G 


>) >> 


+7Xb DACES Cross. 
(Dots D-.-). 




27 


» " 


+7XUDACE3 

Cross patte'e ; dots 
in angles. 


Badigils, or 






)?adigils, see 
j.'adigils. 




(With Reverse legend in Kunic cliaructers.) 




28 


+EAHRED REX Cross. +BRpp>MK [BROpER] 

Cirrlc! enclosing 
pellet. m 
[n. XXI. 1.] 


BroT^cr. 


29 


)> " 


+ BRpf>M< 

Cro^'H of five dots. 





EANRED. 



145 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


30 


+EAMRED REX 

Circle of dots ou- 
closing pellet. 


^-BRp^>^R 

Cross of five dots. 


BroT5er. 


31 




2E 






(With revertje legend iu Romau cliaracters.) 




32 


+EANR*ED REX Cross. 


+BRODER* Cross. 




33 


>> i> 


2E. 




34 


+EVNRED REX Cross. 


)) >> 




35 


+EANRED REX „ +BRODR 

Circle enclosing cross. 

[PI. XXI, 2.] 




36 


Circle enclosing pellet. 


„ , Cross. 




37 


„ Cross. 


(Dot . aa) M 




38 


)i >> 


IE. 




30 


Circle euclosing pellet. 


+BRODR 

Cross of five dots. 




40 


!) >> 


Circle enclosing pellet. 




41 


„ Cross. 


Pellet. 

M 




42 


>> )> 






43 


+EAHRED REX Pellet. 


+BRODR 

Nine dots in form 
of lozenge. 




44 


X3fl a3flNA3+ 

Circle of dots eu- 
closing pellet. 


Circle enclosing pellet. 





* Very many of the R'b of tliis scries have the open form fl. whicli is one frequently 
met with iu MSS. but as this form fades into the usual R it caimot be further ludicutoJ. 

L 



14G 



NORTllUMBllIA. 



No. 



45 
4G 

47 

48 
49 

50 
51 

52 
53 
51 
55 
5G 
57 
58 
59 
CO 



Obverse. 



+ EAHRED REX Klkt. 



+EAHRD REX 

Circle of dots on- 
closing pollet. 

+ E<HRED R TvUvl. 



Cross. 



+ESNRED REX 

Circle enclosing pellet 



Ucverse. 



+BROER 



Pellet. 

iE 



+BRODR 

Circle enclosing cross. 

JE 



Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

JE 



Efl/IVVLF 
[PI. XXI. 3.] 

CVNVVLF 



Cross. 



Pellet. 



Mint. Moncyer. 



Broker. 



+ EANHED HEX Cross. 



EANRED REX 



EAMRED REX 
(Dot D-) 



EANRED REX 

Cross of five dots. 

EA/1RED REX Pellet. 



EAI^ED REX 
E/NRED REX 
E/NRED RX 



Cross of five dots. 

iE 



Pellet. 

M 
Cross. 

JE 



EfAVNLF 
CfNVVLF 

>> 
+EtNAVLF 
EVNVVLF 
EfNVALF 
EVNVVLF 
EVVVUFF 



EVVVN-F 

Ai 7 Wt. 19-0 grs. 



Pellet. 

.at (base)? 

ill (liase)? 



(kiiiwnlf, 
Cynwiilf, or 
Cauwulf. 



* It is poBsible that this letter is tbc Ruuic letter ^, which sometimes has tlio force of y, 
eometimcs, accurUlng to StcpLens, of A- Aiuoug the letters above, some arc of the form >^, some 
of the form "f. 







EANRED. 


147 


No. 


Obverse. 




Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


61 


E/NRED REX 


Pellet. 


CVV\N-F Pellet. 

M 


Cunwulf, 
Cynwulf, or 


62 


E/NRED RX 


Pellet. 


CWNH-F 


Cauwulf. 


63 


EVUBED U 


Cross. 


CtUVVLF Cross pattee. 




64 


EVNRED B 


j> 


^JVVNV3 




65 


" 


>> 


M 




66 


)) 


" 


^ 




67 


EVNRED R 


Pellet. 


EVVVNTF Pellet. 
(Dot r-) M 




68 


EVUBED U 


Cross. 


EVUVVLF Cross. 




69 


XEAMRED 
(Dots E-A-) 


Pellet. 


EVN/VLF Pellet. 
(Dot L-) M 




70 


" 


>) 


CVVVM-F 




71 


» 


11 


EWNH-F 

(Dot C-) 2E 




72 


+EANRED R 




+CVDHARD 


Cii^ard, 




Cross pattee. | 


Cross patte'e. m 








[PI. XXI. 4.] 




73 


A 


}> 


M ? Wt. 18-5. 




74 


" 


»> 


iE 




75 


+EANRED REX 


Cross. 


+ DAEq BERET Cross. 
M? Wt. 19-2. 


Dajgberht. 


76 


m> 


» 


» » 




77 


" 


» 


.£ 




78 


" 


" 


DAEGBERCT 





L 2 



148 



NORTUUMBiaA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Monoyer. 


79 


+EANRED REX Cross. 


+DVEqBERCT Pellet. 


Dajglxsrht. 


80 


Cirelo enclosing pellet. 


+DAEqBERET 

Circle enclosing pellet. 

^3 




81 


»> )> 


JE 




82 


i> >> 1 )) i> 

M (base) ? 
[PI. XXI. 5.] 




83 


„ 


T5AEXBERC IMlet. 




84 


EANRJED REX 


•i-DAEQBFRET 

Circle enclosing pellet. 

JE 




85 


•.••EANRED REX 

Cross pattee. 


+DAEQBERCT 

Cross pattee. ss, 




8G 


E/NRE+D REX Pellet. 
[P1.X 


DAEXBERET 

Five (iota in form of 
cross. M 
XI. 6.] 




87 


» f) 


•BAEXBERE Pellet. 
3.1 (base) ? 




88 


+EANRED REX Cross. 


+EADVINI Cross. 


Eadwiuc. 


89 


)) >» 


2E 




90 


A 


M 




91 


>) >> 


H 

y-E 




92 


., 


N 

Cross pattee ; dots 
in nnglcs. je 




93 


„ 


(Dote V) ;e" 




91 


A 


+ EADV1NI 
(Dots E-.- A-.-.V) ,Ti 





* Tlio runic G 



EANllED. 



J4ti 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


95 


+EANRED REX Crobs. 


+ EADVINI 

Circle of dots eu 
clobiiij; pt llet. 

IE 


Kadwine. 


9G 


» )> 


+EAD+VINI 

Cross patte'c. 2e 




97 


„ 


+ENIVDAEI 




98 


+€ANRED REX 

Two plain circles 
ciiclosiug circle 
of dots ; pellet in 
centre. 


eADV+INI 

Circle of dots cu- 
elo«ing pellet. 

M 




99 


€ANAEp A6X +EADVINI 

Circle of clots en- je 
closing pellet. 

[PI. XXI. 7.] 




100 


+6ANAED A€X 


>> i> 




101 


„ 


^ 




102 


+€ANED AEX 


m (base ?) 




103 


eANRED RAX 


-J-eADVINI 

JE 




lOi 


,> 


+eADAINl 




105 


EARNED REX 


6ADV+INI 

JE 




106 


jj )) 


A 




107 


,. 


6ADV+INI 

M (base) '? 




108 


GARNE Rex 


,, Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 




109 


GANA+ED AEX 


+EADVINI 

Plain circle ca- 
clusing pellet. 

JE 




110 


M 


JE 





150 



NORTIIUMBRIA. 



No. 


Ohvorse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


Ill 


+EANRED 

(.'iivlo of (lots en- 
closing pllet. 


+ EADV1NI 

riain circle en- 
closing pellet. 

m (base) ? 


Eadwine. 


112 


„ 


„ Circle of dots en- 
clf)8ing pellet. 

m (bftse) ? 




113 


[+] .. 


11 " 

iE 




114 


+ERDERN AEX Cross. 


„ Cross. 

JE 




115 


>» " 


JE 




116 


+EDA66ANA 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


„ Circle of dots en- 
closing pullet. 

M 




117 


+EAI/lflEDE Cross; 
(Dots A-.-) dots in 
angles. 


+EANRED Cross. 

IE 


Efinrcd. 


118 


+EANRED Cross. 


a3ailA3+ Pellet. 




119 


+EANRED RE 


G3RHA3+ Cross. 

JE 




120 


+EANHED HEX Cross. 


EHRRDVVLF Cross. 
(Dot E-) ^ 


Eardwulf. 


121 


)> »» 


JE 




122 


A 


(dJi H) W 




123 


>» >' 


(Dot R-R) ^e" 




124 


HEX 


EHRRDAALF 

JE 




125 


+EANHED HEX 


JE 




126 


+EANHED „ 


EHRRDAAHF 

JE 




127 


4-EANRED R Cross. 


EDILVARD rcllet. 


E^elweard. 



EANRED. 



151 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


128 


+ EANRA\ : Cross. 
(Plundered legend). 


av3VJia3+ 


Cross. 

iE 


E^elweard. 


129 


XET^NRED Pellet. 


ECELPAR Three 


pellets. 


Eordred, see 
Fordred. 


130 


X3fl a3HHA3+ Crors. 


FOLENOD M 
(DotsO-D-M-) 


Cross. 

2E 


Folcnofi. 


131 


„ 


•M-aOl13J03+ 

(Retrograde). 


JE 




132 


„ 


+FOLENOD M 


2E 




133 


j> )) 


•M aOH3J03+ 


M 




134 


„ 


(No'dot). 


M 




135 


A 


» 


M 




|13G 


+3ANRED REX 

Circle enclosing 
pellet. 

[PI. X 


(Dot's -M-Q). 
XL 8.] 


.13 




137 


+EVHIDED REX 

Cross. 


aoi/iojV3+ 


^ 




138 


+EANRED REX 


+FVLhlOp> 


Pellet. 

m 




139 


,, 


+FVLH0D 


Cross. 




140 


+EANRED RE 


+FVLCNOD 


3i 




141 


+EVNnED REX 


" 


M 




142 


+EKMRED REX Cross. 


+FORDRED 


Cross. 
;e 


Ford red or 
Eordred ? * 



* It is almost certain tliat tlie names Fonlrcd and Eordred, wliicli occur upon tlic coins of 
Kanrcd, ^I'^thelred II., &c., are tliosc of tlic same moneyer. It may be tliat where F.ordrod occurs 
it is due to tlie accidental adding of a tliird stroke to the F- or on the other hand that the name 
Fordred arises from the similar omission of a stroke. A confusion may have arisen between the 
Roman E and the runic |> (A or .K). It will l)e noticed that on some of Fordred's coins of 
Ethelred the name is written EDFTRED (Nos. 4l9-426\ Here the P 's a rimic loiter (f\)- 
As the spelling FORDRED "ccurs most frequently in this series, the coins are ranped under 
that name. Amonp; the coins of .(Ethclnd they appear under the same heading. 



152 



NORTIIUMBRTA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


143 


+Enl/IRED REX Cross. 


+FORDRED 


Gross. 


Fordrc'd, or 
Eordrcd ? 


144 


>» i» 


>) 


JZ 




145 


,. 


(Dot ED-) 


iE 




14G 


>> )) 


" 


.E 




147 


i> >> 


clots in 


angles. 

JE 




148 


•< »> 


i> 


11 




149 


clots in angles. 


i> 


.33 




150 


+EnHRED REX 

Circle enclosing pellet. 


+FORDRED 


Cross. 




151 


'J )> 


» 


JE 




152 


A Cross pnttc'e. 


+EORDRDE 


>> 




153 


« 


DERDROE+ 






154 


.. 


aERanE+ 


.35 




155 


X3R aBnNA3+ 


+FORDRED 


JE 




156 


ER DERNAE4- 


" 


JE 




157 


ER DERNAE+ 


>) 


>> 




158 


ER CERNA[E+] „ 


DERDROE+ 


JE 




159 


ER DERNAE-I- 


" 


JE 




IGO 


+CNRED REX 


ERDROE+ 


JE 




ir.i 


+ERANRED EX 

1 


+FORDRED 


K 





EANRED. 



153 



No. 


Obverse. 


lleverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


162 


+ER7XNRED EX 

Croas pattde. 


+FORDRED 

Cross of five dots. 


Fordrod, or 
Eordrcd? 








M 




1G3 


X3 a3flHflfl3+ 


1) 


Cross. 




1G4 




•' 


X 




1G5 


1) I) 


" 


m 




166 


+EANRED REX Cross. 


+saav5Eis 


Cross. 


Gadutcls, or 
Gaduteis ? 


167 


„ 


+S7XDVCELS 


„ 






[PI. XXI. 9.] 


m 




168 


H-EANRED RE[X] „ 


+67\aCEI3 


.32 




169 


+EnNREa RE 


" 






170 


„ 


+G7XaVCEI3 


m. 




171 




" 


M 




172 


+ESI/iRED RE 


" 






173 


>> I) 


+6SDVCE3 


m. 




174 


+EANREa R 


+6AaV2;E3 Cross ; 
four dots round it. 










s, 




175 


+EAI/IRED [RE] 

(Double 


3I3CV7\0+ 
struck). 


Cross. 




17G 


[fXfl] a3flWA3+ 


(f) 3IIViai7XS+ 


JS. 




177 


EAHRED REX 

Cross pattcc. 
fPl. X] 


HEARDVVLF 
U. 10.] 


Cross. 

IE. 


Hcardwulf, 
.see al&o 
Bardwulf. 


178 


» 1 A 












£ 





154 



NORTHITMBmA. 



Xo. 

179 

180 
181 
182 
183 

184 

185 

180 

187 

188 

189 
190 

191 
192 
193 

194 



Obverse. 



EAHRED REX 

Cross pattoe. 



+EAHRED R 
X EARED R 



+EANRED REX 

Circle enclosing cross. 



„ Cross. 

Circle enclosing pellet. 
„ Cross. 



+EANRED REX 

Circle enclosing cross. 



+EAI/1RED REX Cross. 

AN 

Circle enclosing cross. 

+EANRE REX Cross. 

+EANRED 

XESNREO Pellet. 

63HHA3X 



Reverse. 



Cross. 



HEARDALF 



HEARD+ALF 



HEARDALF 



+HERRED- 

Circle enclosing cross. 

JE 

D 



Circle enclosing pell" t. 
M (base) ? 

+HERRED- 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 

JE 

+HERREDX 

Circle enclosing cross. 

„ Cro*s. 

m (base) ? 

+HRRED- 

Circb" enclosing cro.ss. 
.as 

+HERREDX Cro8.s. 

2E 



"SMnt. ^lonpycr. 



Ileanlwnlf, 
xrr (//.so 
Eanhvnlf. 



IlorrclS. 



xHERREO 



JR 



+HEARE€)I 

Circle of dots en- 
closing croifs. 

JE 



-l-HERREO 



Cross. 

JE 





EANRED. 


155 


No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


195 


63flHS3x Pellet. 


XHERREO Cross. 
(RE in monog.). ;k 


Herre/S. 


196 


>» >> 


XHERREO 




197 


63fll/IH3x 


+HEII1IEO 




198 


+E7^NRED REX 

Circle of clots en- 
closing cross. 


+HVAETRED 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 


Huaetrcd. 


199 


A 


AC 




200 


„ Cross. 


-1-HVAETRED Cross. 

IE 




201 


>) i> 


(Dot A-) m' 




202 


+EANRED REX Cross. 


+MONNE Cross. 


Monnc. 


203 


)> )) 


-l-MOHNE 
(Dot 0-) M 




204 


A 


-flVlONNE 
(Dot N-N) M 




205 


-HEANRED REX 


+MONI/IE- 




206 


)> >) 


-l-MOHNE- 




207 


„ 


+MOI/I1/IE.-. 

Circle enclosing pellet. 




208 


+EANRED REX 
(Dots RE:X) 


+MOI/INE Cross. 




209 


,, Cross; clots 
(No dots). in angles. 


N 




210 


>> )' 


(Do'ts M- N-NE-) ic" 




211 


X3ANHED REX Cro^s. 


-fMOl/lNE 

JE 




212 


+3AI/IRED REX 


^-. 





loG 



NORTIIUMBlflA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Miut. Moneycr. 


213 


+DANRED REX Cross. 


+MOHNE Cross. 


Mouue. 


21i 


X3ANRED REX 


NH 

Circle enclosing pellet. 
Ai (base)? 




215 


+3AHRED REX 


+M0i/1NE 

IE 




216 


X3ANRED REX 


(Dots NE-) Circle of 
dots enclosiug 
pellet. 2E. 




217 


+ 

Circle enclosing pellet. 


„ Cross. 
(No dots). 2E 




218 


» II 


Circle enclosing pellet. 

.as 




219 


11 II 


+MONNE- Cross. 




220 


+EVNRED REX 


+MOMNE Circle cnclos- 
(Dot M-) ing pellet. 




221 


11 11 


(Du't HO JE 




222 


+EANRED RE Cross. 


+MONNE Cross. 

JE 




223 


A 


+MOMNE 

JE 




224 


+a3anA3x 


•.•3HN0M+ 

iE 




225 


Coin witli obvorao logoud struck over reverse and reverse 
over obverse. Ai 




226 


+EANRED REX Cross. 


+ODILO MON 

Circle enclos- 
ing pellet. 

JE 


Odilu. 


227 


i> II 


+ODILO MO 

JE 




228 


+EANRED RE 


+ODILO Cross. 

JE 




229 


+ EANRED REX Cross 


+TEVEH Cross. 
(Dot V) .t; 


Tevon ? 



EANRED. 



157 



No. 


OlJverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


230 


+EANRED REX 


Crod3. 


+TIDViNI Pellet. 


Tidwine. 


231 


I) 


" 


+TIDVNI 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 




232 


+EANRED REX 

Circle enclosing pellet. 

[PI. X2 


+VILHEAH 

Circle enclosing ix;llct. 
^? Wt. 180. 
a. 11.] 


Wilhcah. 


233 


" 




^ 




234 


" 




M (base) ? 




235 


" 




m 




236 


+EANRED REX 




M 




237 


+EANRED REX 








238 


+ESNREC) REX 

Circle of dots eu- 
closinj^ pellet. 


„ Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 




239 


+EANRED REX 


Crosd. 
[PI. X> 


-t-PIN/^RM|X) Cross. 
(Partly in runic 
characters). 2e 
U. 12.] 


Wiutrod. 


240 


+EANRED REX 


„ 1 +PINTRED 
[PI. XXI. 13.] 




241 


+EANRED REX 


" 


H 




242 


" 


" 


J5 




243 


" 




-l-l>IHTRED 




244 


+EANRED REX 


[Pi. X. 


+PIMTRK 
S.I. 14.] 





158 



NORTIIUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Hcvorso. 


Mint. Moneyor. 


245 


+EANRED RCX Cross. 


HHTHia+ 


Cross. 


"Wintred. 


240 


+EANRED REX 

Circle enclosing cross. 


+VVLFEHRRD 


Cross. 

2E 


Wulflicard, 
or Wulfred. 


247 


+EANHED HEX 


+VVLtHEARD 


11 




248 


(Dot H-ED) 


+VVLFHEARD 


Si 




249 


EANREQ REX 


dA3H3JVV+ In cen- 
tre, D 
m (base) ? 




250 


+EAMRED REX Cross. 


+VVLFRED 


Cross. 




251 


., 


(Dot L-) 






252 


n >> 


(Dots L- D-) 


1) 




253 


+EAHRED REX 
(Dots E-A and R-ED) 


(Dots L- R-) 


>> 




254 


+ EAHRED REX Cross; 
dots in angles. 


+VVLFRED-.- 

dots 


Cross ; 
in angles. 




255 


+EANRED REX Cross. 


+BADI6ILS 


Cross. 

iE 


padigils, or 
Badigils ? 


256 


fl Q3flHA3+ 


8J10iaiAQ+ 


n 






[PI. x: 


S.I. 15.] 


^ 




257 


3R 


)) 


iE 




258 


a D3fll/1++AE 


+BADI6ILS 

Circle enclosing pellet. 





iETHELRED II. 



159 



^THELRED II. 

A.D. 841. Deposed 814. Eestored same year. Slain 849 or 850. 



Moneyers. 

Mihed ? 

Aldates. 

Alghere, or Aldhere. 

Anfasig. 

Barclwulf. 

Broker, or Brother. 

Ceolbiild. 

Coenred. 

Cunehard. 

Cuuemund. 

Cu^eard. 

Dirinde [or Wirindo, for Wiutrcd ?]. 

Eudiuund. 

Eadwine. 

Eanbald. 

Eanred [Aiired, Inred]. 

Eanwald {^ — Eanhald'i']. 

Eardwulf [Eadwulf=Hcardwulf ?]. 

Edred [ = Eordred?]. 

Eordred [or Fordred]. 

Erwinne. 

E^elberU. 



E^elhelm. 

Eielor? 

E^elred. 

E^elweard [^ETSelwerld], 

ESelwulf. 

Fordred [or Eordred, Ordrod]. 

Gaduteis [^GaduUiW]. 

Herre^. 

Highere. 

Hnitula[=Hunlaf?]. 

Hunlaf. 

Leofdegn. 

Monne. 

Odilo. 

Oldan. 

Ordwulf \_ = Eardwulf ij. 

Tidwulf. 

Wendelberht. 

Werned [=Wintred]. 

Wintred. 

Wulfred. 

Wulfsig [Wulfric, Wulfsic]. 



259 

2G0 
261 

2G2 
203 
2G4 

265 



Obverse. 



+EDILRED REX 
(Dots E-.-X) Circle of 
dots enclosing 
cross. 



+SED1LRED R Cross. 



(Dot L-) 



Reverse. 



Cross of five pellets. 



+SL;SHERE 

+7XbSHERE 
(Dot b-) 



Cross. 



[PI. XXI. 10.] 



(Dot L-) 



+AU6HERE 
(Dot HE-) 



A C'rciss ; 

(Dots U-G- RE-) dotsiu 

angles. 

JE 

iHRUCHERE 
(Dots L- H- RE-) JE 



Mint. Moneyer. 



No moneyer. 



Alghere, or 
Aldhere. 



160 



NORTUUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Monoycr. 


26G 


+REDILRE R Croas. 


+7\LCHERE Cross. 
(DotsRU- HE-RE-) 


Algbere, or 
Aldere. 


2G7 


+EDILRED REX 


+AU6HERE Cross. 




2G8 


+EDILREDD REX „ 


3fl3H0JA+ 




2G9 


+AEDILRE R 


+AUDHERE 
(Dots U- HE) /E 




270 


" " 


+RUDHE RE Cruas; 
(Dots n. HE-) dotsiu 
angles. 
3i 




271 


„ 


4-AL.DHERE Cross of 
(Dotsb-R-) Ave pellets. 




272 


+ EDILRED REX Croaa. 


+BROBER Cross. 


Broker. 


273 


I) i» 


D 




274 


+EDirRED REX 


& 




275 


„ Crosd ; 
(lots iu angk's. 


„ Cross; 
dots in angles. 

3i 




27G 


+ EDILRE'DD REX 

Crose. 


,, Cross. 




277 


+EDILRED X 

(Dots in angles of X). 

Cross of dots joined 
by circle. 


fl3€10fla+ 

Cross of dots joined 
by circle, m 




278 


+EDELRED REX 

Cross of five pellets. 


„ Cross. 

JE 




279 


+ E&FLRED RE Crosa. 


+BRODER 

Ai 




2«0 


1) 11 

[PI. X2 


fl3aoaa+ 
a. 17.] 




2S1 


+EBErRET RT 


+VBRODER 

< 'ircle enclosing pellet. 





iETHELRED II. 



161 



No. 



282 
283 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Similar ; double struck on both sides. 



+7^EDILRED 

Circle of dots on- 
closing R 

AEDILREDX 

(Dot L-) Circle of dots 
enclosing double 
cross. 

+AEDILRED 
(Dots -A- •!• R- D-) 

Lozenge of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



+EDIIRED REX Cross. 



+EDirRED REX Cross. 



+CEOLBSLD 

Circle enclosing pellet. 
M (base) ? 

+CEOLBALD 
(Dot A-) Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. 
M (base) ? 

+EEOLBALD 



a3flN30:]+ 

Cross of five pellets. 

M 



+EVHEMV+D 



Cross. 



ilint. iloneyer. 



Ceolbald. 



Coenred. 



Cunemund. 



Pellet. 



ER DERLIDE4- 

Cross ; dots in field. 



+AEDILRED R Cross. 



+EDELRED REX 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



[PI. XXI. 18.] 

+ MVHD 

+CAHIMAID 



+EDLRED 



Cross. 



iE 



+EAmVIIHD 

Cross of five pellets. 

M 



+EVDHEARD Cross. 



+ DIR1NDE 

+EADVIN 

Runic N ■ 



Cross. 



Cufoard. 



Dirinde 
or AVirindo 
[possibly for 
Wiutrofi]. 



Eadwine. 



162 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obvcrso. 


Reverse. 


;\Iitit. Moneycr. 


29G 


+EDILRED REX Cross. 


+E7\NRED 

Circlo of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

2E 


Eaurcd 
(Moueyer ?) 


297 


»> ij 


+EANRED 

.a; 




298 


»i »> 


+EM/1RED 

Circle enclosing pellet. 




299 


>> t) 


+E7XHRED 

(Dots H-.-) ^ 




300 


i> >i 


+E7XHRED Cross. 

iE 




301 


„ Cross ; 
dots in angles. 


+E7XMREDV' Cross; 
dots in angles. 

JE 




802 


») n 


+E7\I/1RED 




303 


>i J> 


+E7XNREDV Cross. 
(Dots A:) JE 




304 


>) ») 


JE 




305 


u »> 


+E7XMRED 

iE 




30G 


)i »> 


„ Pellet. 




307 


+EDirRED REX Cross; 
dot in lliird quarter. 


+E1\\ARED-.:- Cross. 
(Dots R-E-) 

JE 




308 


>> II 


+EANRED 

Circle enclosing pellet. 

2E 




309 


„ Cross. 


JE 




310 


i> >) 


(rJl'let in fii-ld). 




311 


>> >> 


N 
(Pellet in field). ;e 




312 


,, 


+EAHRED Circle of six 
pellets cuclosing 
pellet. M 





yETHELRED II. 



163 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint, lloneyer. 


313 
314 


+EDirRED REX 

Crods of live pellets. 

Circle oaclosing pellet. 


-f-EAHRED 

Circle enclosing pellet. 

„ Cross of five pellets. 
(Dots R-.-) 2E 


Eanred. 
(Moucyer ?) 


315 


J) )) 


2Si 




316 


n >> 


-I-E7XNRED 

Circle enclosing pellet. 




317 


» >> 


\A Circle of 
dots enclosing 
pellet. M 




318 


„ Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


,, Cross. 




319 


(Dot R-ED) 


+E7^NRED Cress of 
five pellets. 




320 


»> )) 


+E7XIIRED-.- 




321 


(Dot R-ED) 


M 

Circle enclosing pellet. 

M 




322 


(Dot R-ED) 


„ Double circle, 
outer one of dots, 
enclosing pellet. 




323 


„ (?) Cross. 


n (?) 




324 


+EDirRED REX 

Circle enclosing pellet. 


+E7X1/IREDE 

Cross ; dots in angle. 




325 


„ Cross. 


+7\1/IRED 




326 


>> I) 

[PI. X] 


+7\I/IRED-:- Cross. 

a. 19.] 




327 


,, Circle enclosing 
pellet. 


>> )) 




328 


+ EDirRED re: 

Circle of dofri en- 
closing pcUot. 


+E7XHRED 

2S. 





M 2 



164 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 



329 

330 
331 

332 
333 
334 
835 
836 

337 

338 
339 

340 
341 

342 
343 
314 



Obverse. 



+EDl^RED re; 

Circlo of dots cn- 
closiug pellet. 



ER DERLIDE+ Cross. 



+EDELBEa REX 



Crost! 



Reverse. 



-fETXHRED 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



Circlo enclosing pellet. 



+EBFLRED REX 



+EBFLRED RE 



+EAHREDf 
+E7\HRED 
+E7^HRED-.- 
+E7\HRED 



Cross. 



M 



m 



+EDELRED R 



+7\EDILRED REX 

Cross of live polli ts. 



+SEDILRE REX Cross. 
+?iEILRED R 



K LozL-ngc of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



+E7\MRED-.- 

Cross of five pellets. 

+E7\HRED 

(Dots E:7\-H:R-) 

Circle enclosing 
pellet. JE 

-fETXHRED-.- 



+E7\HRED 

Double circle, outer 
one of dots, en- 
closing pellet. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Eanred. 
(Rloneyer ?) 



+ E7XNRED 



Cross. 



-fEANRED 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



Cross. 



+EANREDR 



Circle of dots cn- 
clo.sing pellet. 



;ethelred II. 



1(35 



No. 


Obverse. 


Eevprso. 


ilint. Moneyer. 


345 


+SEILRED R 

LozL'Uge of (lots en- 
closing pellet. 


+EANREDR 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


Hinred. 
(iloueyer ?) 


346 


„ 


+[EA]NRED Cross. 




347 


Pellet. 


+EANRED 

Circle enclosing 

pellet. M 




ate 


" 


„ Lozenge of dots 
enclosing pellet. 




349 


„ 


+EANREDR Circle of 
dots enclosing 
pellet. s: 




350 


» >) 


+E7^NRED Pellet. 

M 




351 


1) >> 


+ANRED 




352 


3?1 a3flJI3+ Lozenge 
(Dotaa:3) of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


03531/11+ Cross; 
(Dols-.-i/l) dotsinaugles. 




353 


0333103+ Cross of 
five pellets. 


+1EAARE 




354 


-fEDILRED REX 

Circle enclosing cross. 


+EARDVVLF Cross; 
pellet in field. 

iE 


Eardwulf. 


355 


Circle 
(Dots E*."X) of dots en- 
closing cross. 


3JVVaflA3+ Circle 
of dots en- 
closing cross. 

M 




356 


(Dots E-.-X) 


+EARDVVLF Circle 
of dots en- 
closing pellet. 




357 


+ EDILRED REX 

Circle enclosing cross. 


,, Circle enclosing 
cross of five 
pellets. M 




358 


„ 


Circle enclosing pellet. 




35'J 


Circle 

(Dot •+) of dots en- 
closing cross. 


" 





166 



NORTIIUMBRIA. 



No. 


Oljvcrec. 


Rovorso. 


Mint. jMoncycr. 


360 


+EDILRED REX 

Circle (if (lots cu- 
clotjiug cross. 


+EARDVVLF 

Circlo enclosing pollot. 


Eardwulf 


3G1 


(Dot .+) 


+EARDVVLF-.- 

Circle of clots en- 
closing star. 
M 






[PI. XXI. 20.] 




3G2 


,. 


+EARDAALF 




3G3 


„ Cross. 


+EARDVVLF Cross. 




3G1 


Circle enclosing ^x)llet. 


Circle enclosing pellet. 

Si 




305 


„ 


„ Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 




306 


X37\ a3fljia3+ 

Double circle enclos- 
ing pellet. 


qjvvaHA3+ 

Double circle en- 
closing pellet. 




307 


+EDI^REII REX Cross. 


„ Cross ; 
dots in angles. 

M 




368 


X3fl a3fljia3+ 

Circlo enclosing pellet. 


FLVVDRAE+ Cross. 

.flB 






[PI. XXI. 21.] 




309 


+EDILRED RE- 

Circle enclosing cross. 


+EARDVVLF 

Circle enclosing star. 




370 


>) >> 


-fEARDVVLF 
(Dots L-.-) 2E 




371 


["] 
Circle of dots on- 
closing cross. 


+EARDVVLF 




37ii 


RE- 

Circlc enclos- 
ing cross. 


Circle enclosing pollot. 




373 


,, Circle of dots 
(Dot L) enclosing pellet 


-fEARDVVLF 

Circlo enclosing 
cross of five 
pellets. 2E 





/ETHELRED II. 



167 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


374 


3fl a3fljia3+ 

(Dots +-3-) Cross. 


3JVVaflA3+ Cross. 


Eardwulf. 


375 


+EDILRED RE 

Circle enclosing pellet. 


a: 




376 


xfl a3ajia3+ 


M 




377 


fl a3PJia3 Pellet. 
(Dots :J) 


+EARDAALI 

Four pellets, rs. 




378 


a3ajia3A 

(Dots •3fl-) Cross. 


3JVVaflA3+ 

Cross of five pellets. 




379 


X3J1 a3aj3+ 

Cross of five pellets. 


+EARDVVLF 

Cross ; dots in field. 

M 


Eordred, see 
Fordred. 


380 


EDELRFD REX 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


ERPINNE 

Cross of eight pellets. 


Erwinno 

[Irvine, 
Irving]. 


381 


[X]3fla3ajia3 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


EDErHVW 

Circle enclosing pellet. 


ESelwuIf. 


382 


+EDLIEDRLIC 
(Dots LI.-. E) Cross; 
dots in angles. 


+ELDFAA Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. 




383 


+EDILRED REX 

Circle enclosing cross. 


+EAAAALE Cross; 
four dots in field. 


Uncertain 


384 


+EDILRED RE Cross. 


+EVDRTEC7^ Cross. 


Uncertain. 


385 


+EDILRED REX 
(Dots E-.-X) Circle 
of dots enclosing 
cross. 


a3aDR03+ 

(Dots R-.-O) Cross of 
five pellets. 2E. 


Fordred or 
Eordred.* 


38G 


+EDILRED REX Cross. 


+ FORDRED Cross. 




387 


+EDirRED REX 


0330303+ 
(Dots R-.O) Cross, 
dots in angles. 





Sec note ou p. 151. 



168 



NORTnUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moncyer. 


388 


+ EDirRED REX Cr<>s:?. 


D3Hafl03+ Cross. 
m 


Ford red, or 
EordrcK,!. 


389 


M >> 


:4iF0RDRED 

JE 




390 


„ 


4-.E0RDRED 




891 


n » 


+FORDRED 
(Dots R •.-.• E) m 




392 


„ 


+EOFRED(?) 




393 


+EDILRED REX 

Cross ; dots in angles. 


+EORDRED 




394 


+EDirRED REX 


*F©RDRED 

(Dots numerous). Cross ; 
dots in angles. 




395 


„ 


+FORDRED 

(Dots numerous), m 




390 


„ 


„ Cross. 
(Dots numerous). 




397 


»> >) 


HiFORDRED 

Cross dots in angles. 

JE 




398 


" " 


+FORDRED 
(Dots R-D R-ED) 

Cross of five pellets. 

JE 




399 


,, Circle enclosing 
pellet. 


„ Circle enclosing 
pellet. M 




40U 


)) I) 


)i I) 

JE 




401 


„ CiTcle enclosing 
pollet ; four dots 
around. 

[PI. x: 


JE 

S:i. 22.] 




402 


)> )> 


(Dot 0) je' 




403 


., 


+FORDRED Ciroh^ of 
dots euclosiug 
pellet. JE 




404 


., 


„ Cross. 

JE 





^THELRED II. 



169 



Obverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



+EDirRED REX 

Circle enclosing 
pellet ; four dots 
around. 



+EDLIRED RE Cross. 



+FORDRED 



a3flaH03+ 
(Dot a-Q) 

+EORDRED 



(Dot R-E) 
+EDLIRED RE 



Cross. 

M 



Cross. 



M 



Fordred, or 
Eordred. 



Cross of five pellets. 
+EDILRED Rl Cross. 
ER DERLIDE+ 



„ Cross of five 

(Dot R-D) pellets. 

+EORDRED 



,, Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

+FORDRED- Cross. 

JE 



+EORDRED 



M 



+FORDRED 

Cross ; dots in angles. 

+EORDRED 

Cross of five pellets. 



[PI. XXI. 23.] 



+EDI^RED RE 

+EOLIRED X 

Cross of five pellets. 

+EBFLRED REX „ 



Double circle, 
outer ouo of dots, 
enclosing pellet. 



„ Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

M 



+FORDRED 



m 



,, Cross of five 

(Dot R-D) pellets. 

+FORDRED 



Cross. 

IE 



170 



NORTIITTMBRIA. 



No. 



421 
422 
423 

424 
425 

426 
427 

428 

429 

430 
431 

432 

433 



Obvcrso. 



+EOFLRED RE Cross. 



Cross of flvc pellets. 



Circle enclosing jwlkt. 
Pellet. 



Cross ; dots in angles. 



EDFLRED R 

Circle enclosing 
pellet; four dots 
around. 



Rovorso. 



+FORDRED- 



Cross. 

M 



+FORDRED 
(Dot R-D) Cross of live 
pellets. 

JE 



+FORDRED 



m 



+ FORDRED- 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

+FORDRED 

Cross of five pellets, 
.as 



+ERDERLIRE 



+EDILRED 



Cross. 



Cross. 



+EDILRED REX Cross. 



+EDILRED REX 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 



Mlut. jroncycr. 



Ford red, or 
Eordred. 



+ EORIRDED 



Cross. 

M 



+HNIFVLA 

Circle of dots on- 
cloeing cross. 



[H]VNL7XF Hunlaf? 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



Ilnifulii 
(Ilunlaf?). 



LEOF 



DEG 



[n. XXII. 1] 



An nnimal 
prancing r., 
head 1. ? 



-fLEOFDECN Cross. 



Leofdcgn. 



iETHELRED II. 



171 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


434 


+EDILRED REX 

Cross ; dota in angles. 


+LEOFDECH 

Cross ; dots in angles. 

IE 


Leofdcgn. 


435 


+LEOFDEXN Cross. 
[PI. XXII. 2.] 




436 


„ 


» IJ 

iE 




437 


+EDirRED REX 

Cross. 


+rEOFDECH 

IE 




438 


i> >> 


„ 3 Circle of 
dots enclosing 
pellet. 2E 




439 


n 


M 




440 


>> >> 


NE3a=103J+ 

Cross of five pellets. 




441 


,, Cirrle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


+rE0FDE3H Cross. 






[PI. xxn. 3.] 




442 


»i i> 


„ Circle of dots en- 
cloBing pellet. 

M 




443 


+EDILREDD REX Cross. 

[PI. x: 


X33aq03J+ Cross. 

.33 

*i:ii. 4.] 




444 


+EDILRED RE 


+LEOFDECH 




445 


1) )> 


^ 




44G 


,, Cross; dots in 
angles. 


j> )) 

JE 




447 


>) i> 


„ Cross; dots 
in angles. je 




448 


+ EDirRED RE Cross. 


+LE0rDE31/l Cross. 




449 


V 


+LEOFDECX 
(Dot L-) JE 





172 



NORTIIUMRRIA. 



No. 



450 
451 
452 

453 

454 
455 

450 

457 
458 

459 

4G0 
4G1 



Olivorse. 



+EBILIRED X Cross. 
+ ED1LRED 



+E€)ELRED REX 

Four pclkls united 
by circle enclos- 
ing cross. 



+ hEOrDE3X Cross. 

(Dots 3-.-) ^ 

+rEOFDE£H 

.33 

+LEOFDE3I/I 



„ Double circle en- 
closing pellet ; 
inner one of dots 



+rEOrDECM 



[PI. XXII. 5.] 



Cross. 



Circle 
enclosing star 
of six rays. 



+EBFLREP REX 



Circle. 



+EDELRED REX 

Circle enclosing 
four small circles 
arranged in cross. 



+LE0FDE31/1 



+LEOrDECH 

(Dot 0-) Circle en- 

closing cross 
patte'e. x 

„ Circle enclns- 

(No dot) ing cross ; dots 
in angles. 

M 



-fLEOFDECX 

(Dot L-) 



Cross. 

JE 



Mint. Moneyer. 



[PI. XXII. 6.] 



-fLE0rDE3h qpOI/IET 

Voided cross liav- 
iiig circuliir 

spaces between 
limbs ; pellet on 
each limb nn<l in 
centre. (Com]). 
8ccatta» Nos. !)l^, 
IGl, ]7(», PI. II. 
18; III. 25; IV. 
2.) JE 



Leofdegn. 



iETHELRED II. 



173 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Hint. Moneyer. 



4C2 



+EDELRED REX 

Circle enclosing 
four small circles 
arrauged in cross. 



[PI. XXII. 7.] 



+LE0rDE3h TOMET 

Voided cross hav- 
ing circular 
spaces between 
limbs ; pellet on 
each limb and in 
centre. (Comp. 
eceattas Nos. 93, 
161, 170, PI. II. 
18; III. 25; IV. 
2.) ^ 



Leofdegn. 



4G3 

464 

465 

im 

467 

468 

469 

470 
471 
472 

473 



Circle enclosing ^ 



(Pellet D-) 

,, Circle enclosing OU 

wedge below CD 



+EDELRED RE 

Circle enclosing 
cross patte'e. 

+EDELRED R 

Cross patte'e. 



+[LE]0FDECI/1 



+LEOrDE£H 

Cross ; pellet i 
second quarter. 



Voided cross, hav- 
ing circular 
spaces between 
limbs; pellet in 
centre. (Comp. 
No. 461.) M 



+rEOrDECM 

Cross jiatte'e. m 

+LEOFDECH 

Circle enclosing 
cross patte'e. 

11CEDF0EJ+ 



+LE0DE3I/IX 

Cross pattee. iE 



+ LE0FDE3[HV] 

Triple cirt'le, mid- 
dle one of dots. 

JE 

Triple circle, 
(Dots N-;-) middle one of 
dot.s, enclosing 
pellet. Ji 



174 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


IMlnt. Moneycr. 


474 


+EDELRED R 

Cross pattcc. 


+LEOrDE£H 

Double circle. 


Leofdegn. 


475 


+EDELRD REX 


„ Circle enclosing 
pellet. M 




47G 


+EDERED REX 


„ Voided cross hav- 
ing circular 
spaces between 
limbs; pellet in 
centre. (Comp. 
No. 4G1.) 2E 




477 


+EDLRED RE 


-fLE0FDE3H 

Circle enclosing 
cross. 2E 




478 


»> " 


-fL-i-XFDE3H Cross. 

JE 




479 


1) »> 


-l-LEOFDECX 
(Dot L) M 




480 


+7^ED1LRED R 
(Dot A) 


-t-LEOTDECM Cross. 

iE 




481 


t) )> 


HODT0EJ+ 

(Dot -J) ^ 




482 


+AEDEURED REX 

Circle enclosing 
cross pattc'o with 
four rays proceed- 
ing from it. 


-l-LEOrDECI><l 

Double circle on- 
closing pellet. 






[PI. X- 


SII. 8.] 




483 


>» »» 


-J-LEOFDECH 

JE 




484 


15 >> 


-l-fLEOCDECN 
(Dots 0- N) M 




485 


" 


+ LEOrDECI/I 

Double circle, en- 
closing cross of 
live pellets. 

2E 






[PI. X 


XII. ;).] 




48G 


>I » 


-fUE0FDE3l/l+ 

Trijilc circle, inner 
one of dots, cu- 
cloaiug pellet. 

M 





iETHELRED II. 



liO 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. r^Ioneyer. 


487 


+AEr)EUREO REX 

Greek pattern 
(swasticaj. 


+UE0FDE3HX 

Circle enclosing 
pellet. 2E 


Loofdegn. 


488 


1) >> 


+UEOrOE3NX 

Circle enclosing 
lozenge of dots; 
within, pellet. 




489 


,, Circle enclosing 
four ovals in 
cross. 


+LEOrDE£h rOOMET 

Voided cross, hav- 
ing circular 
spaces between 
limbs ; pellet on 
each limb and in 
centre. (Comp. 
No, 461.) s: 




490 


+7^EIILREDI R +LEE • • • CN Cross. 

Lozenge of dots. m 
(Double struck). 




491 


Legend defaced. Circle en- 
closing pellet. 


+LE0ED6CN 




492 


+REILRED R Pellet. 


+LEOFDECHX 

Double circle en- 
closing pellet. 




493 


+FRDERLE [To bo read 
across FDELRER] 

Cross. 


+LEOFDECM Cross. 




494 


i> )) )) 


+LEODECH 




495 


>> » M 


„ Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. 




496 


+ED1LEDR RE 
(Double struck). 


+LE0FDE3I/1 Cross. 

2B 




497 


+EBILRED REX 

Cross putt(5o ; dots 
in angles. 


+MOHNE Cross. 


Moune. 


498 


" " 


„ ^^ Circle of dots 
(Dots N v'Ev') enclosing 
pellet. 




499 


.. 


Pellet. 
(No dots). M 





176 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverso. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


500 


Cross iiattc'e; dots 
iu angles. 


+M01/IHE Cross of 
five pellets. 


Mouuo. 


501 


+ EBILR 


+MONNE Cirdoofdots 
enclosing pellet. 

JE 




502 


+EDILRED REX 

Cross. 


\A Circle enclcsing 
(Dots H-N:E-.0 pellet. 




503 


+ E[>ILRED REX 


Pellet. 




504 


+EDirRED REX 


„ Cross. 
2E 




505 


»» >> 


(Do't's M-.-N) Circle en- 
closing pellet. 




506 


Circle eucloBing pellet. 


+MOHHE Cross. 




507 




+M0N1/IE 

(Dots O-.-) J3 




508 




+MOHNE 

(Dots N-.-E-) Circle en- 
closing pellet. 

M 




509 


" " 


EI/1NOM + 
(Dot N-) Cross of 
five dots. 




510 


3fl a3fijia3+ 

(Dotfi -.-J) Circle en- 
closing cross. 


3HN0M-f- Cross. 
(Dots -N-.-O) m 




511 


+EDILRED RE Cross. 


+MOHI/IE 




512 


)) >) 


(Do'ta M-.-E) je' 




513 


+EDL1RED RE 


M 




514 


„ 


+3HN0M+ Cross; 
dot in field. 




515 


»> )> 


Jii 
+MOMNE 

Cross of five pellets. 

JE 





^THELRED II. 



177 



No. 



516 



+ EDLIRED RE Cross. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



+MOHNE 

Cross of five pellets. 

M 



Monne. 



FHNOM+ 
(Dot N-0) 



M 



+EDILRED X 



+EBILRED X 

Circle of dots en- 
closino; cross. 



+MOHNE Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. 

M 



+MOHNE 

Cross of five pellets. 

M 

Pellet 

M 

„ Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 



»> )> 


,, Circle of dots en- 

(Dota M-N-:-E-) closing 

pellet. 

M 


,, Cross of five pel- 
lets. 


3MN0M+ 

Cross ; dot in field. 


(Do't D-X) 


+MOHME Cross. 


(Dot L-) Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. 

[PI. X2 


+MOMNE 

Lozenge of dots, 
pellet in centre. 
m. 10.] M 



xa3fljia3+ 



Pellct. 

M 

„ Cross of five pel- 
lets. M 

3HN0M+ Cross; 

dots in angles. 



178 



NORTnUMBRIA. 



No. 



532 
533 
534 
535 
536 
537 

538 
539 
540 
541 
542 

543 
544 
545 
54G 

547 
548 



Obverse. 



+ EDILRED-.-Xv rdlet. 



+EDILRED-.- 



Cross. 



Kcvcrso. 



+EDILRED 



+EDIIRED 



+EDILRED 

Cross of five pelluts. 



(Dot L) 



+MOHNE Pdlet. 

M 



Cross. 



„ Cross of fivo pel- 
lots. 2E 

„ Circle of dots cu- 
closiug pellet. 

M 

» Cross. 



(Dots E-.-) JE 

„ Cross of five pellets. 

+MOMNE 



+IV10NNE 

Circle of clots en- 
closing pellet. 

„ Cross. 



^litit. Moneyer. 



Monne. 



„ Circle enclosing 
pellet. 



-HV10HNE 

Cross of five pellets. 

JE 

-f-M0NNE 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

JE 



+MOHHE 



Circle enclosing 
pellet. JE 



^THELRED II. 



179 



549 

550 

551 
552 
553 

554 

555 
55G 
557 

558 

559 
5C0 
5G1 

562 
5G3 



Obveree. 



+EDILRED 

Circle enclosing 
pellet. 

,, Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



+E&ELRED REX Cross. 



Reverse. 



+MOHHE 

Circle enclosing 
pellet. M 

+MONNE 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

M 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Monne. 



+EBEhRFD REX 



+EBELRED REX 

Cross ; dots in angles. 



Four dots joined by- 
circle enclosing 
cross. 



+M01/1NE 



Cross. 



3HN0IVH- 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

+MOHNE 

Double circle en- 
closing pellet ; 
outer of dots. 

M 

Pellet. 



+HPI/1NE 



Cross. 



+MOHNE 

Four dots joined by 
circle enclosing 
cross. JE 

,, Circle of dots en- 
(Dot E-) closing cross. 

JE 



(Dots E :• ) ^ 

„ Cross of five pellets. 

JE 

„ Circle of dols en- 

(No dots). closing 

pellet. 

JE 

Pellet. 

an 

,, Four pellets. 



N 2 



180 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



Obverse. 



5G4 

565 

566 
567 
568 
569 
570 
571 

572 

573 
574 
575 

576 

577 



+E&ELRED REX 

Fuiir (lots joined by 
circle enclosing 
cross. 



+EDELRED REX 

Cross of five pellets. 



+EBELRED REX „ 



+EDELRED flEX 

Cross potent. 



+EI^ELRED REX „ 



Keversc. 



+MOMNE 

Cross of five pellets. 

Si 



,, Circle enclosing 
cross of five pellets. 



Cross. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Monne. 



+MOHHE 
+MONNE 
+MOMNE 



„ Cross potent. 

(Dots E-.-) ^ 



(Dots numerous). 

Cross of five pellets. 



(Dots E-.-) Four dots 
joined by circle 
enclosing pellet. 

JE 



+EBELRED REX 



Pellet. 



AEDELRED REX 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross ; dote 
in angles. 



+EOELRED REX 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 



(No dots). 



Cross. 



B 



Cross 
){ live pellets. 



-fMOHHE Cross: 

dots in angles. 



-f-MONHE- 



■fODILO MO 

Circle enclosing pellet. 



Odilo. 



^TUELRED II. 



181 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


579 


+EDILDE- 

Crosa ; dots in angles. 


+OLDAH 

Circle enclosing pellet. 


Oldan. 


580 


+EDLRED [R]E Cross? 


+TIDVVLF 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 


Tidwulf. 


581 


a3flJia3+ Cross; 
dots in angles. 


LFAADI[T]+ Cross; 
dots in angles. 




582 


+EDILRED REX Cross. 


[+VEH]DELBERHT 

Cross. 


Wendolberht. 


583 


>) )> 


+VEMDErBERFr 
(Dots L- R-) ^ 




584 


r 

[PI. Xi 


-fVEI/IDErBERH" 
JI. 11.] 




585 


+EDILRED RE 






586 


a 


M 




587 


>> )> 


(Dot L-) M 




588 


+EDILRED RE 


r 




589 


„ 






590 


a 


+VEMaELBERH- 




591 


+EDirRED REX 


+VEHDErBERH- 
(Dot R-) X 




592 


ER DERLIDE+ 


2E. 




593 


+EDILRED REX Cross. 

[PI. x: 


+VIHfvRED Cross. 

ai. 12.] 


Wintred. 
See aho 
Dirinde. 


594 


>> )> 


N 

.E 





182 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Money er. 


5t)5 


+EDELRED REX Crosa. 


+VINTRED 


Cross. 


Wintred. 


596 


+ EDILRED flEX 


+ DINTRD 






597 


,, Lozenge of dots. 


H 


„ 






[PI. XXII. 13.] 


2E 




598 


+EBFLRED REX 

CruBB. 


+PINTRED- 


1) 




599 


„ 


\A 


M 




COO 


+EDFLRE& REX „ 


N 


M 




601 


„ 


+ PINTRD 


JE 




602 


+EBELRED REX „ 


aflTHia + 


M 




603 


+EDELRE& REX „ 


DIRTNID+ 


M 




604 


+EaEL»? IB flEX „ 


+D1NTRD 


.ffi 




605 


a 


» 


M 




606 


+EBFLRED RE 


+PIRTNDE 


M 




607 


+E&FLRED REX 

Doublo circlo, outer 
of (lots, enclosing 
pellet. 


+PIHTRED 

Circle enclosing pellet. 




608 


" " 


„ Double circle, 
outer of dots, en 
closing pellet. 




609 


+EDILRED REX 

Circle of dots on- 
closing cross. 


+VVLFRED 
Circle 
pellet. 


enclosing 


Wulfred. 


CIO 


+EBILRED REX 

Cross patlt'C. 


)> 


Pellet. 




Oil 


4-EDLIRED RE 


" 


JB 





^THELRED II. 



183 



No. 
G12 

G13 

614 

615 

616 

G17 

618 
619 
G20 
G21 
622 

623 
624 

625 
626 
627 
628 



Obverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



+-:EBILRED X 

Cross patte'e. 



+VVLFRED Cross. 

+VVLFR ED 

(Dots V-V L-, R-) x 



(Dots R-) 



Wulfred. 



(Dots L-, R) 32 

+VVLFRED 

Cross of five pellets. 

[PI. XXII. 14.] 



,, Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



Pellet. 



Pellet. 



+EDILRED 

Cross of five pellets. 



+EBELRED REX 

Cross. 

-f-EDLIRED RE Cross. 
„ Cross of five pellets. 



+VVLFRED 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 



-fVVLERED 
(Dots L-.-) 

+VVLFRED 
(Dots L-.-.-) 

0I8^JVV+ 



Cross. 

2E 



Cross. 

M 



(Dots •:-^.j) 
(Dots ■:-'=\) 



Wulfsig. 



184 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



REDWULF.* 
Succeeded on expulsion op Ethelred, a.d. 844. Slain by Danes (?) same year. 

Moneyers. 
See note on p. 25. 



Algbcre. 

Bro'fier. 

Coenrai 

CuTiberlit. 

Eanred. 

Eardioulf [Eordioulf]. 

Eordred or Fordred. 



Herre^. 
Husotno^. 
JIuxtred ? 
Himlaf. 

Monne. 

Wondelberht. 

Wintred. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


629 


+REDVLF RX 


Cross. 


+7\bCrHERE 
(Dot S-) 


Cross. 

2E 


Alghere. 


630 


» 


" 


+aucrHERE 


M 




631 


+REDVLF RE 


Cross. 


+BRODER 


Cross. 


Bro'Scr. 


632 


>> 


>j 


» 


M 




633 


+REDVL RE 


>) 


>> 


m. 




634 


+REDVLF RE 


Cross. 


+COENRED 
(Dot C) 


Cross. 


Cocnred. 


635 


+REDVVLF REX 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


+EOENED 


Cross. 




636 


+REDVLF REX 


Cross. 


+EVDBEREh^; 


Cross. 


Cu'Sberht. 






[PI. X> 


LII. 15.] 


.32 




637 


" 


" 


" 


s. 




638 


I) 


" 


5j13fl3BDV3 + 
(Dots -S-) 


JE 




639 


+flEDVLF REX 


" 


+EVDBEREhC 
Cross of five 


pellets. 





* Only inentioncd hy Matthew of Wcstmluetcr, anno ai4 ; who says that he was killed 
righting against the Danes. 



REDWULF. 



185 



No. 
C40 

641 

642 
643 

644 
645 
646 
647 

648 
649 

650 
651 

652 
653 
654 



Obverse. 



+REDVrF RE Cross. 
+REDVLF REX 



Reverse. 



+E7XNRED 



Cross. 



+REDVLF REX Cross. 



+-REDVLF RE Cross; 
dots in field. 



+REDVL RE 



Cross. 



I J Cross ; dots 

in angles. 

ER FLVDER+ Cross. 



+E7XHRED-.- 

Cross of five pellets. 



+EORDRER 
(Dot E-O) Cross of 

five pellets. 

D 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Eanred. 



(Dot R-D) 



+EORDRE 



Cross. 



Eordred or 
Fordred. 



+EORDRED 

Cross of five pellets. 



+REDVVLF REX 

Cross ; dots in field. 



+FORDRED 



+HVAETNDD 



Cross. 



Cross. 



dots in field. 



Huffitno^. 



aaNT3AVH+ 



[Pl. XXII. 16.] 



no dots. 



+REDVLF RE Cross 



+REDVLF REX Ci 



+HVNL[AF] 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

M 



Hunlaf. 



EHNOM+ I Moune. 

Cross of five pellets. 



186 



NORTIIUMBRIA. 



Xo. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


655 


+REDVLF REX Cross. 


+MOHNE Pellet. 


Mouno. 


G5G 


RE 

Cross; two dots iu 
iu field. 


+MOIVVIE Cross. 




C57 


ER ELVDER+ Cross. 


EHNOM+ 

Cross of five pellets. 

2E 




058 


>> >i 


(Double struck). 




650 


>i >j 






6G0 


+HEDVVLF REX Cross. 


+VEHDErBERH" Cros.s. 
(Dot R-) 3i 


Wcndol- 
berlit. 


GGl 


)> f> 


»> >> 




GG2 


[PI. XI 


ai. 17.] 





OSBERHT. 



187 



OSBERHT. 

A.D. 849 or 850 — a.d. 8G7. Deposed. Restored same yeab as joint king 

^VITH JEhhA ; SLAIN BY DaNES SAUE YEAB. 

Moneyers. 

See note ou p. 25. 

Anberht. Monne. 

Cti^berht. Ecinulf. 

Ea n red. Weudelberht ? 

Eanwulf. Wiuiberht [for Wendelberlit ?]. 

Eardiculf. Wulfred. 

Encinne. Wulfsig. 

E^elhdm. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


663 


X3 THnaaaao 

Cross patte'e. 


3JVHA3-H Pellet. 
(Dot -H) M 


Eanwulf. 


664 


xcH THURaeo 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


3JVVNA3-I- Cross. 




665 


X3fl TH3fl3a30 

(Dot -X) Cross; dots 
in angles, s: 


Cross of five pellets. 




666 


X3 JH3fl3aSO 

Cross of five pellets. 


-fBANVLF Cross. 




667 


33 Hnn3a30 Cross. 
(Dots a-i) 






668 


OSBERH . . . 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


3JVVAA3-f 
(Dots -^-V-V) JE 




669 


XCR THDRaSO 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


-HVIONMB 
(Dots :M-) M 


Monne. 




[PI. XI 


QI. 18.] 




670 


lH3fl3aa80 

(Dots.-.H) Circle of 
dots enclosing cross. 


.•.THfl3aiHV 

Cross of five pellets. 


Wiuiberht 
(for Wendel- 
berlit ?) 


671 


J.H3f13aS0 Pellet. 


THfl3aiNIV Cross; 
dots in angles. 

M 




672 


»> » 


M Cross of five 
pellets, .ffi 




G73 


3H THia3a30 

Circle enclosing cross. 


Cross ; dots in angles. 





188 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Monoyer. 


C74 


3FI TH±fl3a30 

Circle enclosing cross. 


THflaaiMiv 

(Dots ;• H) 


Cross ; 
dots in 
angles. 

JE 


Winiberht 
(tor Wendel- 
berht?) 


675 


OSanHBEB Cross. +VVLFSIXT 
(Dots O-.-) 

[PI. xxn. 19.] 


Cross. 


Wulfsig. 


G76 


BlunJeredcoin, probably Osbcrht. 


/■E 





ErVAL TO OSBERHT, A.D. 867,* JOINED FORCES WITH HIM THE SAME YEAH TO 

BESIEGE Danes in Yore, when both were slain. 

For coins which have been attributed to this king see Num. Chron., N.s. 
vol. ix. (18G9), p. 6.*), and Archxologia, vol. xxv., p. 3U3. The attribution must 
be considered very doubtful. 



There follow three kings who were set up in succession by the Danes, the real 
masters of Northumbria subsequent to a.d. 867. Of these no coins are known, 
and without doubt from 867 the copper coins (stycas) ceased to be coined in 
Northumbria. 

ECGBERHT I. 

A.D. 867—873. 



RICSIG. 

A.D. 873— A.D. 875. 



ECGBERHT II. 

A.D. 875— A.D. 876. 



ECGBERHT. 



189 



ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK. 



ECGBERHT. 

A.D. 734— A.D. 766. 
See Koyal Series of Northumbria (Eadberht). 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Money er. 


677 


+Ei:qBERhT3 

Mitred figure r., 
holding two long 
crosses. 


DTBEREVhTEr 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 
M. Wt. 16-8. 


No Money er. 




Coin similar to No. 4. 






[PI. XJ 


an. 1.] 





190 



ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK. 



EANBALD II. 

A.D. 796— A.D. 808? 

Moneyers. 

Cunwiilf [Canwulf or Cynwulf ?]. Eardwulf [Eadwulf, Eodwulf]. 

Etielwcard. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


G78 


+EANBALD AREP 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


H-E^^NVLF 

Cross of five pellets. 


Cunwulf, 
Canwulf, or 
Cyawulf. 


679 


+ENDALD T^EP Cross. 


+EVNVALF 

JE 




680 


+EAI^ALD AREP 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


•qjvvAv:] 

(Dot -3) Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. 

2E 




681 


-fFNBALD /?ER- 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 


+EVANVLF Cross. 

M 




682 


-^-EA^eALD arep 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


+EADVVLP Cross. 


Eardwulf. 


683 


>) >> 


+EADVVLF 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

M 




684 


» " 


(Cjt F-) m' 






[PI. xs 


:ui. 2.] 




685 


„ 


A 

2E 




686 


-l-EANBALD AREP- „ 
(Dots A-L, A-R) 


-fEADVVLF 
(Dot E-) JE 




687 


„ 


-fEADVVLF- 






(Xo'dots). 


JE 




688 


+EANBALD ARE 


-1-EADVVLF 

JE 




689 


^-EA^BALD ARE 
(IJot L) ^ 


JE 





EANBALD II. 



191 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


690 


+EANBALD ARE 

Circle encloBing pellet. 


+EADVVLF 
(Dot D-) Circle en- 
closing peUet. 


EardwTdf. 


691 


+EANBALD+ 

Cross of five pellets. 


+ESDVVLF PeUet. 

IE 




692 


Pellet. 


iE 




693 


+E7\HB7^LD 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 




694 


S A Cross. 


„ Cross. 




695 


Uncertain legend. 

Circle enclosing cross. 


+EADVVLF 

(Dot L.) M (base) ? 




696 


+EA^eALD AREP 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


+AEDVVLF- 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 




697 


ANALDAREREB 
(Blundered legend.) 
Circle enclosing cross. 


+EADVVOLF 

Circle enclosing pellet. 




698 


+EaNBSLD 

Circle enclosing pellet. 


A 

iE (base)? 






[PI. x:5 


LIII. 3.] 




699 


+EANBALD AREP 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


+EADLVV+F 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 




700 


+EANBALD AR 


+EODVVLF 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 

iE 




701 


+EANBALD AB 


+GODVVLbl 

.ai(base)? 




702 


+EANBALD AR 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 


-fEODVVLF- 

m (base ?) 






[PI. x:j 


'All. 4.] 





192 



ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


703 


+ESNBaLD 

Circlo of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


+ EODVVLF Cross. 


Eardwulf. 


704 
705 


Pellet. 

Circle of liota en- 
closing pellet. 


Circle enclosing ctoss. 

iJVvao+3+ 

Circlc of dots en- 
closing cross. 

M 




706 


+E7XNSALD Cross. 


^jvvao3+ 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 

M (base ?) 




707 


+E7^l1B7fLD 

Circlo of dots eu- 
closiug pellet. 


+EVVLAFD Cross. 




708 


+EANBAD AR Cross. 


+EODVVLF 




709 


+EANBALD Cross. 


+EDILVEARD Cross. 


E^clweard. 


710 


M » 






711 


EANBAID ARC 

(Dut E-A) Circlo of 

dots enclosing 

pellet. 


+EDILVARD 

Circlo of dots en- 
closing cross. 

JE 




712 


+EANBALD AR 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 

[PI. X2 


+EDILVARD 

M (base)? 

:m. 5.] 




713 


» » 


J> 11 

JE 




714 


+EVNBVLD VR 


+EDILVARD 

JE 




715 


V 


(Dot RD) ^e" 




71G 


+EVNBVLD V Cross. 


+EDILVARD Cross. 

JE 




717 


V 


A 

JE 





WIGMUND. 



193 



WIGMUND (WIMUND). 

A.D. 837— A.D. 854 ? 



Coenred. 
Eardwulf. 
Elf heard. 
E^elhelm. 



Moneyers. 



E^elweard. 
Erwinne. 
Hunlaf. 
Wilheah. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Muneyer. 




Gold Coin (Solidus). 




718 


VIGMVND ARE 
P 

Tonsured bust 
facing. 


•MVNVS DIVINVM- 

Cross puttee within 
■wreath. 
Ai -8 Wt. 68-2. 






[PI. XXIII. 6.] 






Copper Coins (Stycas). 




719 


+VI6MVND IREP 

Cross ; dots in angles. 


+COENRED 

Cross of five pellets. 


Coenred. 


720 


MD- 


.a: 




721 


" 






722 


+VISMVND IREP- 

Cross. 






723 


>) )) 


M 




724 


+VI6MVHD- IREP „ 


„ Cross. 




725 


>> >) 






72G 


ND- 

Cross ; dot in one 
angle. 


M 




727 


Cross ; dots in angles. 


+CONERED 




728 


ND 


+EOENRED 





194 



ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


72i) 


+VI6MVHD 7\REP 

Cri>?!5 ; dots in angles. 


+ EOENRED Cross. 


Coonred. 


730 


.. 


+COEHRED 




731 


+VI6MVND IREP 

Cross. 


+EOENRED 

Kmle outline of full 
face. 2E 




732 


i> » 


„ Same degenerated 
toCp M 




733 


•1 






73i 


+VI6MVND 


+ EOENRED Cross. 




735 


+VIGMVND IREP 

Cross ; dots in angles. 


a3HM303+ 




736 


+VI6MVHD: IREP „ +E0NERED 

.33 

[PI. XXIII. 7.] 




737 


„ 


o 




738 


Dl1VM0q+ 

Cruss of five pellets. 


3VVaflA3+ 

Cross; dots in angles. 


Eardwulf. 


739 


+VI6MVND Cross. 


+EDErHErM Cross. 

IE 


E'Selliclm. 


740 


II » 


»» )i 




741 


„ M 


+-EDErHErM 




742 


„ N 


+EDErHErM- 

.33 




743 


„ n 


+EDErHErM 

Cross; dots in angles. 

JE 




744 


„ N 


„ Circle of dots en- 
closing ixllet. 

JE 




743 


+VI6MAI/1D 


JE 







WIGMUND. 




195 


No. 


Obverse. Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


746 


+VI6MHEMV1 Cross. +HErMMVHD 
(Blundered through counterstriking of obverse 
aud reverse by obverse). 


Cross. E^elhelm. 
by reverse, 


747 


+ EIGMVND 


+EDErHErM 


iE 




748 


" J) 


» 








[PI. xxm. 8.] 


M 




749 


+VIGHVHD AREP +EDILVEARD 
Cross. 
[PJ. XXIII. 9.] 


Cross. 


E<5elweard. 


750 


» 


)» 


^ 




751 


" )i 


>> 


M 




752 


" 


aflA3Vjia3+ 


^ 




753 


" >i 


+EDILVEARD 










Cross ; dots iu angles. 










M 




754 


+VISMVND IREP. „ 


II 


Cross. 






[PI. xxm. 10.] 


-B 




755 


" ., "^ 








(No dot.) 




^ 




756 


(Dots'k-P-) 


E 


£ 




757 


.. . 


II 


^ 




758 


+VIGMVND IREP „ 


+EDILVEARa 


^ 




751) 


)> Cross; dots 
iu two angles. 


+EDILVEiZRD 


SE 




760 


>. Cross. 
(Dots E-P-) 


aflA3VJia3 + 


iE 




761 


(Do't P-) 


aiH3Vjia3+ 


OJ 




762 V 


IGMVND IREP Cross; 
dot iu ouo angle. 


a3ii3vjia3+ 


J& 





196 



xVRCHBISHOPS OF YORK. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Miut. Mouoyer. 


763 


qaflA aNVMpiv+ 

Cross. 


aiH3VJia3+ 


Cross. 


E^elwcartl. 


7G4 


„ 


+ ED1LVEARD 


JE 




7G5 


A 


aflA3VJia3 + 


jE 




766 


PEIA 


+EDILVEAflD 


iE 




767 


„ 


+ EDILVEAnD 


M 




768 


+I6MVHP APEP 


+3DILVEARD 


M 




769 


„ 


aRvavjia3+ 


M 




770 


„ 


+EDILVBVRD 


2E 




771 


+V6MVND IPEP 
(Dot DO 


+EILVBVAD 


JE 




772 


+VI6MVND IRER 
(Dot E-) Cross. 


+ERPINNE 

Cross of eight pellets. 


Erwinne. 


773 


+VI6MVHD IREb 

Cross ; clots in angles. 


+ HVNL7^F 


Cross. 


Hunlaf. 


774 


+VI6MVHD IR Cross. 


+HVHLAF 


IE 




775 


)) >> 


" 


JE 




776 


„ 


,, Circle of 
closing 


(lots on- 
pellet. 




777 


N 


" 


M 




778 


+VICrMVHDIR 

Cross ; dots in angles. 


)> 


Cross. 




779 


(Double 


struck). 


m 




780 


>i " 


+HVNLAF 


s. 





WIGMUND. 



197 



No. 


Oljverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


781 


+VISMV1/ID IR 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pilleh 


+HVML7XF Cross. 


Ilunlaf. 


782 


+VIOMVHD ir; 


+ HVNL7\F 




783 


„ 


m 




78* 


>> )> 


+HVHrAF 

Circle of dots en- 
closing {lellet. 

M 




785 


» )) 


+ HN4-7\F; 




78G 


+VISMVHD Cross. 


+ HVHL7\F Cross. 

M 




787 


N 


+ HVHL7XF- 

IE 




788 


+VISMVND: 

Circle of dots en- 
closing pellet. 


+ HVHL7\F 

IE 




789 


+VISMVHDI 


^ 




7li() 


AAaHVMOIV+ 


qAJl/iVH + 
(Dots -A-) Circle of dnts 
enclosing pellet. 

IE 




791 


,. 


(Numerous dots), ie 




792 


AA „ 


■=1AJ7\NH + 

(Nunieroiis dots). 

Cross; dots in angles. 




793 


+VIOMVHD 


Bluiiikrcd. 

Circle of dols on- 
closing pellet. 

IE 




794 


-t-VI6MV1VHD Cross. 
(Doul.lu 


+HVMLAF Cross, 
struck). 





198 



ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Eovorse. 


Slint. Jfoneyer 


795 
796 


+VI6MVND IREP 

Cross ; dots iu angles. 


q3fll aNVNOIV+ Cross. 
q3flA aNVNc>IV+ „ 


Nftnio of 
Archhishop 
on both 
sides. 


7d7 


+VI6MVND IREP. 

Cross. 


+VI0HVI/1D AREP „ 

JB 




798 


>> II 


+S3aA ailVHOIVH- „ 

M 





WULFHERE. 



199 



WULFHERE. 

A.D. 854— A.D. 900. 
Moneyer. 
Wulfred. 



Ko. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


799 


anaA 3H3H^jv+ 

Circle of dots en- 
closing cross. 


a3a3JVV+ Cross. 


Wulfred. 




[PI. XXIII. 11.] 




800 


d3q_3fl3H3JVV 

Circle enclosing cross. 

[PI. XX 


D3+fl3JVV 

Four crtsceufs, horns 
outwards, enclos- 
ing pellet. ^ 
III. 12.] 





Without doubt all these Stycas are of a date not later than a.d. 8G7. 



Uncertain Sttoas. 

The legends of all the following coins are exceedingly obscure, and the reading 
even of those which are given must be considered merely tentative. It has been 
thought best, therefore, not to classify them under any king or archbishop, even 
when the name of the moneyer makes it probable tliat they were struck under 
some particular one of these. 



801 



802 



803 



804 



805 



806 



l3IAaflA3X 

Cross of iive pellets. 



^JVV-I- 
Cross of five pellets. 

(Possibly Abp. Widfhere.) 



+BABDVVLF 



+EOEI/IDE 



AERENDAL/Rv 



+ENREVI 



VEDNE 

Circle of dots en 
closing pellet. 



Cross. I +CVAVLF 
Cross. ! +DIRE+EV 
t xDIRE+EV 



Cross. 
Cross. 



Pillet. 
Cross. 

M 

Cross. 

M 



Uncertain. Q J 100-1- Cross. 

Cross ; dots in an;;ks. .K 



Coeured ? 



Coiuwulf? 



Odilo ? 



200 



ARCHBISHOPS OP YOBK. 



No. 


1 

(Mn-.rse. i 


!;■ VlTSO. 


Mint. Monpyer. 


807 


+SENSD 


Cross. 


+EnOVVLF 


Cross. 


Eadwulf? 


808 


fl • • • VV3.-. 


Cross. 


DVVaflA3+ 

Cross ; dots 


in angli s. 


Eardwulf. 


809 


+rHEVH- 


Pellet. 


+EHVLT 


Cross. 




810 


Uncertain. 


Cross. 


a3fljia3+ 

(Dots •••J-.-) 


Cross. 


E«elred. 


811 


+EDILVEARD 


Cross. 


+EDILVEVRD 


Cross. 
m (base) ? 


E<5elweard. 


812 


+EAI/ID? 
(Dct A-) 


Cross. 


IV3VHa3 + 


Cross. 


E^elwcard? 


813 


+3HVRE 


Cr.ss. 


+HERRED 


Cross. 


Herre^. 


814 


+3HVREX 


Cross. 


+HERREO 


Cross. 




815 


+ EADIVN 


Cross. 


+HERRD 


Cross. 

iE 




81G 


Uncertain. 

Cross ; dots in angles. 


a3flfl3H+ 


Five dots. 

JE 




817 


XHERRED 


Cross. 


XHERREO 


Cross. 

JE 




818 


+HEVf REV 


Cross. 


+HERREra- 

Circle enclosing pellet. 




819 


Fifty more pieces 


arc (juite 


andeciph( niblc. 







868 



( 201 ) 



NOETHUMBEIA. 

PENNY SEKIES. 

Danish and Norse Kings. 

Great difficulty attends the arrangement of the series of Northumbrian pennies, 
owing to the shifting character of Danish and Norse rule in Northumbria, in 
Ireland, and in the Western Isles, combined with the constant recurrence of the 
same names, Regnald (Riignvald), Sihtric, Anlaf (Olaf), Godfred, Eric. &c. The 
attribution of the following coins is more fully discussed in the Introduction. 
But for the guidance of the reader it may be as well to give here a rough outline 
of the history of the Danish and Norse silver coinage in the British Isles, so far 
as is necessary to show the connection of the following series. 

The introduction of a silver coinage into the North of England was un- 
doubtedly the work of the Northern invaders. And the remarkable find of 
coins at Cuerdale in Lancashire seems to represent the earliest stages in this 
new departure. For it consisted partly of pennies of English kings (^thelred, 
.Alfred, Eadweard the Elder) and Archbishops of Canterbury (CeoluoTi, ^Ethered, 
Plegmund) ; partly of Danish or quasi-Danish coins struck for the South of 
England (Ceol wulf II., Halfdan, Guthorm-jEthelstan, " St. Eadmund " pennies) ; 
but cliiefly of the coins of two early Northumbrian kings. Cunt and Siefred, as 
they are described below. Tliese kings reigned contemporaneously with iElfrod, 
that is to say, before the end of the ninth century. As we distinguish the period 
before the definite settlement of the Scandinavian colonists in England as the 
Viking Age, the coinage represented by the Cuerdale Find may fairly be called a 
Viking coinige. The Vikings, who were constantly crossing the English Channel 
and the North Sea, had no fi.xed home and received the coinage of the Frankish 
kings as readily as that of the English. Thus it is that, among the Cuerdale 
coins, occur some types which are peculiarly English, others which are almost as 
exclusively Frankish, and others again which are thought to show a Byzantine 
origin. Some pieces bear the names of foreign mints. Many of the names of 
moneycrs on these Cuerdale coins are of Frankish form. Others again may be 
Danish. This has already been pointed out in the case of the " St. Eadmund " 
coinage. 

Again it is not necessary to suppose that, during this anarchical period, all the 
coins were struck under the direct authority of the king whose name they bear. 
If private persons (e.g. the moneyers tliemselvcs) continued for their own purjKisos 
the practice of striking coins which they had begun under authority, they would 
adopt such legends as were likely to give tiie money ciurency. Those who received 
the coins (e.r/. the crew of sonio Viking licet) would not scrutinise too closely 
their types if tiny remixdcl them of the coins they had been in the habit of 
receiving, and if, by their ring or in some similar way, they iiad satisfied tliem- 
selves of their purity. It is, however, of course necessary to classify the coins 
under the king wiiose name they bear. So that one coin with the name CNVT 
at the angles of a cross on one side, and /ELFRED REX upon the other, 
coins with'SC EADMVND on one side, and AELFRED REX on the other. 



202 NORTHUMBRIA. 

and tliose with the name of Alfred nnd the monogram of Lincoln, nrc described 
among the mimcy of iElfred ; tliough it may bo doubted whetlior yElfred had 
any liand in the striking of them. In the same way the enormous coinage 
with tlie names of Cnut and Siefred, found at Cuerdale, may not bo in the 
etricttst sense the coinage of these kings. 

1. The coin of Halfdan, which heads the list, although one of the Cuerdale 
coins, was very probably not struck in Northumbria. It liclongs in fact to the 
Rime class as the coinage of Guthorm-iEthelstan, and stands quite apart from the 
series which follows. 

2. Next come the coins bearing the names of Cnut and Siefred, or having 
types copied from tlieir coins. The identity of this Cnut with the Gu^red men- 
tioned by Symeon of Durham, Ailam of Bremen, &c., as king of Northumbria, 
was first suggested by Mr. Haigh, was adopted by Mr. Ea.shleigh in his paper 
on the Coins of Northumbria (Num. Chron. n. s. vol. ix. p. 08 seijq.) but lias 
been rejected by Mr. Kenyon in his edition of Hawkins' luxjliah Silver Coins, 
p. 84. It may, however, bo considered established by the further researches of 
Professor Johannes Steenstrup (Xornuuuierne, ii. p. 93 scqq.). Some of the coins 
of this series bear the names of foreign mints, all are more or less un-Englisli in 
their character. Nevertheless they must be taken to inaugurate the penny 
coinage of Northumbria. 

3. Somewhat distinct from this series, and different from one another, are two 
uncertain Cuerdale coins bearing the name of Sihtric Comes, and Alvaldus, 
whose possible attributions are discussed in the course of the catalogue. 

4. Finally we come to the coinage of the settled Danes and Norsemen and 
their kings, a coinage which belongs wholly to the tenth century, wliich copies 
the types of English coins from Eadweard I. to Eadmund, and which differs alto- 
gether from the Vilcing class of coins described just now. Some difBculties 
attend the distribution of the coins of this series. These are discussed in the 
Introduction, and in notes to the following pages, where reasons have been 
shown for not accepting all the attributions of Mr. Eashleigh in the paper 
referred to above. 

Most of the kings whose names appear in this last class were connected with the 
Danish (or Norse) colonies in Ireland, and at one time bore rule at Dublin or 
Waterford. It has therefore been suggested that some of the coins of this series 
were struck, not in England but in Ireland, where specimens have been found. 
Formerly it was believed that there existed Dano-Irish coins which could be 
attributed to Irish kings who reigned contemporaneously with the Northumbrian 
kings, whose coins are described below. It is now, however, establislied that the 
coinage of the Danes or Norsemen in Ireland begins witii imitations of the 
coinage of .ffithelred II. made by Sihtric (III.) Olafsson, called Silkiskegg, who 
died in 1042. It is nut probable, therefore, that a regular coinage was set on foot 
in Ireland before that date, or that any of the coins of the Northumbrian kings 
were struck in Ireland. 



HALFDAN. 



203 



HALFDAN, 

Son of Ragnar Lodbroq? 
King in Northumbria a.d. 875 or 87G — a.d. 877.* Expelled from 

NORTHXJMBRIA BY THE DANISH ArMT. 

Halfpenny. 



Obverse. 



Mint. Monpj-er. 



869 



+7^LF DE I/IE RX 

Small cross (+). 



RAINO 
AfD TO 



[PL XXIV. 1.] 



Infield, ;• •: 
M -6 Wt. 9-1. 



Resrnald. 



Halfdan was the first Danish king in Northumbria. But there is no certainty 
that this coin was struck by him in that district. Another coin of Halfdan bears 
the monoffram of London, and the type of this piece is exactly like that of 
.Alfred's halfpennies. We may assume, therefore, that it was struck in the South 
of England. Halfdan was in London in 872. 

• The date of Halfdan's expulsion has been critically discussed by Steenstrnp (o. c. n. pp. 91, 92). 
Kennyou (o. c. p. 79) gives a.d. 875 — a.d. 883 as the date of his reign without citing any authority, 
but no doubt upon that of a passage in Sym. Dun. ff. D. E. c. 13. (See Introduction.') Rashleigh 
(1. c. p. 68) gives A.D. 875— (878 f). 



204 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



(GUBRED) CNUT. 
Circa a.d. 877 — a.d. 894. 
Coins struck at York.* 

Pennies. 

Types «, h, c, d, have all on tlie obverse the name CNVT ilisposed at the end 
of tlie limbs of a cross. This geiieial type has been rcft-rrcd for its prototy[)e to 
Byzantine coins, on which the hgrnd is arranged in a similar way. Thns one of 
them has a cross of wliich the nppcr limb terminates in P, the lower in Ca), tho 
left-hand one in M and the right-hand in A, making the word PCx)MA (Roma), 
arranged in exactly the same way as Cnnt's name (Hawkins, Fng. Silver Coins 
2ad ed. [Kenyon], p. 82). Such may have been the origin of the type, but for the 
immediate prototypes of these coins it is not necessary lo go further than to the 
demirii of Charles the Bald and to some modification of the ' Karolus' monogram 
introduced by that king. Such modifications are given in Gariel, Monnaies 
roijales de la race Carlovingienue, pi. xxiv. 75-84 (Charles the Bald), pi. xxxix. 
19 (Ciirloman). A modification of the Byzantine type referred to occurs, more- 
over, upon Carlovingian-Papal coins, Ibid. pi. xli. 31-4. 

On the revL-rse side, the division of the legend into four parts, so as to form a 
sort of cruciform pattern, as on the coins No. STH wy/. below, is a peculiarity of 
the English coinage introduced by Alfred and imitated by Gutborm-iEthelstan of 
East Anglia (p. 95). So that the following coins may be said to bear types 
characteristie respectively of England and of the Fraukish Empire. 



No. 



Oliverse. 



Hint. Moncycr. 



870 



871 



87-.: 



873 



874 



Type a. 
Even limbed cross having •i'EBRAICE CIVITAS 



at extremities of the 
four limbs tli3 letters 
C H V T; betwein 
limbs of cro^s REX; 
dots in angles of cross 
and ■;• before C 

[PL XXIV. 2.] 



York. 



Small cross pattee. 
iR 8t Wt. 22-8. 



4-EBIAlCE CIVITA „ 

Ai Wt. 23-9. 

►i<EBRAlCE CIVITS „ 
^5 Wt. 10- 1. 

^eb:rai:-ce civi 

Small cross pattcc; 
dot in firld. 

M Wt. 21-5. 

•t'EBiRAI-iCE civ:- 

Small cross j)allee ; 
no dot ill field. 
M Wt. 20-5. 

* 'I'lio .'ittriliiitinn of ttioso coins to York has been disputed, and it has been suggestoii Ihnt 
EBRAICE CIVITAS stands for r.vreux in France. The attribution to York .scents to be 
estatiliniicil liy tlu' 'St. I'ltcr' coins and is now noncrally accepted, ul liou(;h Elmracum, and not 
Bhrairnm or /■.'liniini, i^ tlio proper name of tin' city. 

t Which iH likewise tlie avera}?!' iiiiMHiirrniciil of tlie coin.s of Cnut and Siefred. 



•:C N VT REX 



•C N V ± E R X 



•:-C N VT REX 



R-.E:X 



(gubred) cnut. 



205 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Tyv' 
Even limbed cross having 
at extreraitifs of the 
four limbs the letters 
C H V T ; between 
limbs of cross REX; 
dots in angles of cross 
and ■;• before C 



►I^EB RAI CEC IV 

Small cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 17-8. 



•i<EB-:iAi-:-cEc:ivi:- 

& Wt. ly-: 



[PI. XXIV. 3.] 



r-:e-.x 

No dots in angles 
of cross. 



•C N VT R-.E X:- „ 

No dots in angles 
of cross. 



►J-EB-.'-IAI-.'CEC-MVI,, 

dot in each angle 
of cross. 

M Wt. 200. 



►i^EBilAliCEC-.'IV-:- 

„ dots in two 
angles of cross. 
m Wt. 21-2. 
[PI. XXIV. 4.] 



•C H VT REX 

Dots as before in 
angles of cross. 



C H VT REX 



•i-EB-.'-ARIiCECilVI 

„ 710 dots. 
M wt. 21-8. 

«i«BRAICE CIVIT 

M Wt. 23-0. 

"I-EIRAICE • CIVI 

m. Wt. 22-0. 



•C N VT R-.E i-X 

Arranged in similar 
manner about pa- 
triarchal cross in- 
verted ; dots in 
four angles. 



Type h. 

►I-EBRAICE CIVITA-.- 

[Small cross pattee. 
M Wt. 22-8. 



[PI. XXIV. 5.] 



c N VT r:e:x 



•.CUVT R-. E X 



«i«EBIAI-.-CE-.-CIV-.- 

Small cross pattee ; 

dots in two angles. 

M Wt. 200. 



•JhEBIAI- 



•CECI-.- „ 
Ai Wt. 21-5. 



York. 



206 



NOKTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moueyer. 




KTiii 


H h.) 




885 


•■•C H VT R-.-E-.- -.-X 

Arninged in similar 
mauncr about pa- 
triarchal cross in- 
verted ; dots in 
four angles. 


^EB-IAI-.-CE-C-.- 

Small cross pattee ; 

dots in two angles. 

M Wt. 22-0. 


York. 


886 


•:C H VT R-.E X „ 


^EB-.-IAI-.-CEC-.-ITb-.- 

2i Wt. 18-5. 




887 


» 


►i«EB-IAI-.-CE-CIT-.- „ 

SL Wt. 21-5. 




888 


„ 


►I«EB-IAI-.-CEC:ITI-.- „ 

M Wt. 20-0. 




889 


r:-e-.- -.-x „ 


•i«EB-.-IAI-.-CI-.-CV-.- „ 
M Wt. 19-8. 




890 


■:-C N VT r-.-l-.- -.-x 


>i«EB-:-ivi-;-cEc-:-iA „ 
M Wt. iy-0. 




891 


■••C H VT R-.- -X- „ 


«i«EB-.-IAI-:-CEC-:- „ 
M Wt. 20-S. 




892 


•:C N VT R E X 


^E.-.B CEC V: 

M Wt. 19-5. 




893 


O-.-N VT q 3 X 


>i<EB-:-i-:-icEciv 

M wt. 20-5. 




89i 


.-.C N VT R 1 X 


•MBR-.-AICECI-:-lTA„ 
M Wt. 21-0. 




895 


•.C VT R-.-l X B „ 


•tEB-.-IAi-.-CE-.-CI- „ 
^4 Wt. 22-5. 




896 


CVTREXB 

(Irregularly written). 


^EB-.-IAR-:-ICE-:-l-.-„ 
M wt. 21-5. 




897 


.-.C VT R.-.l EX B „ 


M Wt. 20-5. 




898 


•:c n VT r-:e-.- -.-x 


►I<EB-.-IAR-:-ICE:l-.- 

Ai Wt. 20-5. 




899 


Similar legend much blun- 
dered and misplaced. 


^laiVTIIRERI 

Cross pattco; four 
dots around it. 
M Wt. 17-8. 




900 


» 


Ai Wt. 22-5. 





(gubred) cnut. 



207 



901 



902 



903 



904 



905 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



•C H VT REX 

much blundcrtd and 
misplaced. 

•C N VT R E:X „ 



{Type h.) 

^EB-:-IAI-: 
Croas ; 



cEC-:-ivi 

dots iu (ingles. 
M Wt. l'J-0. 



•3flAICE CVITA 

Small cruss pattee. 
M Wt. 22-0. 



Type b, var. 

•C N VT REX ^EB- 

(arranged as before). 

Patriarchal cross 
inverted; at end 
of upper limb E ; 
dots in four 
angles. 

[PI. XXIV. 6.] 



iAi-:cEc-:-iv:- 

Small cross pattee ; 

dots in two angh s. 

M Wt. l'J-5. 



Type c. 

CR E I- N ^EB-:-IAi:CEC-lV-: 

Between limbs of Small cross pattee. 

M Wt. 200. 



limbs of 
cross crosslet ; 
dots in annrles. 



CR h E-:-N 



[PI. XXIV. 7.] 



M Wt. 22-5. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



York. 



Type d. 

This type resembles that of the Prankish currency still more closely than do 
the previous tyiJcs, as it contains the well-known ' Karolus ' monogram introduced 
by Chiirleiuagne and specially ordained by Charles the Bald in the Edict of 
Pitres § 11 (A.D. 8G4). 



90G 



•C N VT R-.-E-.- -.-X 

Patriarchal cross 
inverted ; dots iu 
four angles. 



[PI. XXIV. 8.] 



»i«EBRAICE CIVITA 

R 
Monogram KOS 
L 
(Karolus). 
M Wt. 22-5. 



208 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



Halfpennies. 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



907 



908 



909 



■C N V T R-.E X 

Patriarchal cross 
(us bL-fore). 



•cvT r-:e XB 



Ti/pe b. 

►i-EB-:iAI-.CEC-:iV 

Cross [latte'e ; dots 
in two augles. 
M Wl. 90. 
[ri. XXIV. 9.] 



•^EB-.-IAi:CE-IV-:- 

Small cross pattce ; 

clots in two angles. 

M Wt. 9-0. 



C H- 



■VT Ri-E; X 

Patriarchal cross 
sideways. 



►I<E-.B;ia-:c:-i:ciA.-. 

Small cross patteo ; 

dot in each angle. 

m Wt. 9 0. 



Type c. 



910 



C R h E N between limbs 
of cross crosslet ; 
dots in angles. 



[PI. 



»i«EB-RAI-CEC-IV- 

Small cross pattee ; 
dots iu two angles. 
M Wt. 8-5. 
XXIV. 10.] 



911 



.0 H VT R-.-E X 

Patriarchal crosa, 
as before. 



Type d. 

►I-EB-IAI- 



[PI. XXIV. 11.] 



•CE-CIT.-. 

Monogram of 

Karolus as 

above (No. 

90G). 

Ai Wt. 8-5. 



912 



►fED-.IAI-.-CI-.VI-.- „ 

Same monogram re- 
versed. 

M Wt. 90. 



Barbarous coin. 



Type a. 



913 



Traces of legend C N V T 
at extremity of limbs of 
a cross. 



+EBIAIICCCIIF 
(much bluudc;rcd). 

Small cross. 
ill Wt. 8-8. 
[PI. XXIV. 12.] 



Mint. Moneyer, 



Yoim. 



(gubred) cnut. 



209 



Without the najie of any Mint. 
1. Reverse legend, mirabilia fecit.* 



No. 



914 



915 
916 
917 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Type b. 



•c n VT r:e:--:-x 

at ends of and be- 
tween limbs of 
patriarchal cross 
inverted ; dots in 
four angles. 



•I^MIRABILA FECIT 

Cross pattee ; dots 
in two angles. 
M Wt. 20-5. 



[PI. XXIV. 13.] 



•C M VT RE- -X „ 



CMVTREX „ 

very irregularly dis- 
posed. 



►t-MIRABILIA FEI „ 
m Wt. 21-2. 

•i<MIRABILIA FC 

m Wt. 21-8. 

»i<MIRABIIIA FTC „ 
M Wt. 20-3. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



2. Reverse legend, dns. ds. kex (dominvs devs RExf). 
Type b. 



918 C V T R E X B 

disposed as before 
at ends of and 
between limbs of 
patriarchal cross 
inverted ; having 
dots in four angles. 



•:-3H:3a:-SNa>^ 

Cross pattee ; dots 
in two angles. 
m Wt. 22-2. 



[PI. XXIV. 14.] 



* From the Cantate, ' cantate Domino canticura novum, quia mirabilia fecit, 
t Comp. from the Gloria in excelsis, ' Domine Deus, rex coelestis." 



210 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



■With UNCEiiTAiN or Foreign Mint-Names. 

The two legends, being apjmrcntlv inint-namos. wliioli aiijicnr on Ihe reverses 
of the coins of this scries arc CVNNETTI and QUENTOVICI. The second 
must bo Quentovic, the well-known sea-port at the mouth of the Canche, near 
where Etaples now stands. 

What town is signified by tlio fdrmer legind nnist remain imeevtain. Condd 
has been suggct-ted, and it nin.st l>e renii'inberi'il that in the year 880 tlio Viking 
army, after leaving En<;Iand, made a setllement at tliat town. But the Latin 
name of Conde' was Condroura. It may be argued that if Eboracum becomes 
Ebraice, Condanim might become Cunnetti, but such an interpretation seems 
arbitrary and hardly to be acco])ted. Anotlier suggestion is tliat it is only 
anotlier form for the town of Quentovic ; this liypollicsis is devoid of foundation. 
English numismatists have suggested ' C'unuet,' which occurs in Domesday as 
tlie name oF a village in Sliropshire, C'unetio (Marll)orough), and C"uncaca?stra 
(Chester-le-Street) in Northumbria, in which there was a mouaslerj% which accord- 
ing to Mr. Rashleigh was also called Guneta-ca3stra. But of this he alleges no 
proof. 

The other two English places are quite iuadmis.sible, and it seems safest to 
assume that these coins were struck abroad or at least bear the name of some 
foreign mint. (See Num. Chron. N. s. vol. ix. p. 71, scq., vol. xx. 192, seq., 
Hawkins's E>ig. ISilver Coins:, 2nd ed. [Kenyon], p. 82, for the various opinions on 
that question.) 

Reverse Legend, cvnnetti. 

Pennies. 



019 



920 



921 



922 



923 



924 



Obverse. 



Ti/pe a. 



■c N VT r:-e-;-x 

disposed at ends 
of and between 
limbs of long 



•C N V T REX 



►I'CVN-.'NET-iTI-.- 

Cross pattcc ; dot 
in each angle. 
M \Vt. 24-7. 



►I<:Cvn-:net:ti: 

Cross pattee ; dots 
in two angles. 
m Wt. 211. 
[PI. XXV. 1.] 



•.•C N VT R-.E-:X 



•:c H V T R E X 

i^Dots in angles of 
erds.s). 

X 3 Fi T V n o:- 

(No dots in angles 
of cross). 



•C N VT R-.E X 



►t'CVN-iNET-iTI-:- „ 
M Wt. l'.)-8. 

^cvh:het:ti-:- 

Cross ])altt'e. 

Ai Wt. 20:5. 

•:•lT•:•T^n•:•Nvo«^ 

Cross pattee; dots 
in two angles. 
,1! Wt. IC.S. 



►t'CVNiNETi:- 

/i; Wt. 190. 
[Pi. XXV. 2.] 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Uncertain 
Mint. 



(gu©eed) cnut. 



211 



925 

92G 

927 

928 
929 

930 
931 

932 

933 

934 
935 
93G 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



;c N VT R-.- E :x 

dis])Ofciecl as before 
about patriarchal 
cross inverted ; 
dots in four 
angles. 

•c N V T R e:x „ 

•C N VT R-:- E •.•■X„ 



Type b. 



:lT•:■T3n•:•nvo►^ 

Cross patte'e ; dot in 
each angle. 

M Wt. 21-2. 



►I<CVN 
^CVN 



[PI. XXV. 3.] 



:• NET-jiTi-:- „ 

M wt. 20-8. 

:• NET-:- Ti-:-„ 

dots in two angles 
of cross. 

M Wt. 21-7. 



REX 



•C N VT R-.E X 



•••C 1/1 V T R E-.X 



M Wt. 19-7. 

►f-CVN.-.NET-i-Ti:- 

Cross patte'e ; dot 
in one angle. 
m Wt. 22-4. 

>}^cvn-:-net:-ti 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 20-5. 

•j-cvu-.-het-.-ti 

Cross patte'e ; dot 
in one angle, 
^i Wt. 19-5. 



•:c N V T R E-;- X 

Patriarchal cross 
turned to 1. ; dots 
in four angles. 

[PI. XXV. 4.] 



^cvn-;-NET-:-Ti; 

Cross patte'e. 
^ Wt. 19-0. 



-I-G N V T RE •:■ 

Cross inverted us 
before. 

•:C H VT R-.- E-.- -.X 
•■•0 N VT R E X 



■:-C N VT R-.- E X „ 

three dots in r. 

upper angle of 

cross, and one in 

each lower angle. 



'i'CVU-i-HET-.-TI-:- „ 

dots in two angles. 
m Wt. 23-2. 

•i'CVU'i'HET'^Ti:- „ 
M Wt. 18-7. 

'J'CVN-.NETI-.-TI-.- „ 
M Wt. 19-7. 

►i'CVN-lNE'.'-TI'^ 

Cross i)atte'e. 
Si Wt. 21-3. 



Hint. Moneyer. 



Uncertain 
Mint. 



212 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. :\Ioneyer. 


937 


•:C N VT R E.-. X „ 

disposed as before 
about patrinrdial 
cross inverted ; 
small cross in 1. 
upper angle of 
patriarchal cross. 


)e h.) 

►^CVN-:-NETI-:- 

Cross patte'e. 
2R Wt. 21-2. 


Uncertain 
Mint. 


938 


•:c N VT R E i:x „ 

six dots in angles 
of cross. 


►I<CVN-;NEhi:- 

m Wt. 208. 




939 


r:e:x„ 

dots in four lower 
angles. 


^ ' Wt. 21-8. 




940 


R-.-E-.-X „ 

six dots in angles. 


m Wt. 220. 




941 


r-:e:-x „ 

five dots in angles. 


m Wt. 21 -0. 




942 


U >> I> 


m Wt. 16-7. 




943 


six dots in angles. 


•i-MBNI/lVO-J' 

M ^'t. 20-8. 




944 


four dots in angles. 


•i«cvN-:iiEi-i-:- 

Cross pattee ; dot 
in each angle. 
Si Wt. 20-5. 




945 


■:c n VT R :ex „ 


►i'CVU-iHETiT:- 

Cross pattee ; two 
dots in angles. 
m Wt. 20-9. 




946 


•:c N VT r:- e:- x„ 


«fCVN:-NET-:-T 

dot in each angle. 
JR Wt. 22 5. 




947 


" 


no dots in angles 
of cross. 

M Wt. 20-2. 




948 


•.C N VT R E-.- X „ 


•i<CVH-.NIET-.-TI 

M Wt. 200. 




949 


•;c l/I VT R E X „ 


"I-CVUINETCI 

two dots in angles 
of cross. 

-1? Wt. 18-9. 




950 


N 


«^cvn:nt:tei:- „ 

Jii wt. 20-8. 





(gu©red) cnut. 



213 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Jlint. Moneyer. 


951 


■:C H VT REX 

disposed as before 
about patriarchal 
cross inverted ; 
four dots in angles. 


)eh.) 

>i«cvn-:-nt-:t-:-e 

Cross patte'e ; two 
dots in angles. 
M Wt. 19-5. 


Uncebtain 

IMlNT. 


952 


N 


«i<ciLi-:iNT-:-T:-i „ 

M Wt. 19-6. 




953 


•:C M VT R E X.-. „ 


•:-it:-th3:-nvo^ 

no dots in angles. 
M Wt. 19-5. 




954 


X 3 fl T V n o:- 


«i<CVN-:-NET-:-TI 

two dots in angles 
of cross. 

M wt. 20-0. 




955 


•:-C N VT R E-:-x „ 


»^VN-:-NET-:-TI 

dot in each angle. 
m Wt. 19-5. 




956 


•:-c N VT r-:-e:- x „ 


Vlli^lN-.-IIR-.-lllO 

Cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 19-7. 




957 


•••C N VT R 1 X 


-J-CVN NET'I'TI 

Cross patte'e; dots 
in two angles. 
M Wt. 200. 




958 


C N VT R-.-l X „ 


■.IT-.-TBH-.-NVO-t- „ 
m Wt. lS-0. 




959 


R 1 X 


•l-CVN-i-NTI 

M Wt. 18-8. 




960 


•:c N V T R 1 X 


^ciLi:iNT-;-T-:-i „ 

M wt. 198. 




961 


.-.c N VT r-:e I X 

Patriarclial cro.ss 
inverted ; crosses 
in two upper 
angles, dots in 
four others. 


"i^CVN-i-NEI-l-:- 

M wt. 21 1. 




962 


•:c 


„ no dots in angles 
of cross. 

M Wt. 19-2. 




963 


: C H V T R •:• X 

Patriarclial cross ; 
dots in four lower 
angles. 


*cvh:hct:ti 

Cross patte'e ; dots 
in two angles. 
Ai Wt. 18-8. 





214 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Ucvorso. 


Mint. Moncyer. 


964 


(2W 
C N ±A REX 

disposed as before 
about pafriarclial 
cross inverted ; no 
dots in angles. 


'6 6.) 

•i«CVN:NET-:-TI 

Cross pattce ; no 
dots in angles. 
Si Wt. 21-2. 


Uncertain 
Mint. 


965 


c N ± A R e:- :• X 

disposed as last ; 
four dots in angles 
of cross. 


►i«CVH:-HET-.-TI 

dots in two angles. 
M Wt. 21-8. 




966 


•:0 N V T R E X 

Patriarchal cross 
to r. 


^cvn:-net-:-ti-> „ 

2R wt. 20-5. 




967 


•.C N VT R E-.- X-:-„ 

irregularly disposed ; 
dots in four angles 
of cross. 


.I<cvn:net-;-ti-:- „ 

m Wt. 21-8. 


• 


968 


C N V-.-H E R X 

irregular ,, 


►^cvh:net-:-t 

M Wt. 17-0. 




969 


•-•C H VT E R X „ 

disposed as before 
about patriarolial 
cross having dots 
in four angles. 


^CVH:HET-.TI 

M wt. 21-]. 




970 


E X B XV 1 1 

irreguhirly disposed ; 
dots in two angles 
of cross. 


^cvn:nei-i:- 

Cross pattee ; no 
dots in angles. 
m Wt. 23-3. 




971 


" »» 


:MEN: IIVO+ 

Mi Wt. 20-5. 




972 


CVIN R X-.E „ 
irregularly disposed. 


^CVN.-.NETI-.- 

dots in two angles 
of cross. 

M Wt. 200. 




973 


•.C N VT 1 E X 

dots in four angles 
of cross. 


►J-CVNi-N.-.TI: 

Si wt. 19 0. 




974 


-.C-.N VT l-.X 


►i<CVN:NET:-TI 

Si wt. 19-7. 




975 


•••C-.N VT 1 X 


►pCVN-.-NET-i-TI 

m Wt. 191. 




97G 


•:C N V T lEX 

dots in Ihroe angles 
of cross. 


»i<CVN-:NI-.T>M 

M Wt. 21-5. 





(gubred) cnut. 



215 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Jlint. llonej-er. 




iT,jpe h.) 




977 


X X 1 fl T V N o;- 

disposed as before 
about patriarchal 
cross inverted ; no 
dots in angles. 


^civ:i/iEHi:- 

Small cross patte'e ; 

four dots around. 

M Wt. 20-3. 


uxcertain 
Mint. 


978 


^CNVT R.-. X 

very irregularly dis- 
posed ; dots in four 
angles of cross. 


.-.T T3N:NV0^ 

Small cross patte'e ; 

dots in two angles. 

M Wt. 19-2. 





979 



980 



981 



982 



983 



I I xq TV I I 

very irregularly dis- 
posed ; no dots in 
angles of cross. 

.-.C N V R I :X.-. 

four dots in angles 
of cross. 



•E li-fl TAN O:- 

disposed about patri- 
urcbal cross to r. ; 
dots in four angles. 



T T3 



II II VO^ 

Small cross pattee ; 

no dots in angles. 

M Wt. 20-6. 



►i<civ.-.iNT-:-T-;i 

Small cross pattee ; 

dots in two angles. 

St. Wt. 18-7. 

•I«cvn-:hcti:t 

Si Wt. 180. 



(Very barbarous coin.) 



984 



985 



X H fl T V N 

very in-egularly dis- 
posed about patri- 
archal cross ; no 
dots in angles. 

■:C N VT R-.- E X „ 

dots in four angles 
of cross. 



EI-IRMVO't' 

Cross patte'e ; no dots 
in angles. 

M Wt. 20-0. 



«f«CVN-:-NET-:-TI-.- „ 

dots in two angles 
of cross. 

M (broken) 



Type b. vur. 



»i«C N V T R E : X : 

disposed at ends 
of and between 
limbs of patri- 
archal cross in- 
verted ; upper 
limb ends in R ; 
dots in four angles 
of cross. 

CNVT R-.-E X 



^'CVNiNET-.'TI-:- 

Cross pattee ; dots 
in two angles. 
M Wt. 191. 



^CVN- 



■NETi:- 

M Wt. 190. 



216 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


IMiiit. IMoupycr. 




Ttjpe c. 




9SG 


C RhE H 


•:it-:t3n:hvo* 


Unceetaik 




botwGCU limbs of 


Small cross pattce ; 


Mint. 




cross crosslet, 


dots in two angles. 






having dots in 


m Wt. 21-4. 






angles and two 








at extremity of 








each limb. 








[PI. XXV. 5.] 






Type c. var. 




9S7 


•:c M V T r:- e -i-x 


•:it:t3n;hvo^ 






at cuds of and be- 


Cross patteo ; dots 






tween limbs of 


in two angles. 






cross ; upper and 


m Wt. 18G. 






lower limbs cress- 








let ; dots in eight 








angles thus for- 








med. 








[PI. XXV. 6.] 




988 


x:-3:fl TV M o:- „ 


•;it:-t3n-.mvo»^ „ 






dots in four angles 


m Wt. 21-5. 






of cross only. 







(GU€)RED) CNUT. 



217 



Halfpennies. 
1. Made by dividing piece. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



989 



990 



991 



992 



993 



994 



995 



996 



C N T R- -E- 

Half of patriarchal 
cross. 

N T e:- X 



Type h. 

>i<CV T-.-TI 



Cross patte'e. 
m Wt. 9-8. 

CVH-.-NE 

Half of cross pattee. 
M Wt. 9-8. 



2. True Halfpennies. 



Type h. 



•C N VT R E-.- -.X 

disposed as before 
about patriarchal 
cross inverted ; 
dots in four 
angles. 

[PI. XXV. 7.] 



^cvn-:-net-:ti.-. 

Small cross pattee 
surrounded by 
dots. 

iB* Wt. 8-9. 



•C N VT R-.- E X „ 



•C N VT R Ei X „ 

dots in all angles 
of cross. 



c:- 



•H ± V E X „ 

dots in four angles 
of cross only. 



C C V" R X 



C I I VT I X fl 

very irregidarly dis- 
posed ; no dots in 
angles of cross. 



►i^CVN-.-NETi-TI-;- 

Small cross pattee ; 

dots in two angles, 

m Wt. 8-8. 

•i^CVN-:NEKi;- 

m Wt. 12-5. 



►^cvi/i:hit:ti 

M Wt. 



*cvn-.-iiet:t:- 

Small cross pattee ; 

three dots around, 

Bi Wt. 91. 

•t'CVIIih-:-!!!:- 

Small cross pattee. 
& Wt. 9-3. 



Uncertain 
Mint. 



The measurement of the halfpennies of this series is -SS-'e iu. 



218 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



997 



998 
999 



1000 



1001 



1002 



1003 



1004 



Ti/pe (J. 



•C N VT R-.E-.- -i-X 
disposed as before 
about patriarchal 
cross inverted ; 
dots in four 
angles. 



^cvn:net:ti-:- 

Monogram of r 
Clinrlesthe K06 
Uald. L 

(Knrolus). 
m Wt. 9-4. 



[PI. XXV. 8.] 



■:C N VT R E X 

x-:-3-.-fl T V H o:- „ 

•.C H VT E R X „ 
.C H VT L R X 

•C N VT R- I- -X „ 



C N VT I • E.-. X „ 

dots in two angles 
of cross. 



•C N VT I R E.-.X,, 

dots in four angles 
of cross. 



Mint. Jlcmcver. 



Uncertain 
Mint. 



^CVN-:-NET-:-TI-.- ., 

M wt. 8-G. 

•;-it:-t3H-:hvo^ „ 

(monogram much 
blundered). 

M Wt. 90. 

IT-.-T31/l-.l/IV0^ 

(much lilundorcd). 
.a{ Wt. 7-9. 

IT.-.TIH-.l/IVO^ 

(somewhat blun- 
dered). 

M Wt. 7-9. 

^CVN-NET-TI- 

Similar monogram 
(Letter L re- 
versed). 

St Wt. 8-8. 

^CVII-.NIT:TI 

Similar monogram 

much bluuflered. 

SI Wt. 8-4. 

^cv:nei--:h-e-.-i 

Similar monogram. 
m Wt. 8-5. 



(gu©red) cnut. 



219 



QrENTOVIC. 

Pennies. 



No. 



1005 

lOOG 
1007 

1008 
1009 
1010 

1011 

1012 
1013 
1014 



I!over?c. 



General type. 



Bliindorcd form of legend 
CNVT REX reading 
directly CIRTENV; in 
centre cross. 



QVENTOVICI 

Cross in centre. 



Var. 1. 
"i^CIRlENA I ►I^QVEHTOVICI 

Eoman cross. Small cross patte'e. 

' M Wt. 220. 

[PL XXV. 9.] 



►i«QVI31T0VICI 

M Wt. 18-5. 



Var. 2 (Type a). 



.C^flRlENA 

Even-limbed cross ; 
dot in each angle. 



^QVENTOVICI 

Even-limbed cross. 
M Wt. 21-5. 



[PI. XXV. 10.] 



'i'C-.-FIHXAN 



lOIVOTHaVp^ 

M Wt. 210. 

►i^QIVEIITOVICI 

M Wt. 20-0. 

•.•QEVAC^MOE 

.34 Wt. 17-8. 



Var. 3. 



•J-CIRIENA-.- 

Small cross patte'e 
having each limb 
prolonged and a 
dot in each angle. 



>MORXAENAI 



►tQVENTOVIC 

Small cross patte'e. 
ai Wt. 20-2. 



•J-QVIHITOVICI 

3i Wt. 21-0. 

►I^QVEMTOIVICI 

Ai Wt. 21-9. 

•I'QVENTOVICI 

^5 Wt. 20-5. 



Mint. Monpyer. 



QUENTOVIC. 



220 



NORTHUMBRIA, 



Halfpennies. 



No. 



1015 



1016 



1017 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



General type. 

Similar to that of tlie iicnnios, but legends more 
bluudered. 



^IIOEIINC 

Evcn-limbcil cross 



Var. 2. 

»i«QVIIITOVCI 



[PI. XXV. 11.] 



Even-limbed cross. 
m -CS Wt. 9G. 



^IHOENAC 

Even-limbed cross ; 
dot in each angle. 



^QVEITOVCI 

M -6 Wt. 80. 



Var. 3. 



«i«MO[ENA]C 

Cross pattc'c with 
limbs prolonged. 



^QVEITOVICI 

M -6 Wt. 9-0. 



Mint. Moueyer. 



QCENTOVIC. 



CNUT AND SIEFRED. 



221 



CNUT AND SIEFRED. 

Circa 894. 
Pennies. 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



1018 

1019 

1020 
1021 
1022 



General type (J)). 



Patriarchal cross inverted ; 
dots in four angles ; at 
the opposite ends of limbs 
C N V T and between, 
REX. 



•:c N VT r:- e x 



«i«SIEFREDVS 

Cross patte'e ; dots 
in two angles. 



[PI. XXV. 12.] 



„ (Small cross patte'e.) 
M* Wt. 20-8. 



•:-C N VT R-.E-.- X 

•:c 1/1 VT R •:• X 

•:C M VT R-.- E X 
R- E- X 



[PI. XXV. 13.] 
* Average measuremcut -75 in. 



►fSI EF RED VS Cross 
pattee ; dots in 
two angles. 

m Wt. 21-8. 



s. Wt. 211. 

M Wt. 23-6. 
m Wt. 21-7. 



222 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



SIEFRED (SIEGFRED ?). 

A.D. 894— Circa 898.* 

I. WITH NAME SPELT SIEFREDUS. 

1. Coins struck at York. 

Penkies. 



No. 


Obvcrs". 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




Type a. 






(Type c of Cmit) 




1023 


^SIEFREDVS REX 


^EB lAI CEC IVI 


York. 




Cross crosslet. 


Small cross pattee ; 
tliree dots (.•.) 
opposite each 
angle. 






'mf Wt 23-7. 






[PI. XXYI. 1.] 




1024 


•^siE-:-FRE-;-Dvs:-REx-:-| 

Cross crosslet. ' M Wt. 19-1. 
[PI. XXVI. 2.] 

Type b. 
♦ (Type a of Cnut.) 




1025 


CSIE ERX ERS IIPE 


•i«EB -MAI iCEC -MVI-:- 






Cross ; dots sym- 


Small cross pattee. 






iiKtrically ar- 


M Wt. 21-0. 






ranged in angles 








and at extremities 








of limbs. 






[PI. XXVI. 3.] 






Type c. 




1026 




^EB MAI iCEC MVI-:- 






C SIEFRE 


Small orosfl pattee. 
Ai Wt. 2 10. 






DIISREX ' 






[PI. XXVI. 4.] 




1027 




4<EB lAI CGC IVI 






C SIEFRX 


SiiiiiU cross pattee ; 
tliree dots (.-.) at 






EDIIS RE 


end of each limb. 
M Wt. 21-5. 





• This date is pivcn on the foundation of a popsagp in A'.tlielwcard iv. 3. But it must be 
considered as quite uncertain. 

t Average measurement of Siefred's pennies •tft in. 
J It is ptissilde tliat tliis letter stands for comks. 



SIEFRED. 



223 



No. 


Obverse. 


Keverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 




iType c.) 




1028 


C SIEFR 
EHIISE 


^ED RAI CE Cli£l 

Small cross patte'e. 
M Wt. 19-5. 


York. 




Type d. 




102!) 


•'.■ Between lines 

C SIEFRE of legend long 

cross on two 

DIIS REX steps, side- 

■;• ways to legend. 


^ED RAI CEC IVI 

Small cross patte'e : 

thi-ee dots .-. at 

end of each limb. 

M Wt. 20-3. 




1030 


C SIEFRX 
EDIIS RE 


►I^ED lAI CEC IVI „ 
M Wt. 18-5. 






[PI. XXVI. 5.] 




1031 


» .1 


-fEDMAIiCECMVi:- 






[PI. x:5 


m Wt. 18-4. 

:vi. 6.] 






This tj'po appears upo 


n the coins of .Alfred. 





1032 



Halfpenny. 



Type d. 



PRE Between lines, 

long cross on 

C S I E two stops, as before. 



►I^ED IVI CEC IVI 

Small cross patte'e. 
M -O Wt. iy-3. 



[PI. XXVI. 7.] 



2. Coins without name of Mint. 
Pennies. 



1033 



1034 



•i«SI EF RED VS 

Cross patt6o ; dots 
in two anffles. 



»i< R E X at the ends of the 
limbs of even- 
limbed cross. 
M Wt. 20-3. 



[PI. XXVI. 8.] 



., Cross patte'e ; two 
dots at eud of 
eacli limb. 



»!* R E X at the ends of the 
limbs of a cross 
crosslet ; four dots 
(•!•) between 
letters. 

ai Wt. 20-3. 



[in. XXVI. 9.] 



No Mint. 



224 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



II. WITH THE NAME SPELT SIEVERT. 

1. Coins struck at York. 
Pennies. 



Ko. 



Obverse. 



Kcverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



1035 



1036 



1037 



1038 



1039 



Type a. 



RS IE VE RT Between 
limbs of cross 
crosslet having 
dots (•.•) iu each 
angle. 

[PI. XXVI. 10.] 



^EB-:-isi:-cEc-:-ivi-:- 

Small cross pattec. 
m Wt. 19-8. 



IS IE VE RT „ »i<EB lAI CEC IVI 

Small cross pattc'e ; 
dots (.•.) opposite 
angles of cross. 
m Wt. 22-0. 
[PI. XXVI. 11.] 



Similar legend, irregularly 

placed thus, 
RSRTVEIE 

IS RT VE IE 



Cross patt^e ; no 
dots. 

M Wt. 20-5. 

Cross pattee ; dots 
(•■■) opposite an- 
gles. 

M Wt. 21-3. 



Legend in two liues, 
SIEVE 

Between liues 

Xb ±a of legend, but 

sideways to 1., 

long cross on two 

steps. 

[PI. XXVI. 12] 



Type d. 

►i«EB:iAi:cEc:ivi:- 

Small cross pattc'e. 
AX Wt. 21-5. 



York. 



Halfpenny. 

Type a. 

1040 RS IE VE RT Between I ►J'EB lAI CEC IVI 

limlis of cross Cross pattiJe. 

crosslet. m sr) Wt. 85. 
[PI. XXVI. 13] 



SIEFRED. 



225 



2. Coins without name of Mint. 

i. With the reverse legend jiirabilia fecit. 

Penny. 



Reverse. 



Tijpe b. 

1041 ^SIEUERT REX i "fMIRABILA FECIT 

Patriarchal cross; Small cru.ss pitte'e ; 

(lota iu angles &c. dots in two angles 

' M Wt. 21-6. 

[PI. XXVII. 1.] 



Mint. Jlonejer. 



IJnceutain 
Mint. 



1042 ►I'SI.-.FCR.-.TRE 

Patriarchal cross 
dots in angles. 



Halfpenny. 

►^ni:r7x.-.bi-:-li:- 

Small cross patte'o ; 
dots in two angles. 
JR- 55 Wt. 7-8. 
[PI. XXVII. 2.] 



ii. With the reverse legend dns. ds. rex. 
Pennies. 



1043 

1044 
1045 

1046 
1017 
1048 
1049 
1050 



^SIEUERT REX 

Patriarchal cross ; 
dots in angles &c. 



^D-NS-.-DS.-.R-EX-.- 

Small cross patte'e ; 
dots in two angles. 

M Wt. i;»;?. 

^D-NS-DSREX- 

Ai Wt. 21-5. 



REX- „ 

[PI. XXVII. 3.] 

►i«si-:-eu:ert.-. rex 

►I-SI EU ERT rex „ 
4<SICURT RE- 



►I-SI ECR TRE 



.at Wt. 22-3. 



M Wt. 21-9. 



m wt. 20-0. 



M wt. 21-5. 



►J-D-NS-DS-REX- 

M Wt. 23-0. 

•:-3Fi:-3a-:-SNa^ „ 

M Wt. 2i-S. 



226 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



Halfpenny. 

Half coin. 



Ko. 



IOjI 



lEURT 



Putriaichul 
cross. 



licvcvse. 



DS REX Small 

cross pattee as 
above. 

Ai Wt. 11-0. 



[PI. XXVII. 4.] 



Mint. Moueyer. 



Uncertain 
Mint. 



CNUT OR SIEFRED. 



227 



CNUT OK SIEFRED. 

with thk reverse legends of these kings. 
Struck at York. 
With reverse legend, mirabilia fecit. 
Pennies. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moucj'er. 




Type b of Ciiut. 




1052 


^EBRMCEC. 

ratiiarc'hal cross to 
1. ; dots in four 
angles. 


^MIRABILIA PC 

Cross patte'e ; dots 
in two angles. 
M Wt. 21-0. 


York. 


1053 


^MIRABILIA FE: „ 
(dots ill logeud dif- m Wt. 21-2. 
fcrently dispos^'d.) 

[PI. XXVII. 5.] 




1054 


^MIRABILIA FEI „ 
Cross to r. as Wt. lLt-2. 
[PI. XXVII. 6.] 




1055 




^MIRABILIA FTC „ 
Ai Wt. 20-3. 




1056 


„ 


^MIRABILA FECIT „ 
Ai Wt. 21 -5. 




1057 


Cross to 1. 


^MIRABIL-A lECT 

M Wt. 190. 




1058 


»i«-.EB-.RA-.EC-.EC 

Cro.^s to r. 


M Wt. 20-5. 




1059 


►i-.EBR-.A-.EC-.E-.C: 


m Wt. 22 5. 




lOGO 


►I<:EB-.RA-.EC-.EC:„ 


►I-MIRABILA FECIT ,. 

Ai Wt. 21-5. 




lOGl 


^'EBiRA-.CEiCET 

Cross uprij^ht. 
[PI. X> 


•^MIRABILIA FC 

Ai Wt. 23-5. 

:vii. 7.] 




10G2 


CVT RIEX EB 

irrff^uliuly writtin 
round patriarchal 
cross to 1. ; dots 


^-MIRABILA FECIT,. 
^i Wt. 21-8. 






in four angles. 

[PI. X3 


LVII. 8.] 





Q 2 



228 



NORTHUMBKIA. 



]yith reverse legend, dns. DS. rex. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Ueveisc. 


Mint. Monoycr. 




(Type h of Cnnt.) 




1063 


+-EBR-A1CEC ►I^DNSDS-REX- 

Piitriaic'lial cross, Cross jiattee ; dots 
uin-i^ht; dots in in two angles, 
four angles. M Wt. 21-5. 
[PI. XXVII. 9.] 


YURK. 


1064 


CVT RIEX EB 

irregularly written 
round patriarchal 
cross to 1.; dots in 
four angles. 


>> >> 
(no dots). dot in 
one angle. 
M Wt. 21-2. 





1065 



1066 



1067 



1068 



1069 



1070 



Probably struck at York, 
Having the Keverse Legends of the last two classes. 

Pennies. 
Type g. 



^MIRABILIA FECIT 

Cross patte'e ; dots 
ia two angles. 


DNS DS 

J, . 

■& REX 


3X 


AVt. 


20-0. 


" 




" 


DNS DS 
<0> REX 


m 


Wt. 


19-5. 


>> 




" 


DIIS DS 
K> REX 


M 


Wt. 


20-5. 


>> 




•• 


DH3 D3 
<0> REX 


M 


Wt. 


21-5. 


►HVIIRABILA 


FECIT,, 
[PI. XX 


DNS DS 

6< REX 

VII. 10.] 


m 


Wt. 


20-5. 


►I<M!R 


:abia 


FECIT; 


DN8 DS 

J, 

C REX 


M 


wt. 


IDO. 



York ? 



CNUT OR SIEFRED. 



229 



Reverse. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Rude and Idundered coins of the same type. 



1071 



1072 



1073 



1074 



►fMIRAiriA FECIT 

Cross pattee ; dots 
iu two angles. 



80 3Ha 
Oi REX 



[PI XXYII. 11.] 



"MVIIRAILIA FECIT „ 



•i«MIRVB!nV FECIT 



^NDADNIAI FECIT „ 

[PI. XXVir. 12.] 



1075 'i^HI::aABIA EOT „ 



m Wt. 230. 



DNS DS 

C" REX m Wt. 22-5. 



DNS DS 
■0. REX M Wt. 20-8. 



DNS DS 

•0. REX m Wt. 21-7. 



DMS DS 
•0" REX m Wt. 22 0. 



York? 



1076 



Halfpenny. 




Type (j. 




►MIID-AFI.-.CIT- 


DNS D 


Between lines 


Cross pattc'c ; dots 


^ 


of legend small 


in two angles. 


K> REX 


cross pattoe. 




m f).! Wt. 8-5. 


[PI. XX 


Vll. 13.] 





About the time of the death of Siefred — the date of which is uncertain — there 
seems to have ensued a period of aiiarcliy in Northumbria isce .^thelweard, iv. 3). 
The coin next to follow would he tliat of iEthdwald the JUthelinr/ (see next 
page), were there sufficient ground for its attribution. 



230 



MOUTIIIMBRIA. 



UxtEKTAIN XoKSE On DANISH CoiNS. 

EARL SIHTRIC. 

It is impossible to say wlio is tlie Siiitrie whoso name appears on tliis coin. 
Two Silitrics (or Sidrocs) are nieiitioiii d in the Chronii-h' as havinj:; oomiiianded 
portions of tlie Or. at Army, and having fallcu in the battle of Ashdown 
(a.d. S71), or imnudiatcly before it.* But as the type of the coin below is the 
same as .Eifred's Oxford type, it must be at hunt twenty years later than 
the battle of Aslidown. (See Ilaigh, Coins of jtH/rcd the Great in Num. Chron. 
N.s. vol. .\. (ISOO), p. 37.) BIr. llashlcigh's ideutitication of him (^N. C. N.s. ix. 
74) as a brother of CuTred and son of Ivar, seems to bo without foundation. 



No. 



107 



Obvc. rsc. 



SITRIC •:■ GVIIDI Above and 

COIVlEi In Held, ^^'^'^ $CELDFOR below, •:• 

BERTVS 

m -8 AVt. 10 2. 
[PI. XXVIII. 1] 



Miut. Moncyer. 



SlIEl I'OUD? 

(ruudibert. 



ALVALDUS. 

Tills coin has bei n ascribed to yEthclwald, tlie JEthelincf, son of /Etlielred mid 
cousin of Eadwcard the Elder, wdio on the death of /t^lfred (a.d. 901) laid claim 
to the throne. He was received by the Northundirians as king, and aftirwarils 
(a.d. 901, 905) by the Danes in Essex and East Anglia. lie was killed at the 
battle of Holme (in Norfolk)!, a.d. 9u5. The grounds for this idcntitication arc 
very slender. This piece is evidt ntly a Norse or Danish coin, as it formed part 
of the Cuerdale Ilnard, and it is l)y its reverse typo closely connected with the 
foregoing series of ('nut and Siefrnl. 



1078 



>^AL-VVALDV 



Cross ; dots in two 
angles. 



DNS "DS 

REX ^i -8 \Vt. 23-2. 



[PI. XXVIII. 2.] 



* The (loath cjf one of tlic ICail Sidrocs (Siilrnrs) is mentioned twice over in the same MSS. 
(Ch. S. a. «71 A D). fill** ■'' KiiKlilioliI ami nflcrwarils iit Aslulown, in tlic same year. It is 
possible tlipre wore three Karl Silitrics in the army. 

t See Steenstriij), .\orinati7icrtie iii. p. 7 .'S"/'/. for the hanuony nf the itifTcrcnt accounts of this 
battle. 



SIHTRIC. 



231 



Kings of the Family of Ivar. 
Pennies. 

The kings who follow seem all to have belonged to the house of Ivar. They 
arc known as the Hy Imhair in the Irish Annals. Todd (War of ilte Gaedhill 
and the Guill, App. d. p. 208) considers that their common ancestor was jirobably 
Ivar Beinlaus, called the son of Ragnar Lodbrog, and tiierefore brother of 
Halfdan and Ubbe. But this identification of Ivar, the ancestor the Hy Imhau-, 
with Ivar Lodbrogsson, is very doubtful. There are many considerations which 
point out this dynasty as being of Norse origin (Steenstrup, Normamierne, ii. 
p. 121, andiii. j). 95). It is probable that Ragnar Lodbrog was of Danish origin. 

There are considerable difficulties in the way of the distribution of tlie follow- 
ing coins among the diflerent Scandinavian kings who reigned in Northumbria. 
The biographies of the different kings to whom they might be attributed are 
gis'en in the Introduction. In the headings below it is assumed that the coins 
with the name of Sihtric, Eegnald, and Anlaf were struck by Sihtric, called Gale 
or Caoch, by Reguald Godfredtison, and by Anlaf Sihtricsson called Quaran, and 
by no others. 

The chief difficulty in the way of this attribution lies in the close resemblance 
of the coins of Sihtric to those of Regnald and Anlaf, though the two series 
must nevertheless have been sei^arated bj- an interval of thirteen years. But 
there is no way by which this difficulty could be overcome. Tlie coins of 
Eegnald might indeed be attributed to an earlier Eegnald, first cousin (?) of 
Sihtric Gale whom he precedetl in 921. But this would make an interval of 
twenty years between the date of Eegnald's coins and the probable date of 
Anlafs (see Introduction'), and this is quite inadmissible. 



SIHTRIC, GALE or CAOCH i 
A.D. 921— A.D. 926 OR 927. 



1079 



Obverse. 



Hh3ITRIC-CUNVNC-A 

Trefoil, sometimes 
called three 
bucklers. 



Reverse. 



[PI. 



T^SCOLV MONETRA 
(Dots -TX-S, R-7\-) 

Triangular standard 
or peiinon fringed, 
bearing cross.* 
M -75 Wt. 15-9. 
XXVlll. 3.] 



Hint. Moneyer. 



Ascolu. 



* Tliis reverse type is probably the earliest representation of a standard used by any of 
the Scandinavian nations. Conip. Worsaae, Om Vanebrog and Minder om. de Vansk. og .Vorm. i 
England kc, p. so, and Introduction. 



T,yi 



NoirriJi'MinnA. 



REGNALD GODFREDSSON I 

A.P. 94o -A.D. iM4 ? (Expelled.) 



N... 


()ln-oi--.\ 


Ri'vcrso. 


Mint. Moneyer 




Type 1. 




1080 


»t.REEN;\LD CVNVC ^AVRA MONIT RET 
(Dots. cV:o.. N^A-L^D (Dots -AVRA- N-). 

Cross moliuc. ' Small cross patte'e. 
zi -8 Wt. 20-5. 
[PI. XXVIII. 4.] 

Type 2. 


(Aura ?)* 


1081 


REGN[ALD CVNVC?] 


►I<B-7\[CIArER MONIT?] 


Baciai^er. 




Portion of trefoil 


Portion of standard 


Bacialer, or 




pattern sometimes 


as on No. 1079. 


Baciaser. 




called three 








bucklers. 


IR 






(Fragment). 






[PI. XXVIII. 5.] 





REGNALD ? 

The following coins are barbarous and their attribution is very doubtful. 
Tbey look somewhat like blundered coins of St. Peter, thouj;h the legend cer- 
tainly appears to be Rainalt. It is impossible to believe that they were struck 
at the same time as the previous coins of Regnald. Mr. Rashleigh (in Num. 
Qiron., N.S. vol. ix. (1861*), p. 81), attributes these coins to the first Kegnald. 
Tills attribution seems inadmissibh*, on account of the resemblance of the obverse 
of Type 1 to the York coinage of j'Ethclstan and the connection of all three types 
with the " St. Peter " coinage, and hence witli the coins of Eric (q. v.}. 



1 (182 



Type 1. 



■i-RAlEHTXLT Head r. 



4*EAR1CE CT(for 
EBRAICE CIVIT) 

In Centre, p 

monogram COS 
of Charles L 
tlio Bald, some- 
what ))lundered. 
^it Wt. 17-3. 
[PI. XXVIII. (!.] 



York. 



• This reverse has been read AVRA MONETARIVS REGIS or REGNALDI. 
Jt seems more probable, however, that th>- wunl AVRA 'f* •'"■ "I'l Norse Aura (''ri\ ;i ltiiii(! <il 
value, a roll), an .ire, aiifl the hpend would ho AVRA MONETA REGIS"r REGNALDI. 
Aura (from Lutin aurum) from meaning roiniil tnasiire, in a prncral 8' nsc, as di'-linpiiislicd Ironi 
uncoined ((<aH^r), came to stand for a delinile money nf nrroimt (= 15(/.) (.S<'e Clcasby iV N'ipfus- 
son, lie', hie , s. v. eyrir ; .Sclimidi, (IfUlzf tier A. S. GloRsar ; (icldrcchnung, no. 6.) Ab this piece 
is simply a i>cnny, ii is not clear why the word niira appears upon it. 

f Average measurement of these coin", 'T-'TS in. 



REGNALD. 



233 



1083 



1084 



1085 



108G 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



•fRAl€ll7\LT Headl. »i«E7\RICE CT 

In centre, p 

monogram LOS 
of Charles L 
the B lid, some- 
what blundered. 
M \Vt. 18-0. 
[PL XXVIII. 7.] 

Tlie obverse of tliis type resembles that of the York 
coins of JSthelstan (a.d. 925 — a.d. 940). 



►I<RACIIODT 

OiX'H haml, fingers 
downwards. 



Type 2. 

•i^EIORACII 
(Dot R-) 

Monogram of Karo- 
lus or Carolus as 
in last type. 

M \Vt. 17-5. 
[PI. XXVin. 8.] 



HhlACI/IOIT 

(Dots I-.-) 

above the hand, 



4«ICA0DTI 



^EIOACPI 
(Dots O-.-) 

degraded. 
M Wt. 25-5. 

-t-EOARICE CT 

M Wt. 15-4. 



Mint. Moneyer. 



York. 



Tills hand is doubtless the hand from heaven, the usual representation of the 
First Person of the Trinity at this period (Didron, Icon. Chrei. pp. 174, 175). The 
dots on no. 1085 represent the clouds from which the hand proceeds. A some- 
what similar hand occurs, at a later date, on the coius of ^-Ethelred II. (Hawkins 
o.c. pi. xvi. no. 20(5), and a hand in another form, giving the Greek benediction, 
on the coins of Eadweard the Elder. This type cannot have been copied from 
either of these. 



1087 



RACIIOIAT 
(Dots R-.) 

Hammer as on coins 
of St. Peter. (See 
no. 1122.) 



Type 3. 

►^RABIOCIT 

Bow stretched with 
arrow in it. 

M ^\'^ 193. 



[PI. XXVIII. 9] 



234 



NORTIIUMBUIA. 



ANLAP [ONLAF, OliAP], QUARAN. 

A.D. 941*— A.D. 944 (EXP.) ; a.d. 949—952. 

Moneyers. 

See note on p. 25. 
^iSclfcrS [.ffl(5e]fri«]. Ingelgar. 

Ascnlu. Kiulwulf. 

Brtciagcr, Bacialer, or Baciaser. Sicaros [Sigarod?]. 

Eaijmiin. ^yadter [^]Valter 1'\. 

Farmau [Farmoii]. 

1. Wnu King's name aviuttex ANLAF. 



1088 



1089 



1090 



1091 



1092 



1093 



Tape 1. 



Mint. Moncycr. 



»I«ANL?iF CVNVNC M 

Trefoil as on coins 
of Sihtric and 
Kognald. 



4<SNL7\F CVNVNi: M 



»i<-7XNL7\F CVNVNCi 
(Dot &c., L-A'^) 



'i'SSCOLV MONETRTX 
Standard as on coins 
of Sihtric and 
Kegnald. 
M -8 Wt. 151. 



►i^FAMLAN MONETTX 
(Dots nnmtroiis). „ 
2R -75 Wt. 15-9. 



►I'FaRM^^N MONETA 
(Dot.i numerous). ,, 

A\ -8 Wt. 17-3. 



[Bl. XXIX. 1.] 



Similar, but two uncertain 
letters (UJ f). after le- 
gend. 



M -75 Wt. 10-5. 



Ascolu. 



Fanilan, for 
Farnian? 



Farnian. 



Tijlie 2. 

•^SNLAF CVNVNC-:- "^SGELFERD MINETREP ^SelferlS. 
Kav( n, wings dis- (Dot A-). 

played, luad 1. Small cross pattt'e. 

.It -8 Wt- 19-8. 
[ri. XXIX. 2.] 



-«^ANL7\F CVNVNC €1- 
(DntH 7\-NL-) 



HhAOELFERD MINETRr 
M S Wt. 20-5. 



* Olaf Quaran was the princijml actor ut llic funiout* battle of Hruiiiiaiibuili ^linitmiibyiig) 
A.l>. 937, and had perliapH bccti in York a.M farly as '.vit. Ikil In- dues not appear to liavc liad any 
footing in Ni^rttuiinbria ut eitlnT tinif. lie came to tlie liattle of lfrunnanl>urg from .Scullami, 
where ho bad iivcd for some time, ami where lie lia<i niiirried tlic ilangliter of Conatantine 111. 



ANLAF. 



235 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 


1094 


•^ANLTXF CVNVNE 
(Dots -T^-NL-) 

Kavcu, wings dis- 
played, head 1. ; 
after legend un- 
certain mark ( L~l ). 


^SOELFERD MINETR 
(Dots numerous). 

Small cross patte'e. 
M (broken) -8. 


^«elfer^. 


1095 


[.I«7\]NL7\F CVNVNC 1 : 
(Dots -TX-) 


^[7X€)EL]FERD MINETR 






(Fragmeut.) 




1096 


°4<SNL7XF CV[NVNC]°„ i[^AOE]LFERD MINETRP 




(Fragment.) m 





The obverse of this type is believed also to represent a Viking standard, the 
Raven. Compare Worsaae, 1. c. and Clir. S. a. 878. 



1097 



1098 



1099 



^SNLT^F CVNVNC 
(Two circles of dots in 
legend.) Crots moline. 



Type 3. 

"I^RROVLF MONETF 

Small cross patte'e. 
M 15. Wt. 14-0. 



[PI. XXIX. 3.] 



Type 4. 



^-ANFTXF CVNVNC O* 

Small cross patte'e 



•i-SlLARES MOT 

Small cross patte'e ; 
in lield, M. 
M -9 Wt. 23-7. 
[PI. XXIX. 4.] 



Tyjje 5. 

^SNLSF REX-TODt RT^DVLF 

Small cross pattcc, 



[PI. XXIX. 5.] 



Above legend 
a line from which 
grows a Hower 
(rose) between 
two ciirved stalks. 
Below legend, 
full-blown tlower 
with 8 jwtals. 
M -85 Wt. 20-5. 



Radwulf. 



Sicarcs. 



Radwulf. 



This type is perliaps originally derived from the coins of JIaguus Maximus 
with the representation of the two empenirs and the Holy Gliost above, PI. i. a. 
Compare Hawkins, ^'. C. 2nd ed. Suppl. pi. ii. no. 500 (Ceolwulf II. — the 
Cuerdalo coin), Xuiii. Chi: n.s. vol. i.K. pi. i. ii. (Halfdan), Hawkins o.c. pi. xiv. 
180 (Eadweard tiie Elder), and Num. Chr. N.s. vol. xx. p. 202. But inunediately 
it is derived from Eadwcard's type. 



* For EoferwK- (York) ? 
t Apparently a corruption of TOT B' 
jEthelstan (a.d. 925—940). 



^T"tiu> Hrit;inniii'), which occurs upon the coins of 



236 



NORTIIUMBRIA. 



2. With King's name written ONLAF. 



No. 

1100 
1101 

1102 
1103 



Kevorso. 



llOi 



^OUILT^F REX S 
(Dots L-RE-) 

Small cross pattcc 



►i-OHTAF REXg 



Ti/pp G. 

HhFARMON MONE 
(Dots muiicrous). 

Small cross pattee. 
Ai -8 Wt. 15-7. 

►i«FARMOH MOUE „ 

M -85 Wt. 21-7. 



in field 

[PI. XXIX. C] 



REX'v 



M 85. Wt. 20-8 



►t'ONLT^F-REXO* „ ^INGELGAR-O- 

I (Dots L-G-). 
' M -85 Wt. 21-1. 

[PI. XXIX. 7.] 



1105 



Type 7 

►t'Ol/ILOF REX I •.• 

Small cross pattcc 



BAG! 

►^ ►P >^ 
AFER 



Mint. Moncycr. 



Farmon. 



InKcl";ar. 



.31 -Sf) Wt. 21-8. 



[PI. XXIX. 8.] 



►i-oi/iFAF rex: 

(Dots N-, A-, -E-) „ 

In field pellet. 



INEEL 
EAR MO 



Ai -85 Wt. 23-5. 



[PI. XXIX. 9.] 



Baciager, 
Bacialcr, or 
Baciascr. 



Ingclgar. 



• Kor Eorfcrwic (Vork)? 



ERIC. 



237 



Family op Harald EAAitFAGsr. 

ERIC (BLdi)dX?). 
A.D. 948—949 (EXP.) ; a.d. 952—954 (exp-). 

Money ers. 
See note on p. 25. 



Aculf. 

Huured. 

Ingelgar. 



Leojlc. 
Kadwulf. 



1106 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Type 1. 
i^ERICVS- REX-S- 

Small cross patte'e, 



1107 



1108 



1109 



►l^ERIC- REX-AL- 



HVNR 
ED MO 



[PI. XXIX. 10.] 



INEEL 
EAR MO 



Mint. Moneyer. 



Hunred. 



M -8 Wt. lG-5. 



'i'ERIC- REX- EN- „ 
(Dot, E-N) 

Four dots in lield. 



►i-ERIC REX EFOR* 
(Dots, -I-, F.) 

Dot in field. 



Inojelgar. 



M -8 Wt. 23-0. 



M -8 Wt. 20-2. 



RSDV 
Tb i^o 



Eadwulf. 



M -85 Wt. 21-8. 



[PI. XXIX. 11.] 



1110 ►t'ERIC- [REX--] 10 „ 
(Dol, E-R) 



RSDV 

LF H[0] 



(Fragment). 



* For Eoferwic( York). 



238 



NORTllUMBRIA. 



Ko. 


Olivtrse. 


Kovciso. 


Mint. Monoyer. 






Type 2. 




1111 


oERIC 


Between lines 


^T^CVLF MON 


Aculf. 




oREX 


of legend, tiwonl, (Dots numerous). 
r. ; at point of Small cross pattc'e. 
sword, •.• M -8 "\Vt. 17-8. 
[PI. XXIX. 12.] 




1112 


'- 


»> 


^ine/elgt^r: 

(Dots, ■/£•)• Four dots in 
field. 
M -85 Wt. 191. 


Ingolgar. 



1113 



ERIC? 



^eric moti 

(Dots, M-.-) 

Cross ; in alter- 
nato angles, cres- 
cents and dots. 



LVDO 
SI TR 



[PL XXIX. 13.] 



Between lines of 
legend, sword, r. ; 
dividing lelters 
of lower line, ^ t 
as on coins of 
St. Peter. (See 
No. 1114.) 
M -8. Wt. 17-2. 



* This coin is perhaps a mulo. The logpuii LVDO ^vould naturally stand for London, 
the piece must have bicn struck in Nurtliunibria. 
t This object is perhaps a mitre or a pall reversed. 



nut 



ST. PETEE. 



239 



No. 



1114 



1115 



1116 



1117 



1118 



1119 



COINS WITH THE NAME OF ST. PETER. 

Struck at York during the Danish occupation. 
A. Heavy Coins. 



Oljverse. 



Reverse. 



SCI PE Between lines 
•i* of legend, 
TR^*MO sword r. 



(HO) 



Type 1. 

>^EBiO.RZtCE II 

(Small crescent on 
either side of X[). 

Cross patte'e ; dot in 
each angle. 
M -8 Wt. 20-0. 

'i'EBORZJCE I 

(No crescents). 

M 75 Wt. 20-0. 



■ tit • 

SCI PE 



Similar type ; 
three pellets at 
TR^MO point of sword. 



(Dots -A-, I-.-) 

M -8 Wt. 20 'S. 



[PI. XXX. 1.] 



SI bE' Similar type 
(somewhat blun- 

TR MO dered); cross at 
point of sword. 



•i^RDORACEl 

(Crescents on either 
side of Zf). 
Legend blundered. 

Cross patte'e ; dots 
in three angles. 
M 75 Wt. 18-5. 



•i«RORSCED 
(Crescent on cither 
side of S). 

M -75 Wt. 260. 



Type 2. 



SCIIP 



(Blundered le- 
gend.) Between 
TD 1110 Imcs of legend, 
^ sword r. ; at point, 
cross. 



•l^ERIirilTM 

(Blundered legend.) 
In centre 9 (Mi- 
tre or Pall ?) ; 
three pellets (.-.) 
on either side. 
iR -75 Wt. 170. 



[PI. XXX. 2.] 



Jlint. Moneyer. 



York. 



This object is peilmiin a mitre or a pall reversed. 



240 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



1120 



1121 



1122 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



(.Type 2.) 



SCI IE Between lines of 
legend, sword r. ; 
T 1 1 1 1 at point, cross. 



SCI! Sword, 1., crook 

ou point. 
TlliO 



^ERIVITH 

Mitre or pall ? no 
pellets 
M -75 Wt. 16-2. 



Legend very much blunder- 
ed and uninlellij;iblf. 
Siinie type. 
M -75 Wt. 19-2. 



[PI. XXX. 3.] 



Type 3. 



SCIIE Sword 1., crook 

on point. 
TIIIIO 



^LBIOEVITR 

In centre, hammer, 
T, perhaps imi- 
tated from pre- 
vious type. 
M -75 ■ Wt. 19-7. 
[PI. XXX. 4.] 



Mint. Mmieyer. 



York. 



1123 



SCIE Three pellets 

in field, 
TRN 



1124 

1125 

112G 
1127 



Type 4. 

►I<ER7XR1CE CT 

In centre, r 
monogram K-06 
of Charles L 
the Bald, 
ill -7 Wt. 17-3. 
[PL XXX. 5.] 



S^'P^ Infield, -t 



TRIMO 



Type 5. 

^EBCiR7\CE CIV: 

Small cros.s jiattee. 
M -70 Wt. 20-0. 



SCI PE 

Infield, • • 
TRI MO ►!< 



In field, "t" • ►}■ 



[PI. XXX. 6.] 



SCI PE 



TRI NP 



In field. 



■^' 



^EBORACE CIV 

3i -75 Wt. 20-5. 



►I^EBORACE CIVI „ 

Ai -l') Wt. 2()-8. 

"l^EBORACE CI 

M li) Wt. 195. 



(Uncertain object.) 

[PI. XXX. 7.] 



■ST. PETER 




1128 SCI PE 



1129 



^_ In field, •, 4-, 

TRI M ^ 



(Uncertain object.) 
In field, ■ • • 



{Type 5.) 

►J'EBORACE CI 

Small cross pattee. 
M (broken) -75. 



York. 



1130 j cod PE 
TRI MO 

1131 SCI PE 
TRI MO 



1132 



1133 



1134 



SCI PE 
TRI IM 

SCIE 
TIID 

8CIIE 
TIIH 



1135 I DII03 
OIIIJT 



113G 



1137 



1138 



3CIII 

TIIIIQ 

3CIII 
Till 

SCIC 
TPII 



) • C 



4 ► 



« -75 Wt. 18-6. 

►J-EBORTYCE CIV 

^ -75 Wt. 18-5. 



►i^EBORACE C-: 

Si -7 Wt. 22-7. 



'f'EBORT^CE CIV 

^ "7o Wt. 227. 



B«J<-ACEIC 



^ -7 Wt. 170. 



►^EDORACI 
CO I 'l^ot« -O-)- 



Si -7/) Wt. 170. 



'i' I ►MaORTYCE CIV 

, , Si -75 Wt. -lio. 



•}<EBR7^CE C 

Small cross pattee. 
Si -7 Wt. 21 C. 

•i^BORACE 

Si -7 Wt. IS-o. 



•J^CBORACI 

Si -7 Wt. 16-5. 



242 



NORTIIUMBRIA. 



No. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Mint. Moneyer. 






{Type 5.) 






1189 


SCIL 

jqii 


1 11 licld. • • • 


^CBORCI 

Small cross pattee. 
M -7 Wt. 180. 


York. 


1140 


SCIC 


Similar. 


^EBORCI 

Ai -1 


Wt. 18-3. 




1141 


ZCIIIT 

- r 


Much bluucltred «^B0R7\CE C 
kgeiul ; uucLT- M -7 
tain objects above 
and below. 

[PI. XXX. 8.] 


Wt. 180. 





1142 



1143 



1141 



1145 



114(J 



1U7 



1148 



SCIIE 



TRI 


ND 


SCIIE 


TR 


H^ 


SCIIE 


TRI 


11 



SCIIi 

THE 



SCIII 
Till 

SCIE 
TRID 



B. Light Coins. 

Type 5. 

^EDRTXCE CI 
In field, • • • Small cross patteo. 

M 1 Wt. 120. 



^EBORT^CII 

M -05 Wt. 9-0. 



•^EBORTXCE CIV 

M -7 Wt. 15-5. 



[PI. XXX. 9.] 



•MRT^CE CD 

M -7 Wt. 1 1 -5. 



►Ml . . CE CD 

M (broken) ■". 



•t'EBORy'^ClT 

^t -7 Wt. 12-7. 



<i> B4^RAC • 



Si (broken) 7. 



ST. PETER 



1153 




1154 


COCIE 




TRII 


1155 


8CIE 




TIID 


1156 


8CI/E 




TPM 


1157 


8CII 




TUP 


1158 


3c5Tc 




TRIP 


1159 


roCIE 




TRII 



» .. j B-i^ERT^CE C 

^ -65 Wt. 110. 



244 



NORTHUMBRIA. 



No. 


(tlivorsp. 


llrvorso. 


Mint. Mmu 


•ytT. 






(T,,pe f).) 






1160 


sen 
jqin 


In field, • • • 


►fEBORACE 

Small cross pattec. 
m (broken) -65. 


YOKK. 




llCl 


sen 

Till 


)> >) 


^Mrt-eEC 

M-G5 AVt. 11-8. 






1162 


cocTl 
TIM 


„ 'h-'h 


m (broken) 65. 






1163 


sen 
TRir 


" 


^EBORA eiTV 

M (broken) -65. 






1164 


SCIE 
TRII: 


„ 


• -B- -RTXeil 

Ai (lirokcn) ■(]5. 






1165 


roCII 
TRII 


)> 1) 


«]hBR7^- • • • 

Ai (broken) 6. 







Halfpenny. 



1166 



Seill In field three -^ 

pellets; cross • • 
TRIM above and >i> 

below, 

[PI. XXX. 10.] 



►i^EDORACE CI Small 

cross patte'e. 

jR -5 Wt. 4-5. 



INDEXES. 



I.— GENERAL INDEX. 

*^* The names printed in capitals are the names of persons or places of which 
coins are described in the present volume. In these cases, the first numbers given 
are those of the pages on which the coins are described. 



A as coin type, Ixxviii. See also Index 

of types 
A and Ci) as coin types, xxiii., Ixxviii. 

See also Index of types 
Abbo, a Frankish moneyer, xiv. 
Abbo manet, or monet, legend on coins, 

xiv. 
Addingham, Wulfhere Arbp. of York 

flies to, Ixvi. 
Alfred and Plegmund, blundered coins 

of, xxix., 79, 82 ; at siege of Danes 

in Nottingham, li. ; Canterbury 

coinage of imitated, 82 ; and ' St. 

Eadmuud,' coins of, 137. 
.iElfwald I. (Alfwold), k. of North- 

umbria, coins of, 1-12 ; genealogy of, 

Ixii. ; biograph. notice of, Ixiv. 
iiElfwald II., k. of Northumbria, Ixii., 

Ixiv. 7wte ; no coins of known, 143 
.(Elfwine, Northumbrian jetheliug, xliii., 

Ivi. 
M\\&, k. of Deira, genealogy, Ixii. 
jEUa, rival king in Northumbria, 

xxviii., 1., Ixii., 188 
iEllandunc, Battle of, xlvii., Ivii. 
^thelbald, k. of Mercia, xliv., xiv. ; 

genealogy of, Iv. 
uElhelbald, Prince of Wessex, at Battle 

of Ocklcy, 1. 



.lEthelberht, k. of Kent, laws of, xix. 
xxxvii. 710^6 ; bretwaldadom of, xl. 

^THELBERHT, k. of East Auglja, coin 
of, 83 ; attribution of coin with name 
of, xxvi., 8, note ; biographical no- 
tice of, Ixi. 

.lEthelflsed, Lady of the Mercians, liii., 
liv. 

.lEthelfri?!, k. of Northumbria, xl. ; 
genealogy of, Ixii. 

.^THELHEARD, Arclibishnp of Canter- 
bury, coins of, 72 ; iv. ; biograph. 
notice of, lix. 

.lEtheluey, Alfred's camp at, Ixiii. 

iETiiELUED, k. of Mercia ; sceattas 
struck by, [2i, i. note, xliii. ; gene- 
alogy of, Iv. ; biographical notice of, 
Ivi. 

^thelred I., k. of Northumbria, coin 
which may have been struck by, 142 ; 
genealogy of, Ixii. 

iEthelred II., k. of Northumbria, coins 
of, 159-183; genealogy of, Ixii.; 
biog. notice of, Ixv. 

^thelred (I.), k. of Wessex, li., 94. 

yEthclnd, Lord of the Mercians, liii. 

^thelrod (II.), k. of England, his 
types imitated on !»caudinaviau 
coins, xxxi. ; his laws on coinage 
xxxii., xxxiii., note. 

yEthelrcd. See also iEthered. 



248 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



jEtbelric, k. of Beruicia, genealogy 

of, Ixii. 
^THELSTAX (I.), k. of East Anglia, 

coins of, 84-86 ; Ixi. 
-.Etuelstan (II. Gvthorm), k. of East 
Anglia, coins of, 05, 96 ; ii., iv., xxix., 
97 note; biograpb. notice of, Ixi. 
jEthclstan, k. of Wessex, laws of re- 
lating to coinage, xxxii., xxxiii. 
^thelwald (called Moll), k. of Nortli- 

umbria, 141 ; genealogy of, Ixii. 
.^thelwald, rethcling of Wessex, coin 

attributed to, 230 ; revolt of, liii. 
.^THELWEARD, k. of East Anglia, coins 

of, 87 ; Ixi. 
jEtbelwulf, king of Wessex, at battle 

of Ockley, 1. ; in Kent, Ivii. 
.^THERED (or ^thelred), Arclibp. of 
Canterbury, coins of, 78; biograpb. 
notice of, Ix. 
^thiliried, Runic legend, Ixxxv. (pi.), 

Ixxxvi.-vii. 
AcHRED or Alhked, k. of North- 
umbria, coins of, 142 ; genealogy of, 
Ixii. ; biograpb. notice of, Ixiv. 
Alcuin, his relations with Ecgberht, 

Archbp. of York, Ixv. 
Aldfrib, or EALDFERf), Alhfris, &c., 
k. of Northumbria, coins of, 139 ; 
xlii., xliii. ; genealogy of, Ixii. ; 
biograph. notice of, Ixiii. 
Aldhelm (Northumbria), genealogy of, 

Ixii. 
AMred, k. in Bernicia, Ixix. 
Ali-woi.d. See ^Elfwald. 
Algar, Ealdorman, def. by Danes, Isvi. 
Alhflied, sist. of Ecgfri'8 &c. and wife of 
Peada, xliii., Ivi. ; genealogy of, Ixii. 
Alhfuib, or Alhferb. See Aldfrib. 
Alvaldis, uncertain k., coins of, 2H0; 
202 ; by some identified with .^thel- 
wald.setheling of Wessex (q.v.), 230. 
Alwco (Mercia), genealogy of, Iv. 



Anglia. See East Anglia. 

Anglo-Danish coinage south of the 
Humber, xxix. 

Anglo-Sa.xon graves, vi. 

Animals, as coin types, Ixxvi., Ixxix. 
See aluo Index of Types. 

Animals' heads, whorls composed of, as 
coin types, Ixxv. See also ludex of 
Types. 

Anlaf, or Olaf, Godfredsson, liv., Ixvii., 
Ixviii. ; genealogy of, Ixviii. ; bio- 
graph. notice of, Ixxi. 

Anlaf, Onlaf, or Olaf Qiaran, 
coins of, 234-36 ; liv., l.xix. ; gene- 
alogy of, Ixviii. ; biograph. notice 
of, Ixx. 

Aulafs, the two, how dist. in MSS. of 
the A.-S. Chronicle, Ixi., note. 

Applednre, Danish camp at, lii. 

Aquila, The Roman, Ixxx. 

Arabic copper coins current in Spain, x. 

Archbishops. See Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of; York, Archbishops of. 

Archiepiscopal mints, xxxii., note. 

Arrow. See Bow and Arrow. 

Art. of sce.ittis, xxiv.-vi. ; of pennies, 
Ixxvi.-vii. ; of stycas, Ixxviii. 

Asbdown, battle of, Ixvi., 230, and note. 

Aura (Eyrir), coin denomination, viii., 
232 

B. 

Basgsecg, Viking leader, 1., Ixvi. 

Baldred, k. of Kent, coins of, 70 ; ii., 
xxviii., Ivii. ; biograph. notice of, lix. 

Barducy Abbey destr. by Danes, Ii. 

BariTi, son of Ottir, Ixix. 

Baugr (Icel.), • ring ' or ' armlet,' vii. 

Bancjhrota (Icel.), ' distributor of trea- 
sure,' comp. with he('t(iiihrijlta, vii. 

Bcdri (A.-S.), 'ring' or ' armlet,' vii. 

litdfiahryltn ' distributor of trcosurc,' 
vii. See haugbrvla. 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



249 



Bcartiijo Z runic iuscription, Ixxxv. 

(pi.), Ixxxvi., 2 note. 
Beda, passages in, relating to cur- 
rencies, X. and note. 
Bedfordshire, building of burgs in, liv. 
Benfleet, Danish camp at, lii. 
Bensington, Battle of, xlv., Ivi. 
Beonna, k. of East Anglia, coin of, 

83 ; ii., xxiii., Ixi. 
Beonna, runic inscription, Ixxxv. (pi.), 

Ixxxvii. 
Beorn, or Beorna. See Beonna. 
Beornred,k. of Mercia, Iv. 
Beornwulf, k. of Mercia, coins of, 

42 ; his defeat at Ji^Ilandune and his 

death, xlvii., Iv., Ivii.; biographical 

notice of, Ivii. 
Beorhtwulf. See Berhtwulf. 
Beowulf, the poem, use of words bedg 

and hedijahrytta in, vii. note. 
Berht, expedit. of into Ireland, Ixiii. 
Berhtric, k. of East Anglia, coin of, 

89; Ixi. 
Berhtwulf, k. of Mercia, coins of, 

43-45 ; his defeat by Danes, 1., Iv. ; 

biograph. notice of, Iviii. 
Bernician House, genealogy of, Ixii. 
Biedanheafod, Battle of, xliii. 
Bii-ds as coin types, Ixxv., Ixxvi. See 

also Index of Types. 
Bhicman (Nortliumbria), genealogy of, 

Ixii. 
Blodiix. See Eric. 
Blood-fine or totnjihl, paid for .iElf- 

wiiie, xliii., Ivi. ; for Jliil, xliv. and 

■note. 
Busa (Nortliumbria), genealogy of, Ixii. 
Bow and arrow, as typo, Ixxxi. See 

also Index of Types. 
Bracteates, Scandinavian, v., vi. note. 
Bretwaldadom of iEthelberlit, xl., of 

Ixieldwald, /''. ; of Ea Iwine, ib. ; of 

Oswald, xlii. 



Brother, runic iuscr., Ixxxv. (pi.). 

Ixxxvii. 
Brunnanburg, Battle of, liv., Isx., Ixxi., 

234, note. 
Buckinghamshire, building of burgs 

in, liv. 
Burford, Battle of, xlv. 
BuRGKED, k. of Mercia, coins of, 46-65 ; 

xxviii., li., Iv., biograph. notice of, 

Iviii. 
Burgs, building of, by Eadweard and 

^thelflsed, liv. 
Burgs, the five, recovery of, liv. 
Bust, facing, rarity of, Ixxviii., Ixxix. ; 

on Ofla's coins, Ixxvii. 
Bust. See also Head or Bust. 
Byrnholm (Northumbria), genealogy of, 

Ixii. 
Byzantine solidi, general currency of, 

XXV. 



' Cantate,' Legend taken from the, 209, 

225. 
Canterbury mint, coins of, 41 ; coins 

of Mercian kings struck at, iv., xii., 

39 ; triens struck at, xii. 
Canterbury, ARCHBisHors of, cuius 

struck by, 71-82 ; ii. ; biograjjh. no- 
tices of, lix. 
Canterbury, attacked by the Danes, 

xlix. 
Caocu. See SuiTRic. 
Carlovingian denarii, weights of, xxxix ; 

monarchs, asserted rights uf coinage, 

xxxii. 
Carlovingian. See also Frankish. 
Carlus, sword of, Ixxxi. ; sou of Aulaf, 

Ixxxi. note. 
Carlus, sou of k. of Norway. Ixxxi. 

note. 
Cea<lwalla, k. of ytratholyde Brituus, 

xii. 



250 



I. — GENERAL INDEX, 



Cendwalla, k. of Wessex, xliv. 
Cealchythc (Clidsea), synod of, lix. 
Ce'nhelm, St., k. of Mercia, Ivii. ; gene- 
alogy of, Iv. 
Cenred or Coenred, k. of Mercia, 

genealogy of, Iv. 
Cenwalh, k. of Wessex, xli. 
Ceolkob, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

coins of, 74-77 ; biograph. notice 

of, Ix. 
Ceolrcd, k. of Mercia, xliv. ; genealogy 

of, Iv. 
Ceolavulf I., k. of Mercia, coins of, 

40-41 ; genealogy of, Iv. ; biograph. 

notice of, Ivii. 
Ceolwttlf II., k. of Mercia, coin of, 

66 ; ii., xxviii., li. ; biograph. notice 

of, Iviii. 
Ceolwulf, k. of Northumbria, genea- 
logy of, Ixii. ; no coins of knoNvn, 140. 
Charlemagne, Ivi., Ixiv. ; denarii of, 

xxiii., XXXV. See also Carloviugian. 
Charles the Bald, coin-types of imitated, 

204. 
Chelsea. See Cealchythe. 
Cheshire, building of burgs in, liv. 
Chcster-le-Street. See Cuncactestro. 
Chippenham, Danish camp at, Ixiii. 
Christ, liead of, as coin-type, 16. See 

also Index of Types. 
Christian monogram as coin-type, xxiii. 

See also Index of Types. 
Christiana religio type of coins of 

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, 

&c., 94. 
Classification of Kgendy, Ixxxi. ; of 

types, Ixxiii. 
Clontarf, Battle of, Ixxxi. note. 
Clovesho, Giuncil of, Ivii. 
Cnct, Gucred called, coins of, 204- 

221, 227-229? his discovery and 

elevation tn the Northumbrian tlironc, 

XXX., lii. ; biograph. notice of, Ixvii. 



Coenred, k. of Northumbria, genealogy 
of, Ixii. ; no coins of, known, 140. 

CoENwuLF, k. of Mercia, coins of 
34-39 ; iv., x., xxxii., xlvi. ; gene- 
alogy of, Iv. ; biograph. notice of, Ivii. 

Coin, component parts of, Ixxii. 

Coins op Uncertain Date, 1. 

Coinage, English, origin and history 
of, iv. seqq. ; methods of, Ixxii. 

' Comes,' Ixvii. note ; 230 and note. 

Component parts of the coin, Ixxii. 

Conde', suggested meaning of 'Cun- 
netti,' 210. 

Confession of Faith, adopt, at Council 
of Wincauhealth, Ixvi. 

Constantino III., k. of Scotland, Ixix., 
Ixx. 

Constantincs, The (Roai. Emp.), coins 
of copied, xix., 3, 9. 

Conversion of various heptarchic king- 
doms, xli. 

Crondale, Find of coins at, xiii. 

Cross, special types of, Ixxv., Ixxix., 
221. See also Index of Types. 

Croyland Abbey, Destruction of by 
Danes, li. 

Cuerdale, Find of coins at, xxix., 9tj, 
97. 

Cuncacsestre, Lindesfarnc monks in, 
lii. ; suggested miut-placo (Cuu- 
netti), 210. 

Cuneat, suggested mint-place (Cun- 
uetti), 210. 

Cunetio, suggested mint-place (Cun- 
netti), 210. 

' Cunnetti,' various suggested inter- 
pretations of, 210. See also Index 
of Inscriptions. 

Cu?ia (Northumbria), genealogy of, 
Ixii. 

Culiberht (Mercia), genealogy of, Iv. 

CuTSberht, St., xxx. ; his order, Hi. ; 
translation of his remains, lii. note. 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



251 



Cddred, k. of Kent, coins of, 68-69; 

xlvi. ; biograph. notice of, Iviii. 
Cu^red, k. of Wessex, defeats ^thel- 

bald of Mercia at Burford, xlv. 
Gu<5wiue (Northumbria), genealogy of, 

Ixii. 
Cyneburg, princess of Mercia and wife 

of AldfiiS, xliii. ; genealogy of, Iv. 
Cynethbyc, wife of Oflfa, k. of Mercia, 

coins of 33 ; Iv. ; biograph. notice 

of, Ivi. 

D. 

Danebrog or Daunebrog, Danish stan- 
dard, Ixxx. 
Danes (Vikings), suppression of hep- 
tarchic kingdoms by, xxviii. ; history 
of their attacks on England, xlix.-lii. 

Danish kingdoms after Peace of Wed- 
more, li. 

Danish or Norse kings of Dublin, xlviii., 
Uii., 202. 

Danish or Noese Kings in Northum- 
bria, coinage of, 201-238; iii. ; gene- 
alogy of, Ixviii. ; biograph. notices of, j 
Ixvi. seq. 

Danish power in Northumbria, decline 
of, Uii. 

David's-seal as a coin-type, xvii., xxiv. 

Deirau House, genealogy of, Ixii. 

Dclgany, Find of coins at, xlviii., note. 

Denominations of coins, xxxiii. seq. 

Derbyshire, building of burgs in, liv. 

' Design ' and ' pattern ' distinguished, 
Isxiii. 

Design. See also Type. 

Devonport, in Cheshire, ravaged by 
Sihtric Gale, Ixix. 

Dirks, M., on sceattus, xvi., xvii. 

Domburg, Find of coins at, xvi. 

Dorovernis Civitas, legend on cuiu, xii. 

Dublin, Danish or Norse kings of, 
xlviii., liii,, 202. 



Ducange on the Mancus, xxxiv. 
Duerstede, Find of coins at, xvi. ; grant 

of to Rorik, xlix. note. 
Dunblane, Battle of, Ixix. 



E. 

Eadbebht, or Eotberht, k. of North- 
umbria, coins of, 140, 141 ; xxvii. ; 
genealogy of, Ixii. ; biograph. notice 
of, Ixiv. 
Eadbebht Pe^n, k. of Kent, coina of, 
67 ; deposition of, xlvi., Iviii. ; bio- 
graph. notice of, Iviii. 
Eadburh, daughter of Oflfa, genealogy 

of, Iv. 
Eadmund, St., k. of East Anglia. coins 
of, 90-93 ; martyrdom of, 1, xxviii., 
li. ; biograph. notice of, Ixi. See also 
St. Eadmcnd. 
Eadred, West Saxon king, invaded 
Nortliumbria and expelled Eric, liv., 
Ixxii. 
Eadred, Abbot, instrumental in dis- 
covery of GuTired-Cnut, xxx., Ixvii. 
Eadwald, k. of East Anglia, coin of, 

84 ; 1x1. 
Eadweard the Elder, liv. 
Eadwine, k. of Northumbria, xl., xli. ; 

genealogy of, Ixii. 
Eadwulf, k. of Northumbria, no coins 

of known, 140. 
Ealdferc, or Ealdfrid. See Aldfeib. 
Ealhstan, Bishop of Sherborne, Ivii. 
Ealric (Northumbria), geneah)gy, Ixii. 
Eanbald, Arclibp. of York, coins of, 
190-192 ; lix. ; biograph. notice of, 
Ixv. 
Eaufri?!, k. of Dcira, genealogy of, Ixii. 
Eanked, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 
144-158 ; genealogy of, Ixii. ; bio- 
graph. notice of, Ixv. ; runic inscrip- 
tions on coins of, Isxxv. dil.), Ixxxvii. 



252 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



Eauwiue (Northumbria), genealogy of, 

Ixii. 
Eanwulf (Merciu), genealogy of, Iv. 
Eai!d\vvlf, or IIeakdwulf, k. of 
Northumbria, coins of, 143 ; diver- 
gence of Northumbrian coinage 
under, xxvii. ; at war with Coenwulf, 
k. of MtMcia, Ivii. ; genealogy of, 
Ixii. ; biograph. notice of, Ixiv. 
E.\ST Anglia, Coiuage of 83-137 ; Ixi. 
East Anglia, ii. ; three kings of slain 
by Penda, xli. ; throws off allegiance 
to Morcia, xlvii., Ivii. : Danish king- 
dom in, Ixi. ; biograph. notices of 
kings of, Ixi. 
Eata (Northumbria), genealogy of, Ixii. 
Eawa (Morcia), genealogy of, Iv. 
EcGBERiiT, king of Ktut, coins of, 

67; ii. 
Ecgberlit, son of Ulfa, k. of Mercia, 

67 noh'. 
Ecgberht I., k. in Xortliumbria under 

Danes, no coins of known, 188. 
Ecgberht II., k. in Northuinbria under 

Danes, no coius of known, 188. 
Ecgberht, Archbishop of York, coins 
of, 140, 189 ; coins attributed to, 
141, ili. ; genealogy of, Ixii. ; bio- 
graph. notice of, Ixv. 
Ecgberht, k. of Wcisex, xlvi., xlix., 

Ivii., Ixv. 
Ecgberht. See Eadberht. 
Ecgfer?>, king of Morcia, genealogy 

of, Iv. 
EcGFRis, k. of Northumbria, coin of, 
139 ; ii., xliii. ; character of, 139 
note ; genealogy of, Ixii. ; biograpli. 
notice of, Ixiii. 
Ecgwald (Nortliuiiibria), genealogy of, 

Ixii. 
Ely, Abbey of, destroyed by Danes, Ii. 
Euglefield, Battle of, 230 noU: 
English Coinage, rclalioushiii of to 



later mediicval currencies, xxv. ; uni- 
formity of, xxvi. See also Coinage. 

Enhebo supposed name on coin, 88. 

Epa, runic insc.,lxxxv. (pi.), Ixxxvi. 

Eric (Blobox ?), Coins of, 237 ; iii., 
xxxi., liv., Ixxi. ; biograph. notice of, 
l.xxii. 

Es.*cx, Building of burgs in, liv. 

Ethandune, Battle of, Ii. 

Eusehii monita, legend on coin, xii. 

Eusebius, Frankish moncycr ? xii., xv. 

Evans, Mr. J., on a type of the pennies, 
xxiv. note, on Delgany Find, xlviii. 
note ; on coius with legend ' rout,' 
72. 

Exeter attacked by Siegfer^, Ixvii. 

Eijrir, Icel. See Aura. 



Facing bust. See Bust facing. 

Fall of English kingdoms N. of Thames, 
xlvii., xlviii. 

Fantastic animal. See Animal. 

Feologeld, uncertain archbishop of 
Canterbury, Ix. 

Figure of archbishop, standing, Ixxix. 

Fincale, council of. See Wincanhealth. 

Finds of coins, xii., xvi , xxix. See 
aha, Crondale, Cuerdale, Dclgany, 
Diimburg, Duerstede, Franeker, 
liallum, Tirwipsel. 

Five burgs, recovery of, liv. 

Flag or pennon, as coin type, Ixxx. 
See also Index of Types. 

Franelior, Find of coins at, xvi. 

Frankish coinage, rise of silver, xi. ; 
influence of on English coinage, xi., 
xvii., xxiii. ; and on later mediroval 
currencies, xxv.; approach of English 
coinage in style to, Ixxviii. See aUo 
Merovingian, Carloviugian. 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



253 



Freeman, Mr. E. A., on Peuda, k. of 
Mercia, xli. ; on relations of England 
with the continent, ih. note. 

Frene, Earl, Viking leader, 1. 

Friesland, Coins found in, xvi. 



G. 

Gale. See Siiitric. 

German Empire, early coinage of de- 
rived from Frankibh, xxvi. 

German peoples, pref. of, for silver 
coinage, v. note, xx. 

'Gloria in cxcelsis,' Legend taken 
from the, 209, 225-226. 

Godfred, Sihtricsson, k. in Northum- 
bria, liv. ; genealogy of, Ixviii. 

Godfred, of the House of Ivar, genea- 
logy of, Ixviii. 

Gold coins of anonymous class, i., xii., 
1 seq. ; of the Merovingians, xi. seq. ; 
of the Romans, v., vi., viii. ix. seq. ; 
gold coin (solidus) of AVigmund, 
Archbishop of Yoik, Ixxix., 193. 

Graves, Copies of Roman coins, &c. 
found in, v., vi. 

' Great Army ' (Danish), history of in 
England, l.-lii. 

Greatly, Council of, enactments on 
coinage at, xxxii. 

Gt'THORM- or GuTHRrM-^TIIELSTAN. 
See -^THELSTAN. 

GtJTHKED identical witli Cnut, 202. 
See Cnut. 



H. 

Haigh, Mr. D. H., on East Anglian 
coins, Ixi. ; on Noitliumbrian coins. 
Ixxxi. ; on Cnut and (iu>rcd, 202. 

Hair, methods of plaiting,lxxvi.-lxxvii. 
Sir also Ht ad, and Index of Types. 



Halfdan, Danish king in North um- 
bria, coin of, 203 ; biograjih. notice 
of, Ixvi. 
Halluin, Find of coins at, xvi. 
Hamond, Viking loader, 1. 
Hand as coin-type, Isxx., 233 : symbol 

of the First Person of the Trinity, 

233. 

Harald Blaatancl, k. of Denmark, Ixxii. 

Harald Raarfagj; k. of Norway, Ixxii. 

Head, with hair peculiarly arranged, 

lxxvi.,Ixxvii. ; of Christ, imitated, 16. 

See also Index of Types. 
Head or bust, very rare on Frankish 

coins, XXV. ; not rare on English 

pennies, ih. See also Bust. 
Heaedwulf. See Eardwtlp. 
Heathfield, Battle of, xli. 
Hengisttsdun, or Hengston, Battle of, 

xlix. 
Heming, coin attributed to, 119, 136? 
Heptarchy, the, a stage in progress of 

English people towards unity, xl. 
Heptarcliic currencies, cessation of, 

xxviii. 
Heptarchic kingdoms, conversion of, 

xli. ; fall of, xxviii. ; rivalry of, 

xl. 
Heraclius I., possible imitations of his 

coins, 19. 
Hertfordshire, building of burgs in. 

liv. 
Higberht, Archbishop of Lichfield, lix. 
Holme, Battle of, liii. note. 
Honorius, coins of imitated, v., xix., 1. 
Hnng (A.-S. or Icel.) ' ring ' or ' arm- 
let,' vii. 
ITringhrota, Icel., ' distributor of trea- 
sure,' vii. See also Baughroia. 
Huntingdon, Abbey at, destroyed by 

Danes, li. : building of burgs in, 

liv. 



254 



I. — OENEEAL INDEX. 



Ida, k. of Bcrnicia, descendants of, Ixii. 

Ine, k. of "Wessex, laws of, xx. ; rise of 
Wessex under, xliv., invasion of 
Kent, &c., by, ih. ; abdication o'', ih. 

Ingvar. See Ivar. 

Ivar, Yiking leader, 1., Isvi. 

Ivar, Kings op the HorsE of, coins 
of, 231 ; liii. : genealogy of, Ixviii. 

J. 

Jeanberht, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
coins of, 71 ; ii., iv. ; biograph. no- 
tice of, lix. 

Justinian II., possible imitations of his 
coins, IG. 

K. 

' Karolus ' monogram, Lxxix. See also 

Index of Types. 
Kext, Kings of, coins of, G7-70, ii. ; 

biograph. notices of, Iviii. seq. 
Kent, Kingdom of, ii. ; coins of Mercian 

kings, &c. in, iii. ; sceattas found 

in, XX. ; conquest of by Mercian 

kings, xlv., xlvi., Ivi., Ivii. ; by 

Ecgberht, Ivii. 
Kilcullen, Plunder of by Aulafs, Ixx., 

Ixxi. 
Killinern, Battle of, Ixxxi. 
Kingdom of Mercia, of Kent, &c. See 

Mercia, Kent, &c. 
Kingdoms, Heptarchic, fall of, xxviii. 

xlvii. See also Heptarchic Kingdoms. 

L. 

Lancashire, Building of burgs in, liv. 
Lands attacked by Vikiugs, xlviii. 
Laws in which the soUdus appears as 
money of account, v. ui>(e : English, 



connected with coinage, xxxi. seq. ; 
English, antecedent to settlement of 
Danes, xxxvii. note. 
Legends, Classification of, Ixxxi. 
Leicester, Armies of Edmund and 

Anlaf meet at, Ixx. 
Lenormant, Fran9., on the mint of 

Melle, Isxii. note. 
Leo I., Byzantine Emperor, coin of 

imitated ? xiii. 
Leo II., Pope, takes part in restoration 

of Eardwulf, Ixiv. 
Leodwald (Northumbria), genealogy 

of, Ixii. 
AeTTTc^j/ translated by Styca. 
Letters, peculiar forms of, Ixxxv. (pi.) ; 

Roman, Ixxxix. seq. 
Lichfield erected into archbishopric, 

xlvi., Ivi. 
Licinius I., Eom. Emp., coins of imi- 
tated, xiii., xviii. note. 
Limerick, Tiking settlement in, xlviii. 
Lincoln, coin struck at, 138, iv. ; 
building of burgs in, liv. ; coin with 
name of Alfred struck in, 202. 
Lindesfarne monks removed to Cunca- 

ctestra, &c., Iii. and note. 
Lindsay, Danes in, Ii. 
Lodbrog. See Ragnar Lodbrog. 
London, coins struck in, 10, 11 ; xiv. 
and note, xix. and note, xx. ; Danish 
attnck on, xlix. ; taken by Halfdan, 
Ixvi. ; coin of Halfdan struck at, 
Ixvi., 203. 
Londunium, legend on coins, xiv. 
Lundonia, legend on coins, xiv. See 

also Index of Inscriptions. 
Louis the Pious, solidi struck by, xxv. 
note ; typo copied in England, ib. ; 
makes grant to Rorik, xhx. 7wte. 
Low Countries, Finds of coins in, xvi. 
LuDiCAN, k. of Mercia, coin of, 42 ; 
xlvii., Iv. ; biograph. notice of, Ini. 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



255 



Lul, ruuic inscripliou, Ixxxv. (pl-)> 

Ixxxvii. 
Luxz, legend en coin, Ixxviii. See also 

Index of Inscriptions. 
Lymne, Danish fleet at mouth of, lii. 

M. 

Maccus, son of Aulaf (Olaf), Ixxii. 
Madox on relation of gold to silver, 

XXXV. note. 
Magnus Maximus, coin of copied, xix., 

XXV., note, 2, 3. 
Mancus, monetary denomination, xxxiv. 
Mark, monetary denomination, xxxvi. 
' Marseilles ' type, so-called, xiii., xiv. 
Martinus. See St. Martin. 
Ma'^ma, A.-S. word for treasure, vii. 
Melle, coin of, showing implements for 

coining, Ixxii. 
Mercia, kingdom of, coins of, 23-66; ii.; 

coins of, struck in Kent, iii., 39 ; 

rivalry with Northumbria, xli. ; with 

Wessex, xliv. ; decline of, xlvi. ; 

division of, li. 
Mercian kings, biographical notices of, 

liv. seqq. ; genealogy of, Iv. 
Merovingian coinage, derivation of 

English coinage from, xi , xii., seqq., 

2, 6, 9, 10, 14, 16, 20. 
Merovingian Franks, riglit of coinage 

among, xxxi. 
Methods of coining, Ixxii. 
Milton (Kent), Danish camp at, lii. 
Moll ^thelwald. See ^ihelwald. 
Monetarius. See Moneyer. 
Moneyer, xxii. ; punishment nf, xxxiii. ; 

status of, ib. 
Moneyers, names of, Ixxxii., Ixxxiii. 

See also Index of Moneyers. 
Monogram (' Karolus '), Ixxix. See 

also ' Karolus ' monogram. 
Morcar, Ealdorman, Ixvi. 



Mul, Blood-fine paid for, xliv. 
Mftl. See also Moll. 
Mynetere. See Moneyer. 

N. 

Native art, examples of, Ixxiv.-lxxvi. 

Nectansmere, Battle of, Ixiii. 

Njel Glundubh, k. of Dublin, Ixix. 

Norse or Danish. See Danish or Norse 

Northampton attacked by Anlaf, Ixx. 

Northamptonshire, building of burgs 
in, liv. 

Northern Italy, early coinage of de- 
rived from Frankish, xxvL 

NoETHrMBRiA, Coinage of (stycas), 
139-200; ditto (pennies) 201-244; 
ii., xxi. ; divergence of coinage from 
rest of English coinage, xxvii. ; in- 
troduction of penny into, xxviii., 
XXX. ; rivalry with Mercia, xli. ; 
decline of, xliii. ; ' divided ' by 
Danes, li., Ixvi. ; Danish kingdoms 
in, li.-liv., Ixvi. ; kings of, gene- 
alogies of, Ixii., Ixvii. ; biographical 
notices of, Ixiii. seqq. 

Northumbrian pennies, art on, Ixxix. 

Nottingham, Siege of Danes in, li., Iviii. 



Ocga (Northumbria), genealogy of, Ixii. 

Ockley, Buttle of, 1. 

Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, Ixx. 

Offa, k. of INIercia, coins of, 25-33; 
ii., iv. ; introduction of penny by, 
X., xxiii.; allowed subject kings to 
strike coins, xxxii. ; conquests, &c., of, 
xlv., xlvi. ; laws of, xlvi., lii. ; 83 ; 
genealogy of, Iv. ; biograph. notice 
of, hi. ; art on coins of, Ixxvi. 

Ofla's dyke, xlvi. 

Oi.AF ami Onlaf. See Anlaf. 



250 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



Ora, monetary ilouomiuation, xxxvi. 
Origin and history of English coinage, 

iv. seqq. 
Ornaments as media of exchange, vi. 
Osbald, k. of Northumbria, Ixii. ; no 

coins of known, 142. 
OsBERHT, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 

187, 18S ; iii. ; death of, xxviii., 1., 

188 ; biograph. notice of, Ixv. 
Osgod, Ealdorman, Ixvi. 
Osketil, Yiking leader, 1. 
Osmod (Mercia), genealogy of, Iv. 
Osrcd I., k. of Northimibria, no coin 

of known, 11:0 ; genealogy of, Ixii. 
Osred II., k. of Northumbria, no coin 

of known, 142 ; genealogy of, Ixii. 
Osric, k. of Northumbria, no coin of 

known, 140 ; genealogy of, Ixii. 
Osthry?>, wife of ^thelred, k. of 

Mercia, xliii., Ivi. ; genealogy of, 

Ixii. 
Oswald, uncertain k. of East Anglia, 

coins attributed to, 94. 
Oswald, k. of Northumbria, xli., xlii. ; 

genealogy of, Ixii. 
Oswine, k. in Northumbria, genealogy 

of, Ixii. 
Oswiu, k. of Northumbria, ii., xlii. ; 

genealogy of, Ixii. 
Oswulf, k. of Northumbria, no coin of 

known, 141 : genealogy of, Ixii. 
Otford, Battle of, xlv., Ivi. 



Pada. .See Peada. 

Pdda, runic inscription, Ixxxv. (pi.), 

Ixxxvi. 
Pseda. See Peada. 
Palseography, Ixxxiv. Keqq. 
Papal coinage, early, (Icrivod from 

Frankisli, xxiv. notf, xxvi. 



Patriarchal cross, as coin-type, Ixxix. 
See also Index of Types. 

' Pattern ' and ' design,' Ixxiii. 

Peada, k. of Mercia, sceattas of, 23 ; i. 
note, xlii. ; biograph. notice of, liv. ; 
genealogy of, Iv. 

Penda, k. of Mercia, xli., xlii. ; genea- 
logy of, Iv. 

Pennon. See Flag. 

Pennies, types of, copied from Frankish 
types, xxiv. 

Penny, coin - denomination, xxxv. ; 
earliest mention of in laws, xx. ; 
supersedes sceattas, xxii. ; date of 
introduction of, xxvi. ; introduction 
of into Northumbria, xxviii., 201. 

Pepin the Short, denarii of, xvii. ; new 
Frankish coinage of, xxiii. 

Peter. See St. Peter. 

Peterborough Abbey destroyed by 
Danes. 

Pincanhealth, or Wincanhealth (Fin- 
cale ?), council of, Ixvi. 

Plegjiund, Archbishp. of Canterbury, 
coins of, 79-82 ; ii. ; blundered (Dan- 
ish ?) coins with name of, xxix., 79, 
82 ; biograph. notice of, Ix. 

Political history, xxxix. seqq. 

' Pont,' coins with legend, lix., 72. 

Pontesbury, Battle of, xliii. 

Found, monetary denomination, xxxiv. 

PR.ffiN or PRiENN. See Eadbekht 

PR.ffiN. 

Progress of English nation towards 

unity, xl. 
Proper names, Ixxxii., spelling of, ib. 



Quarax. .SVe AxLAF Qiaran. 
Quentovic, coins struck at (?), 219, 
220. 



I, — GENERAL INDEX. 



257 



R. 

Eaedwald, k. of East Anglia, x. note ; 

bretwalda, xl. 
Kagnar Lodbrog, 1. 
Raven as coin-type, Ixxx. See also 

Index of Tj-pes. 
Eeading, Danes in, li. 
Redwulf, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 

184-18G, Ixii. ; biog. notice of, Ixv. 
Regnald, Godfredsson, k. in North- 
umbria, coins of, 232, liv., Ixxi. : 
genealogy of, Ixviii. ; biograph. 
notice of, Ixix. 
Regnald of Waterford, genealogy of, 

Ixviii. ; biograph. notice of, Ixix. 
Relations between England and tho 

Continent, xli. and note. 
Eepton, Battle of, Iviii. See Seckington. 
Ricsig, k. in Nortliumbria under Danes, 

188. 
Eights of coinage, xxxi., xxxii. 
Rivalry between Northumbria and 
Mercia, xli. ; between Mercia and 
Wessex, xliv. 
Eobertson, Mr. E. AV., on weights, 

xvii. note, xxxvii. 
Eoman coins imitated in England, i., 
3 ; in Northern Europe, iv. ; in 
Britain, ix. ; in Spain, x. ; in France, 
xi. ; influence on our English coin- 
age, xviii. 
Roman letters, various forms of, Ixxxv. 

(pi.), Ixxxix. feqri. 
Eorik, Viking leader, xlix. 
Rose formed from birds, Ixxvi. Sec 

also Index of Types. 
Ending on methods of coining, Ixxii. 
Runic legends, coins with, i., vi., xxvii., 
Ixxxiv., Ixxxv. (pi.), Ixxxvi. seg., 1, 
2, 4-6, 23-24. 
Runic letters, survival of, ixxxviii. seq_ 
Rustringift, xlix. notr. 



Scandinavian bracteates. See Brac- 
feates ; coinages, origin of, xxx. ; 
coimtries, early currency in, v. 
Scandinavian-Irish coinage, xxx. 
Scandinavian. See also Danish and 

Norse, &c. 
Scanomodu runic inscription, Ixxxiv., 

Ixxxv. (pi.). 
Sceet. See Sceat. 

Seeat, coin-denomination, vii., xxxiii. 
xxxvi. ; coinage, anarchic character 
of, xxvii. 
' Sceat series,' 1-2. 

Sceattas found in the Low Countries, 
xvi. ; types of, xviii. ; earliest men- 
tion of, xix. ; first use of, xxi. ; period 
of use of, ih. ; art of, ixxiv., ixxv. 
Schmid's Gesetze der Angelsachsen, 

XX. note, xxxii. note, xxxv., xxxvii. 
Scillhig or Shilling, coin-denomination, 

viii. and note, xxxiii., xxxiv. 
Seckington, Battle of, xlv., Ivi. 
' Sede vacantc ' coins of Canterbury, Ix., 

73. 
Serpents as coin-types, Ixxvii. See 

aho Index of Types. 
SnELFORD, coin struck at ? 230. 
Sheppey, descent of Danes upon, xlix. 
Shilling. See Scilling. 
Sliropshiro, building of burgs in, liv. 
Sicga, or Sicgan, Ixiv. 
SiEFRED, or SiEGFRED, &c., k. iu North- 
umbria, coins of, 221-226, 227-229 ? 
lii., 201, 202 ; biog. notice of, Ixvii. 
Siefred or Sihtric. See Sihtric. 

SiEGFRED, SlEGFRIB, &C. See SlEFEED. 

Sigillitm Davidis. See David's seal. 

Sihtric, Earl, coin of, 230 ; 202, 230, n. 

Sihtric (Gale or Caoch?), coin of, 
281 ; liv. ; genealogy of, Ixviii. : bio- 
graphical notice of, Ixix. 



258 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



Silver coins in Northumbrian styca 


Teutonic nations, preference of for 


Bcrics, 139 note. 


silver coins, xx. See also German 


Soetbeer, on relation of gold to silver, 


nations. 


XXXV. note. 


Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, 


Solidus, Imitation of, i., 1 ; currency 


xlii. note, xliii., Ivi. 


among barbaric nations, v. ; and as 


Theodosius I., Rom. Emp., coins of 


money of account, ib. ; of Archbp. 


imitated, v., xix. 


Wigmund, Ixxix. 


Thingfer'8 (Mercia), genealogy of, Iv. 


Somerton taken by iEthelbald, k. of 


Thorgisl. See Turgesius. 


Mercia, xliv. 


Three bucklers. Pattern on coins, so- 


Spain, Roman and Arabic copper coins 


called, Ixxx. See also Index of 


etill current in, x. 


Types. 


St. Cuthberht. See Cuthberht, St. 


Tliryms or Thrymsa, coin denomination, 


St. Eadmund, ii. ; ' cult ' of, xxx. See 


XV., XXXV. 


also Eadmund, k. of East Angliu. 


Thrymskvi^ia (prymskvi^a), The, 8/a7- 


' St. Eadmund,' coinage, 97-137 ; xxix., 


ling mentioned in, a money of ac- 


XXX., xxxi., Ixxii., Ixxxiii., xci. 


count, vii. note. 


' St. Peter ' coinage, 239-244 ; iii., 


Tirwipsel, Find of coins at, xvi. 


xxxi. 


' Treasure,' A.-S., words for, vi., vii. 


Staflbrdshire, building of burgs in, 


Trefoil pattern called also three buck- 


liv. 


lers, Ixxx. See also Index of 


Stanmore Heath, Erik Blddox si. on, 


Types. 


Ixxii. 


Tremissis coin-denomination, xv. 


Strangford Lough, Battle of, Ixvii. 


Trent, Battle by, xliii., Ivi., Ixiii. 


Stubbs, Bp., on the divisions of tho 


Tribrach as coin-type, Ixxviii. See 


English nation, xl. note; on decay 


also Index of Types. 


of Northumbrian kmgdom, xliii. 


Triens coin-denomination, xi.-xv. 


note. 


Trims. See Thryms. 


Stijca, coin - denomination, ix. note, 


Turgesius or Thorgisl, Viking leader, 


xxxiii., xxxvi. ; coinage, end of, 1. ; 


xlviii. 


art of, Ixxviii.-ix. 


Types, classification of, xviii., Ixxiii. ; 


Survival of runic letters in inscriptions, 


general, of pennies, xxii. ; of Prankish 


Ixxxviii. seqq. 


coins copied on English, xiv. seqq.. 


Sword, Type of, Ixxxi. See aho Index 


xviii., xxiv., 2, 14, IG, 20; of Roman 


of Types. 


coins copied on English, i.. vi., x., 


' Sword of Carlus,' Ixxxi. 


xiii., xviii., xix. seqq., xxv., 1, 2, 




3-13 ; of sceattas, xviii. seqq. 


T. 


u. 


Tamworth stormed by Anhif, Ixx. 


Ubbe, Earl, Viking leader, 1. 


Tara, Battle of. Ixxi. 


Uncertain date, Coins of, 1-22 


Tettenhall, Battle of liv., Ixvii. 


Uncertain stycas, 191^. 200. 



I. — GENERAL INDEX. 



259 



Valentinian I., possible imitntions of 

coins of, 2, 3. 
Values, &c., of coins, xxxvii. seq. 
Venta coin with legend, xv. note. 
Vexillum, the Roman, Ixxx. 
Victory as coin type, Ixxv. See also 

Index of Types. 
Viking age, Hoards of Coins made 

during the, ix. note ; Viking attacks 

on England, xlviii. seqq. (see also 

Danish) ; coinage, 201 ; kingdoms in 

Ireland, xlviii., 202. 
Vikings, 201 ; coming of, xlvii. seqq. ; 

settlements in Ireland, xlviii. 
VOT Latin inscription imitated on 

sceattas, &c., 3-8, 139 note. 

w. 

Wansborough (Woddesbeorh), Battle 

of, xliv. 
Wantage, Council of, xsxii. 
Warwickshire, Building of burgs in, liv. 
Waterford, Ecgnald, k. of, Ixviii., Ixix. 
Waterford, Viking settlements in, 

xlviii. 202. 
Wedmore, Peace of, ii., sxviii., li. 
Wednesfield. See Wodansfeld. 
Weight of Anglo-Saxon coins, xxxviii. ; 

of Merovingian denarii, xvii. ; of 

Carlovlngian denarii, xxxix. 
Wessex, coinage of, not included in this 

volume, iii. ; rise of and rivalry with 

Mercia, xliv.; final supremacy of, 

xlvii. 
Wheels and pellets on coins, Ixxv. See 

also Index of Types. 
Whorls as coin-types, Ixxv. See nho 

Index of Types. 
Widsi?> (also called the Scop's Tale), 

passage quoted from, viii. 
WiGLAF, k. of Mercia, coin of, 42 : Iv. ; 

biograph. notice of, Ivii. 



WiGMUND, Archbishop of York, coins 
of, 193-198; solidus of, Ixxix. ; bio- 
graph. notice of, Ixvi. 

Wilfred, St., Ixiii. 

Wimmer, Dr. L., on runic inscriptions, 
vi , Ixxxiv., 1 XXX vi.-l xxxvii. 

Wincanhealth, or Pincanhealth (Fin- 
cale?). Council of, Ixvi. 

Wingfield. See Winwaedfeld. 

Winfred, runic inscription, Ixxxv. (p\.), 
Ixxxvii. 

Winwajdfeld, or Winwidfeld (Wing- 
field), Battle of, X. note, xlii., Ivi., 
Ixiii. 

Wodansfeld (Wednesfield), Battle of, 
liv., Ixvii. 

Wolf as coin-type, Ixxvi. See also 
Index of Types. 

Wulfhere, k. of Mercia, xlii. ; gene- 
alogy of, Iv. 

Wulfhere, Archbishop of York, coins 
of, 199; iii. : biograph. notice of, Ixvi. 

WuLFRED, Arclibishop of Canterbury, 
coins of, 73 ; biograph. notice of, Ix. 

Wulfstan, Archbishop of York, Ixx. 

Wybba, Mercia, descendants of, Iv. 



York, coins striick at, 204-208, 222-224, 

232, 233, 239-244. 
York, Archbishops of, coins struck by, 

189-199, iii. ; biograph. notice.^ of, 

Ixv. seqq. 
York, Danes in, 1., Ixv. 

z. 

Zcoland, coins found in, xvi. 
Zoomorphic pattern.s, Ixxvii. 

XPC, as coin-type, xxiii. See also 
Index of Types. 

Cjl), as coin-type, xxxiii., Ixxviii. See 
also Index of Types. 

9 2 



( 260 ) 



II.— INDEX OF MONEYERS. 

*^* The 7Uimher8 printed iu italics in the accompanying list correspond to the 
names in italics iu the lists of moneyers under each king, &c. See p. 25. 



Abboe ( = Abbonel ?), 97, 98, 99 

Abboucl, 97, 99 

Abenel, 95 

Aculf, 237, 238 

Adalbert, &c., 97, 99, 100 

Adhclm (= Aldhelm?), 46, 47 .. 

Adiiet (for Adalbert?), 97, 102.. 

Adradus, 97, 102, 103, 104, 105 

Adidfere, i:^4 

iEdinwine (= Eadwinc?), 97, 
105,107 

Jildwino (see .^dinwiue?), 105, 
107 

iEilred, 159 

^IhuD, (Alhmund ?), 40 

MlaetylM 

.^Iven, 95 

iE«elfer?i, 234-5 

jET^clhelm. See EXelhelm. 

^«elwulf. See E^Selwulf. 

^. See aho E. 

Aifa? 97, 105 

Ainmer, 97, 105 .. 

Albert, 97, 105 

Alchmund, 25, 29, 30 .. 

Aldates, 144, 159 



Kent. 



East 
Anglia. 



XoUTIIlMnRIA. 



Stj-ca Ser. Penny Ser. 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS, 



261 



Mercia. 



Kent. 



East 
Anglia. 



NORTHTMBEIA. 



Styca Ber. Penny ser. 



Aldhere, or Alghere? 159, 160, 184 

Alex, 90 

Alghere. See Aldhere. 

Alf heard (= Adulfere?), 144 .. 

Aired, 25, 26 

Alu8, 97, 105 

Anberht, 187 

Anfasig, 159 

Ansier (= Ansiger), 97, 105, 107 
Ansiger (or Ansicar), 97, 105, 106 
Aoalbert. See Adalbert. 
Aoedwine. See ^dwine. 
Arbronoe (Abbonel?), 97, 107 .. 
Arus, 97, 107, 108 

Aecolu, 231, 234 

Asten, 97, 108 

Aura? 232 

B. 

Babba, 25, 30, 54, 67 . . 

Baciager, Bacialer, or Baciascr, 
232,234,236 

BadigQs (?), 144 

Bado, 97, 108 

Baeghelm, 90 

Bardwulf, 139 

Bascic, 97, 108 

Beacilia (Beaglia ?), 46 . . 

Beaghard (=Beanneard?), 25, 30 

Beagstan, 46-48 

Beanneard, 25, 30 

Bearneah (Beanneah ?) 46, 48, 49 

Beornfer^ (= Bcornfri^ ?), 90, 91 j 

Bcornfri^, 34, 68 

Beornhcah (= Bcaruoah ?) 90, 
91,94 

Berhtel, 46 



* 
* 

* 



262 



II. — INDEX OF MONETERS. 



Ken r 



East 
Anglia. 



NORTHUMBBIA. 



Styca ser. Penny eer. 



Bericbe, 95 

Beringar, 97, 108 

Berter, 95 . 

Bcslin, 97, 108 

Berared (= Biamred?), 46 .. j 
Biarnred, 74 . . . . . . I 

Biarnwald (Byrnwald ? q.v.), 79 
Biarnwiilf, 4G, 74 
Biornmod (Diormod ?) 49, 74, 75 
Bomecin, or Bosecin, 97, 109, 110 

Botred, 25, 34 

Brid, 43 

Broker, 144, 145, 146, 159, 160, 184 

Biirved, 79 

BjTnwald, or Bumwald, 43 



Canwclf. See Cunwulf. 

Cealmod, 74, 75 . . 

Cenred, 46, 49, 50 

Cenwald, 74, 75 . . 

Ceolbald (Ceolbeald), 34,40, 159, 



161 

Ceolheard. 



See Ciolheard. 



CeSelwulf (for ^Tielwulf ?), 46, 
50 

CeSliaf ( = CeT5elwulf ?), 50 

Chenapa, 97, 110 

Ciallaf ( = Ciolwulf ?), 46, 50 . . 

Ciolheard (Ceolhard, Ciolhard, 
&c.), 25, 26, 34, 38, 40 

Ciolwulf, 95 

Coenred, 144, 159, 161, 184, 
193-4, 199 (?) 

Coenwulf? 199. S>'e Cunwulf .. 

Comm?97, 110 

Cudhard or Cu>Sheard, 144, 147, 
159.161 



11. — INDEX OF MONEYEES. 



263 



Kekt. 



East 

AXGLIA. 



NORTIirMBEIA. 



Styca ser. Penny ser. 



Cunehard, 159 

Cunelielm, 46, 50, 51, 52 

Cunemund, 159, 161 

Cunernet?97, 110, 111 .. 

Ounwulf, Cynwulf, Canwulf, or 
Coenwulf, 144, 14G, 147, 100 

Cu^ard. See Cudhard, &c. 

Cu^berht, 46, 184, 187 .. 

Cu'Sheard. See Cudhard. 

Cu^helm, 46 

Cu^here (=Gu?here, q.v.), 46 .. 

Cynwulf. See Cunwulf. 

D. 

Daegbeeht, 144, 147, 148 

Dealge ( = Dealla ?) 46, 52 

Dealla (Deola, Dela), 34, 35, 52] 

Dealing (Dialing), 40, 4(>, 66' .. 

Degemund (Deimund ' &c.), 
97,111,112,113,114,115 .. 

Deimund ',25 

Deinolt, 97, 115 

Delaulix ( = Desaulex ?), 90 

Deneheah (or Deneneah), 43, 44 

Denutse, 97, 115 

Deomunlis9?97, 115 

De8aud?79 

Diala (see Dealla), 74, 75 

Diar ( = Diarwald, Diarwulf, or 
Diarmod ?), 34 

Diarwald, 46, 79 

Diarwulf, 46, 52, 53 

Diga, 46, 53 

Diormod, 34, 35, 70, 73, 74 ? . . 

Dirinde ( = Wintrcd ? q. v. ), 161 . . 

Dohrueis, 97, 1 1 5 






* 



' Not llio same moucror. 



264 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 





Mehcia. 


IvKNT. 


East 
Anglia. 


NORTHUMBKIA. 




Styca ser. 


Penny eer. 


Domuiidan, 97, 115 






* 






Drome, 97, 115 






* 






Dud (Udd ?), 25, 2G, 30 .. ... 

Duda or Dudda (= Dud?), 34,1 
38, 46, 53, 54, 55, 68, 69, 87, ( 
90,91 1 


1 * 










. *' 


*' 


*' 






Dudecil, 46, 55, 66 


* 










Dudeinan, 46, 55 . . 


* 










Dudhelin ? (for Cu^helm ? q.v.). 












Dudwine, 46, 55, 56 


* 










Dum.da?97, 115 






* 






Dun or Dunn?( = Dunua?), 34,1 
35,40 ( 

Dunun, 70 


(* 










,, 


* 








Dunnic, 40 


* 










E. 












Eaba ( = Eoba, q.v.), G8, 69 




* 








Eactu?(= Eucsta?), 40 


* 










Eadberht, 25, 30, 31, 90, 91 


* 




* 






Eadgar?40, 41, 42, 84, 85 


* 




* 






Eadhun ? 25, 26 (see Eadmund). 


* 










Eadraund, 25 ? 26 ? 87, 88, 90, 91, 
92, 159 


*' 




*' 


*' 




Eadno«, 42, 46, 56, 84, 85 


* 




* 






Eadowulf, 66 


* 










Eadred, 97, 115 






* 






Eadwas ? 42 


* 










Eadwald, 45, 90, 92 


* 




* 






Eadwinc (Eadwini), 97, ll.'i. 143, 
144, 148, 149, 150, 159, 161 .. 






*' 


*' 




Eadwulf, 56, 115, 200(?) 


* 




* 


* 




Eagnion, 234 










* 


Eulhmund (Elmund = Alch- 
mund?), 25, 27, 31, 34 


* 










Ealhstan, 34, 35, 40 


* 










Ealred, 25, 27 


* 











Not all the B«me moneyer. 



Doubtful whetlier same moneyer. 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



265 



Eama? ( = Eanna? q.v.), 23, 34 . 

Eanbald, 4,?, <S7, i59 .. 

Eanmund, 34, 38 

Eanna, 44.. 

Earned, 46, 57, 144, 150, 159, 
162, 163, 164, 165, 184, 185, 
187 

Eanwald (= Eanbald?), 159 .. 

Eanwulf, 40, 41, 187 

Eardwulf, 144, 150, 159, 165, 
166, 167, 184, 190-2, 193, 194, 
200 

Eariadd?3^ 

Ecgberht, 34 

Ecghard, 89 

Ecgwulf, 95 

Edred, 159 

Edtfotr?34 

Efe?83 

Eicmund, 79, 80 

Eiondaemun? 97, 115 .. 

Elda, 95 

Eldecar? 97, 116 

Elfear, 46 

Elf heard, i 53 

Elfstan, 79, 80 

Elhun, 34 

Elismus, 97, 116 

Elofroed? 97, 116 

Enodas, 95, 96 

Eoba ( = Eaba, q.v. = Oba? q.v.) 
25,31,33,34,38 

Eomund, 143 

Eordred. See Fordred. 

Eratinof? 97, 116 

Erdminc? 97, 116 

Ereet? 143 

Ergemond, 97, 116 

Erlefannio? 97, 116 



Mercia. 



Kent. 



East 
Anglia. 



NORTHCMBRIA. 



Styca ser. 



Penny ser. 



266 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



Mercia. 



East 
Anglia. 



NdUTIlCMBniA. 



Styca 6or. Penny ser. 



Erlcfredus? 97, IIG 

Ersalt? 97, 117 

Erwinne, 144, 159, 167, 187, 193, 
196 

Erwulf? 143 

Eucsta, 42 

Ewram? 97, 117 

E?clberht, 159 

E^elheah, 4G, 57 

E^ellielm, 84, 87, 90, 92, 159, 
i67, 193, 194-5 

E^elmod (or E^elno^ ?), 25, 34, 
38,67,70 

E^elno^ (or E«elm6d ?), 25, 31, 
32,144 

ESelor? 159 

E^clred, 143, i59, 200 .. 

ESclstan, 79, 80, 81 

EMwald, 25, 27, 74, 75.. 

E?ielwcard, 144, 150, 151, 159, 
190,102,193,195-6,200 

E«elwulf, 46, 57, 58, 79, 81, 90, 
92,93,159,167 

E^ered (= E^elred), 46, 78, 79 

E«ono^ ? ( = E^eluo^ ?), 42 . . 



F. 

Famlan ? ( = Farmaii ?), 234 . . 

Farman, or Fannon, 234, 236 .. 

Fechtwald (=Peclitwald ?), 25 . 

Folciio^, 144, 151 

Fordred (or Enrdrcd?), 144, 151, 
1.52, 15.3, 1.59, 167, 168, 169, 
170,184,185 

Framric, 46, 58 

Franoundo, 97, 117 

Fredemund, 97, 117, 118 



* 



* 



' Not the Mme mnneycr ? 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



267 



\ 



G. 

Gaduteis, or Gailutcle, 144, 153, 
139 

Gilenart, 97, 118 

Gi8lefred, 97, 118 

Grim, 97, 118 

Gulcreo? 97, 118 

Gundbert, or Gundibert, 97, 
118,230 

Guutere (see Gu^here), 95, 96 . . 

Gu^ihelm ( = CuTihelni ?), 46 . . 

Gu?>here, or Gu'Suere ( = Gun- 
ner ?), 46, 58, 59 

Gu^mund.. 



H. 

Haieberht, 97, 119 

Hamin. See Heming. 

Hartroari, 97, 119 

Hatwic, 46 

Heagr, or Hearer, 25, 32 

Heardwulf (see also Eardwulf) 
144,153,154 

Heawulf, 46, 59, 60 

Hebeca, 74, 75 . . 

Heming, 97, 119, 136? .. 

Hendilberht (Wendilberht ?), 144 

Plereberht, 34, 40, 41, 74, 76 . . 

Herefer«, 46, 60, 79 

Heremel^, 46 

Hcremod, 68 

Herre^, 143, 144, 154, 155, 159, 
1S4, 200 

Hcwig (Heawulf?), 46 .. 

Hfirudoic? 97, 119 

Highere, 1.59 

Hludovicus, 97, 119 



Kent. 



East 

AN'GLIA. 



NORTHCMBBIA. 



Styca ser. Penny ser 



268 



ir. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



Hnifula? (= Hunlaf?), 159, 170 

Hodumrbcdo ? 97,120 .. 

Huffitno^? 18i, 185 

Huffitred, 143, 144, 155, iSJ .. 

Hugered, 46, 60, 61 

Huufer"8, or Hunfrcd, 70, 81 

Hunlaf? 144, 159, 170, 184, 185, 
193,196-7 

Hunnoel, 42 

Hunred, 237 

Huntael, 5^ 

Huscam? 97, 120 

Hussa, 46, 61, 62 

Hu^here (for Gu^liere?), 46, 62 

I. 

Ibba (= Eoba ? q.v.), 25, 27 .. 
Idiga (= Diga? q.v.), 46, 62 .. 
Inca, 4^ .. 

Ingelgar, 234, 236, 237, 238 .. 
Iiio^ (for Wino^ ?), 25 .. 
Isiemund, 97, 120 

J. 

Jaenberht, 67 . . 

Jaord?(Jaocd?), 97, 120 

Jemso^r? 97, 120 

Johannes, 97, 120 

Judeberd, 95, 96 



Mercia. 



Lefle, 46, 62 

Leofdegn, 144, 159, 170, 
173,174,175 .. 

Leofic, 237 

Liaba,43, 44 

Liabing, 74, 76 . . 



171,17 



Kent. 



East 
Anolia. 



NOKTIIUMBRIA. 



Styca eer. Penny ser. 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



269 



Mercia. 



East 
Anglia. 



NOKTHUMBRIA. 



Styca ser. Penny ser 



Liafman, 46, G2 . . 

Liafwald, or Liofwald, 46, 6G . . 

Lialla, 46 

Lil (Lilla ?), 74, 76 

Lude ( = Ludiga ?), 46, 62 

Ludiga, 46, 62, 63 

Ludoraan, 34, 38 . . 

Lul (or Lulla ?), 25. 28, 32, 34, 
36,83 

Lulla, 46, 63 

LuniDg, 73 

M. 

Mamman? 46 

Martinus? 97, 121 

Messa, 46 

Meu^er, 97, 121 

Milo, 97, 121 

Mon, 84, 85 

Monne, 144, 155, 156, 159, 175- 

180, 184, 185-6, 187 .. 



Oandert? 97, 121 

Oba (= Eoba? q.v.), 34, 36, 40, 
70,73 

Odalbert ( = Adalbert ?), 98, 121, 
122 

Odilo, 143, 144, 156, 159, 180, 
199? 

Odomoner, 98, 121 

Odulf, 98, 122, 136, 137.. 

Oe'ftclred, or OeSelres (= ETiel- 
red?), 25, 28 

Old? 98, 122 

Oldan, 159, 181 

Onnonea, 98, 122, 123 .. 

Ordwulf(= Eordwidf? or Eard- 
wuir, q.v.), i.'5,'' 



* 



* 



* 



270 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



Osmod, 25, 32 . . 
Osmund, 46, G3 . . 
Oswulf, 43, 44, 98, 123 .. 
Otbert. 98, 123, 124 

Oter, 25 

Otibuiuro, 98, 124, 125, 136 ? 
Otie, 98, 125 

P. 

Pendeaed ("Weudraed ?), 25 
Pendwine (Wendwine ?), 34 
Penwald (Wenwald ?), 25, 28 
Peocthim, or Deocthun, 89 

Q. 

QuARAN ? 98, 125 



R. 

Radwulf, or Ra?iwulf, 234, 235, 
237 

Kacgcnliere, 87, 88, 89 .. 

Ranulf, iW 

Rather, 98, 125 

Reart (or Rercr?), 98, 125, 126 .. 

Redmaud, 42 

Redwin, 25 

Regnald, 203 

Rcgniht, 25, 33, 84 

Rcmigiua, 98, 126 

Rendred (for Pendrsed V q.v.), 25, 
28 

Rcriicr(f()r Wiriier ? q.v.), 84, 85 

Rihelt, 40 

Risleca, or Sisleca, 98, 126, 127 

Robert, 98, 127 



Mf.i;oia. 



East 
Akglia. 



NORTIIL'MBKIA. 



Styca ser. I'enny scr. 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYEES. 



271 



Mercia. 



Kent. 



East 
Anglia. 



NOETHUMBRIA. 



Styca ser. Penny ser. 



SicARES (Sigared ?), 234, 235 . . 

Sigeberht (S?eberht, &c.), 34, 36 
39,68,69,73 

Sigeheah, 43, 44, 45 

Sigehelm, 79 

Sigemund (Ssemuud, &c.), 98, 
127,128,129 

Sigercd (or Sibered), 90, 93 .. 

Sigestef, 34, 36, 40, 41, 73 

Sihtric? 238 

Sisleca, or Kisleca. See Eisleca. 

Si^efa? 98,129 

Snefren, 98, 129 

Steu, or Stein, 98, 129, 130 

Stephan, 98, 130 

Swebheard ( = Swefheard? q.v.), 
74,76 

Sweflieard, or Swefneard, 34, 36, 
70,73 



T. 

TATA(=Tatel?), 46, 64 

Tatel, 43, 45, 46, 64 

Tedredo? 98, 130 

Tedwine, or TiTiwiiie (= TuJu- 
wiiie ? q.v.), 98, 130, 144, 157 . 

Teven, orTeveh? 144, 156 

Tidbeart, 34, 37, 70 

Tidehelm, 4(J 

Tidwcald, 79, 82 

Tidwulf, 159, 181 

Tocga, 74, 76, 77 

Torhtliclm, 84, 86 

Tiuluwinc, 6s;, 87, 88 .. 

Twicga, 87, 88, 90, 93 .. 



* 



* 
* 
* 



* 



272 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



Mkhcia. 



u. 

Udareno? 98, 130 

Udd (= Dud? q.v.), 25, 29, 07 . 

Uudela, 98, 130 

Usca, 98, 130 

Utfiof? 98,130 

w. 

Wadter ( = Walter ?), 235 

Wiudulf. See Winedulf. 

Walter, 98, 131 

Wandefred, 98, 131 

Waruc? 98, 131 

Wendelberht, 144, 159, 181, 184, 
186 

Wenwald (or Penwald ?), 25 . . 

Werbald, or WerLold, 40, 41, 42 

Wtrlieard, or Werneard, 34, 37, 
ti8, G9, 70, 7a 

Werned (= Wintred ? q.v.), 159 

Weruer (= Werneard ?), 84 

Wertni?. (or Purtni^ ?), 40, 41 .. 

Wigbold, or Widbold, 98, 131 .. 

Wigeheah (Sigelieah ? q.v.), 43 .. 

Wighard? (or Witliard? q.v.), 34, 
39 

Wilheab, 144, 1.07,^93 .. 

Wilhun (Wilmund ?), 25, 34 . . 

Wine, 43, 45, 46, 65 

Winoberht ( = Wendelberht?), 
187-8 

Winedulf, or Wfcdulf, 98, 131, 
132 

Wiiiegar, Winecar, Winier, &c., 
98, 132, 1.33, 134, 137 

Winier. See Winegar. 

Wino>, 25, 29, 33 



E.VST 

An<;li,v. 



NOKTHUMBRIA. 



Styca ser. Penny ser, 



II. — INDEX OF MONEYERS. 



273 





Meucia. 


Kent 


East 


Ni>i:tiilmbkia. 






'^^^^- ANGLIA. 


Styca ser. 


Penny ser. 


Winti-ed (= Wendrfed ? &c.), 25, 
34, 37, H4, 144, 157, 158, 159, 












181-2, 19^, iS7 


*' 




*' 


*' 




Withard? (or Wighard? q.v.), 34 


* 










Wodel, 34, 38, 40 


* 










Wulfheard (= Wulfred ? q.v.), 












46,65,144,158 


* 






* 




Wulfold, 98, 135 






* 






Wulfred (see Wulfheard), 159, 












182-3, ib'Z, 199 








* 




Wulfsig, 159, 183, 187, 188 .. 








* 




Wunhere, or Wunuere, 74, 7(3, 77 




* 








)?adigils ? (see Badigils), 144, 158 








* 





' Xot all tlio same moncyer. 



( 274 ) 



III.— INDEX OF IIEMARKABLE INSCRIPTIONS. 

*^* The iuscriptious uot iucludcd in this Index arc tho names (and usual titles) 
of those under wliosc authority the coins were struck and the names of the 
moneyers. The former can 1)0 found by reference to the General Index, the 
latter are given in a special Index of IMoneyers. 



AVRA MONIT REG., 232 

CVNNETTI, 210-218 
CVNVNC, 231, 232, 234-5 

DNS. DS. REX, 209, 225-6, 228-30 
DNS. DS. O. REX, 22S-'J 
DORO (for DOROBERNIA), 79-82 
DOROBERNIA, 41 
DOROBERNIA CIBITAS, 41 
DOROBERNIA CIVI (in monogram), 

73, 74, 77, 
DOROBERNIA CIVITAS, 73 
DOROVERNIA CIVITAS, 74 
DORVER . CIVITAS, 7G 
DRVR . CITS (for DOROBERNIA 

CIVITAS), 70, 73 

EARICE CT (for EBRAICE CIVIT), 
232 



EBORACE CIV (and degradations), 
239-244 

EBRAICE CIVITAS (and degrada- 
tions), 204-8, 223-4, 227- 8 

ERIACE CIV, 135 

LINCOIA CIVIT, 138 
LVNDONIA, 10,11 
LVX X, 139 

MIRABILIA FECIT, 209, 225, 227 

QVENTOVICI,219 

Kuuic inscriptions, see p. Ixxxv. (pi.) 

SC EADMVND [REX], &c., 98-137 
SCELDFOR, 230 
SCI MARTI, 138 

VOT XX (degraded forms oQ, 3-8 



( 275 ) 



IV.— INDEX OF REMARKABLE TYPES. 

*^* The types uot iucluded in this Index are the usual j^rofile head or bust ; 
the various forms of crosses and of cruciform or floral patterns which constitute 
the usual reverse types of the penny series ; legends occupying the whole field 
of the coin and sometimes enclosed in lunettes : A, A, &c., in the centre of the 
field which forms the common device of the ' St. Eadmund ' coins ; and the 
usual types of the Northumbrian stycas, crosses, pellets, circles, &c. 

See also General Index. 



A. 

A and Cx) in monogram, 40, 45 
Animal, Fantastic, 139-142. See also 

Beast. 
Arabesque, crosslike, 22 



Bearded head, 16 

Beast, with large claws, &c., 20 

Beast, crested and with long tongue, 20 

Bird, or birdlike figure, 9, 13, 18-21 

Bird between two stalks (of corn ?), 9 

Bird changing into a whorl, 13 

Birds, 18 

Birds forming rose, 18 

Bow stretched with arrow in it, 233 

Bust. See Saxon bust, Tonsured bust. 



Oeutaur-like figure witli female breasts, 

21 
Chalice? 21 



Circle surrounded by six wedges form- 
ing star, 70 

Christian monogram (^), 75, 76 

(^), 74, 76, 77 

Cross held by half-figure of Saxon 
type, 17 

Cross, Irish (so-called), 11, 18, 19, 32, 
172, 173, 175 

Cross of zigzags, 22 

Cross on three steps, 2, 14 

Cross on two slops, 1 4, 223- 4 

Cross on whicli bird, 14, 15 

Cross witn letters at extremities of 
limbs, 204-8, 210-18 

Cross with rays streaming from it, 139 

Cross. See also Patriarchal cross. 

Cup, held by half-figure of Saxon type, 

12 

D. 

Dragon, or dragon-like animal. 13, 10, 

20 

F. 

Figure helmetcd. See Helmoted figure. 
Figure holding two long crosses, 11, 19 
Figure mitred. See Mitred figure. 



270 



IV. — INDEX OF KEMARKABLE TYPES. 



Figure seated iu clmir, ] 1 




Figiirc with long moustacliL'si, holdiug 


M. 


long crosses, 12, 13 


T in centre of coin, 33, 38 


Figure. See also Half-figure. 


Mitre? 238-10 


Figures hooded or nimbatc holdiug 


Mitred figure holding two long crosses, 


cross between them, 20 


140, 189 


Figures, two, facing one another, hold- 


P. 


ing cross between them, 19 


Figures, two, holding long crosses, 19, 21 


Pall? 239, 240. See aho Tribrach. 


Flower between two stalks, 235 


Patriarchal cross with letters at ex- 




tremities of limbs, 205, 207-15, 


H. 


217-18. 221 


Half-figure, holding two long crosses, 22. 




See alsu Saxon half-figure. 


R. 


Hammer, 233, 240 


Raven with wings displayed, 234-5 


Hand from heaven, 233 


Rose (formed of bmls ?), 18 


Head, bearded, 16 




Head surrounded bj' circle of annulets, 




21 


S. 


Heads, animals, three, composing 

whorl, 13 ; ditto four, 21 
Helmeted figure holding branch and 

long cross, 1 1 
Helmeted figure holdiug long cross and 

bird, 12 
Helmeted figwe holding stati* and long 

cross, 13 
Helmeted figure holding two long 

crosses, 10-13 
Hound running past tree, 20 


Saxon bust head, or Iialf-figure, 10-12, 

17, 18, 20, 22, 25, 2G 
Serpent coiled, 2G, 28 
Serpent, wolf-headed, 17 
Serpents, 25, 26 

Serpents, two, forming wreath, 25 
Serpents, two, intertwined, 28 
Spiral, 20 

Standard or pennon fringed, 231-2, 234 
' Standard ' type, 3-8, 23, 31 
Star, 25 




Star, eight-rayed, formed by four crosses 


I. 


and four straight lines, 22 


Irish cross (so called). See Cross. 


Sword, 138, 238-240 



E. 



KO-sY 2()7, 
218, 240 ; (degraded), 232-3 



I.aureafi' hust of uimsuul form, 34 



T. 

Tetragrum interlaced (two annulets), 20 
Tonsured bust, facing, 73-7, 193 
Trefoil ; sometimes called three buck- 
lers, 231-2, 234 
Tribrach, 69, 72 
Tribradi forms, 35-39 



IV, — INDEX OF REMARKABLE TYPES. 



277 



Victory, 13 



W. 



Wheels, four set crosswise (derived 
from ' Irish ' cross, q.v.), 21 

Whorl composed of three wolves' heads, 
18 

WTiorl composed of four wolves' heads, 
21 

^V^lorl derived from bird, 13 



Wolf changing into wolf-headed ser- 
pent, 17 
Wolf of peculiar form, 17 
Wolf and twins, 9, 83 
Wolf's head, 17 

Wolves' heads forming whorl, 13, 21 
Wreath ending in serpents' heads, 25 

X P C in centre of coin, 79 

(x) in centre of coin, 86, 87, 93 



( 278 ) 



CORKIGENDA. 

P. 35, No. 71, add m. Wt. 220. 

Pp. 43 and 46, /or a.d. 853 read a.u. 851 ? 

P. 66, 1. 2, for ' same j'^ear ' read a.d. 855 or 857 ? 

P. 90, 1. 2, for 873 read a.d. 870. 

P. 143, 1. 35, and p. 144, 1. 2, for a.d. 807 read 808 or 810? 

P. 199, 1. 2, after 900 add or 902 ? 

P. 231, 1. 27, after 921 add or 925? 



TABLES. 



( 280 ) 



TABLE 

OF 

The Relative Weights of English Grains and French Grammes. 



Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Gi-ammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


1 


•004 


41 


2-656 


81 


5-248 


121 


7-840 


2 


•129 


42 


2-720 


82 


5^ 


312 


122 


7- 


905 


3 


•194 


43 


2-785 


83 


5^ 


378 


123 


7- 


970 


4 


•259 


44 


2-850 


84 


5^ 


442 


124 


8- 


035 


5 


•324 


45 


2-915 


85 


5- 


508 


125 


8- 


100 


6 


•388 


46 


2-980 


86 


5^ 


572 


126 


8- 


164 


7 


•453 


47 


3-045 


87 


5- 


637 1 


127 


8- 


229 


8 


•518 


48 


3-110 


88 


5^ 


702 


128 


8- 


294 


9 


•583 


49 


3-175 


89 


5- 


767 


129 


8- 


359 


10 


•048 


50 


3-240 1 


90 


5- 


832 


130 


8- 


424 


11 


•712 


51 


3-304 


91 


5- 


896 


131 


8 


488 


12 


•777 


52 


3-368 


92 


5 


961 


132 


8- 


553 


13 


•842 


53 


3-434 


93 


6 


026 


133 


8 


618 


1-i 


•907 


54 


3-498 


94 


6 


091 


134 


8 


682 


15 


•972 


65 


3-564 


95 


6 


156 


135 


8 


747 


16 


1^036 


56 


3-628 


96 


6 


220 


136 


8 


812 


17 


1^101 


57 


3-693 


97 


6 


285 


137 


8 


877 


18 


i^iee 


58 


3-758 


98 


6 


350 


138 


8 


942 


19 


1^231 


59 


3-823 


99 


6 


415 


139 


9 


007 


20 


1^296 


60 


3-888 


100 


6 


480 


140 


9 


072 


21 


1^300 


61 


3-952 


101 


6 


544 


141 


9 


136 


22 


1^425 


62 


4-017 


102 


6 


609 


142 


9 


200 


23 


1-490 


63 


4-082 


103 


6 


674 


143 


9 


265 


24 


1-555 


64 


4-146 


104 


6 


739 


144 


9 


-330 


25 


1-020 


65 


4-211 


105 


6 


804 


145 


9 


-395 


26 


1-684 


66 


4-276 


106 





868 


146 


9 


-460 


27 


1-749 


67 


4-341 


107 


6 


933 


147 


9 


-525 


28 


1-814 


08 


4-406 


108 


6 


998 


148 


9 


- 590 


29 


1-879 


69 


4-471 


109 


7 


063 


149 


9 


•655 


30 


1-944 


70 


4-536 


110 


7 


-128 


150 


9 


•720 


31 


2-008 


71 


4-600 


111 


7 


-192 


151 


9 


•784 


32 


2-073 


72 


4-0()5 


112 


7 


-257 


152 


9 


•848 


33 


2-138 


73 


4-729 


113 


1 7 


-322 


153 


9 


•914 


34 


2-202 


74 


4-794 


114 


7 


-387 


154 


*» 


•978 


35 


2-267 


75 


4-8-59 


115 


7 


-452 


155 


10 


•044 


36 


2-3.32 


76 


1 4-924 


116 


1 7 


-516 


156 


10 


•108 


37 


2-397 


77 


4-989 


117 


I 7 


•581 


157 


10 


•173 


38 


2-462 


78 


5-():,4 


118 


1 7 


•646 


158 


10 


•238 


39 


2-527 


79 


.-.• 1 l',t 


119 


7 


•711 


159 


1 10 


•303 


40 


! 2-592 


80 


, 5- 1^4 


120 


7-77r, 

1 


ir.o 


10-:5G8 



( 281 ) 



TABLE 

OP 

The Eelative Weights of English Grains and French Grajlmes. 



Orains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


161 


10-432 


201 


13-024 


241 


15-616 


290 


18-79 


162 


10 


497 


202 


13 


089 


242 


15 


680 


800 


19 


44 


163 


10 


562 


203 


13 


154 


243 


15 


745 


810 


20 


08 


164 


10 


626 


204 


13 


219 


244 


15 


810 


320 


20 


73 


165 


10 


691 


205 


13 


284 


245 


15 


875 


380 


21 


88 


166 


10 


756 


206 


13 


348 


246 


15 


940 


840 


22 


02 


167 


10 


821 


207 


13 


413 


247 


16 


005 


850 


22 


67 


168 


10 


886 


208 


13 


478 


248 


16 


070 


860 


23 


32 


169 


10 


951 


209 


13 


543 


249 


16 


135 


370 


28 


97 


170 


11 


016 


210 


13 


608 


250 


16 


200 


380 


24 


62 


171 


11 


080 


211 


13 


672 


251 


16 


264 


390 


25 


27 


172 


11 


145 


212 


13 


737 


252 


16 


328 


400 


25 


92 


173 


11 


209 


213 


13 


802 


253 


16 


394 


410 


26 


56 


174 


11 


274 


214 


13 


867 


254 


16 


458 


420 


27 


20 


175 


11 


339 


215 


13 


932 


255 


16 


524 


430 


27 


85 


176 


11 


404 


216 


13 


996 


256 


16 


588 


440 


28 


50 


177 


11 


469 


217 


14 


061 


257 


16 


653 


450 


29 


15 


178 


11 


534 


218 


14 


126 


258 


16 


718 


460 


29 


80 


179 


11 


599 


219 


14 


191 


259 


16 


783 


470 


30 


45 


180 


11 


664 


220 


14 


256 


260 


16 


848 


480 


31 


10 


181 


11 


728 


221 


14 


320 


261 


16 


912 


490 


31 


75 


182 


11 


792 


222 


14 


385 


262 


16 


977 


500 


82 


40 


183 


11 


858 


223 


14 


450 


263 


17 


042 


510 


83 


04 


184 


11 


922 


224 


14 


515 


264 


17 


106 


520 


83 


68 


185 


11 


988 


225 


14 


580 


265 


17 


171 


580 


84 


34 


186 


12 


052 


226 


14 


644 


266 


17 


236 


540 


34 


98 


187 


12 


117 


227 


14 


709 


267 


17 


301 


550 


35 


64 


188 


12 


182 


228 


14 


774 


268 


17 


366 


560 


36 


28 


189 


12 


247 


229 


14 


839 


269 


17 


431 


570 


36 


93 


190 


12 


312 


230 


14 


904 


270 


17 


496 


580 


37 


58 


191 


12 


376 


231 


14 


968 


271 


17 


560 


590 


38 


23 


192 


12 


441 


232 


15 


033 


272 


17 


625 


600 


38 


88 


193 


12 


506 


233 


15 


098 


273 


17 


689 


700 


45 


86 


194 


12 


571 


234 


15 


162 


274 


17 


754 


800 


51 


84 


195 


12 


636 


235 


15 


227 


275 


17 


819 


900 


58 


32 


196 


12 


700 


236 


15 


292 


276 


17 


884 


1000 


64 


80 


197 


12 


765 


237 


15 


357 


277 


17 


949 


2000 


129 


60 


198 


12 


830 


238 


15 


422 


278 


18 


014 i 


3000 


194 


40 


199 


12 


895 


239 


15 


487 


279 


18 


079 


4000 


259 


20 


200 


12-960 


240 


15-552 


280 


18-144 i 


5000 


824 • 00 



( 282 ) 
TABLE 

FOR 

Converting English Inches into Millimetres and the 
Measures of Mionnet's Scale. 



English Inches 
4. 



IS 



French Millimetres 

JjOO 



-J7- 
-16- 

-JS- 
-14- 

-13 

-12 

-U- 

-30- 

9 



-7- 
- 6- 



— 4- 

— « 



Mionnet's Scale ^^ 

19 

75 
70 
65 
60 
25 
50 



LONDOM: FBINTBD 3Y WILLIAM CLOVTM AND 6<>.N8, LIMITED, STAMTORD STKBET 
AND CHAUraO CB068. 



Cat.Enj.CoimVoUPlI 











/Ir'j^^. 












iM^'- 
















^^^s. 











COINS OF UNCERTAIN DATE. 
Roman p rototy/ses. Gold Coins. Silver Cains. fSceatias) 



Cal.Eng.Coms.VolI.Pl l. 







*r>^ 














"07-'**' "•- /^ ;.J 










^?A^ 



'^^^ 









^-^i 
%^-^. 



f/r^ 



f^ 










IP^ 



•/^^] •J^'::!:^) 














rr ' , 





25 





SOLA 11 AS. 



Cal.EnqCoins.Vdl.PlM 




m 



m^ 











'<i^ 



.i:z:. 













:5^ 




.^J^s-i*^. 



^ > i -^1 









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» 
























■^'^^ fj^ 




Air- >P 






16 






4fe 






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•>?/^.. 



/^-i. 









¥k 



£xt^y 






/^^ 

"/'l 



.^^ 

^1^ 



^s^ 

■^."y^ 
'••<^>^ 



:f-^J 










27 



A 






o 



CEATTAS. 



^- :-A 



*s^^^ 




^J 






mm 



CalIn^(^insMmJl_ 




,-^% 



^. 




^53;^ 



A-^ 

















■<.yf 



'"^^Ltiry 



m. 



^r 



'tr? 










•• 



--****-, 

^ 




#,• 



■0^ ■^" V 



^^/^^ 



^2^ 






^=^1 

^^t^ 




SCEATTAS. 
Kinys of Mercia. 



Cat En g. Co ins. VdlPl. V 







0%SM 


































KINGS OF MERCIA. 









A' 




^i 




CM^/i,^. Cms. Vdl Pl VI 







vy^ 




.^'i^Jfe 

















g^^ 








•^'ri^''"-' ^Mw&y .\o><^:.-- r:—^. 




KINGS OF MERCIA. 






CatEnq.Coms. miPlVIl. 



msn^ 










'■^ci 













'-''T'--^^-' 








«— — — <^ 













:^^r/: 










^<?r',;:7^ 






KINGS OF MERCIA. 







■-f!^/ >''-^« ,XW ll'--2p£.A^ '.^X'r'r^^ ^'^i'^''^^J} 



aiti:ng.Coms Jo//.Pim. 

























KINGb OF MERCiA. 
Cyneihrj^k Coenumlf. 







KINGS OF MERCIA. 
Coenu^ulf Ceoli^ulfI.Beomu;ui/.LiuiLC.m. Wi^laJ. 




^at^niCkmMIPU. 



p:^--> 


















<^ 



e 




^"i^ 













KINGS OFMERCIA. 
Berkimdf. Baryred. CeolwidfE 




"atEng.Cffi?z<;Jdmil. 














KINGS OF KENT. 
Ec^hrki. Ea^erkt. Cutkred. Bald red. 



Cat£m Corns. VolI.Pl.M 













55 -f.-/^-/ =— .%^; 








(^?^i=^i le^; 


















ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY 
Jaenl^erM. jEtkelkeard. Wulfr.d. Ceol?7od. 



Cat.Bn,^.Ums. miPlUII. 







a^;sfe: 















^^;4S^ 










ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY. 
Ceolnod. /Ethered. Pleamund. 



Cat. EmComs. Fd/.F/UV 







?%< 



'^ii-^ 











'.• --w ^"^ •* 

















'jO 






KINGS OV EAST ANGLIA. 
^^^;?7?^. ./Eihelker/it. Eadi^ald. jEtkdstanl. 










Cat.Fn^.CmsM.m.XK 





KMi-^h 









KINGS OF EAST ANGLIA. 
Athdu/eard. Beorklric. 



Cat.En//.(7m.s. VolI.Fl.m. 



,i^:^>«-.. 















KINGS OF EAST ANGLIA. 
Ead??iund. Osumld? (G-utkorm) jElkelstan. 



lJat.FmComsM/.PLm. 






















EAST ANGLIA. 
tSt. Eadmund. 



— iLX 



<±^:l^. 













Cat.Enq. Coins.VoUH.IVJII. 








EAST ANGLIA. 
tSiSadmund. 



















£<ii;i 



'^^^" 

?%^" 






-.^ ;v.' 







l7alj;ny.a?mJd/.F/.III. 






<.'t575f: 



^ rt\ r-i if:^ -'- ::i; 

r^\V 'J-^l v.'>-v * /-^/ 









/'<?^-^>?'&- 

^X^ 










EAST ANGLIA. 
-6?. Eadmund. S'L Martin. 



^^ 



(7at.Eng. Off ins. V dlMDC^ 



^^^Q^^. 



'-V 



^^JyC- 



-f- I —4^ 



«i2^. ^j^y^ 




^m 



M^ 



^i0J fe^ 



A7=iA. 






'ir^' 



^^5i^>^ 









- • - \^ 



^?l>^,„<^ 









V 










KINGS OF NORTHUMBRIA. 
Ecgfnd. Aldfril Eadl,erktAlekred.£lfu,ald.JIe.ardwdf. 



OaLEnq.Com. VdI.P lXXI. . 






V-r^/rr-y 












■;y£.^ 






,^;^ ^g:>.^ 




























N^'^^ '^'V^' 

^^^ \?^ 






S,*c-^ 



:?>7 ^; 










--t<'»4r'- 






% 









KINGS OF NORTHUMBRIA. 
Eanred. ^thclredJI. 



CatEng. Coins. Vol IPlIM. 









'^ 



/-■-" 






v;/ Ia-, 









fCr-| £CE* 















-' ' y: 



.Xj± 


















^ 



'•«£■ 



•% 



KINGS OF MCRTHUMBRIA. 
jEtkdredE Eedt^uif Osl^erht. 



CatIn^.Coms.Mm.XXlII. ^ 



1M^ '/;>:: 






























r./ 



''T'/ 






## 



;^^-- 
^i?^ 



••^^^^c^' ^-'-:^ 
W .^^ 



ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK. 
Ecjberhi. Eanircdd. WymundWulfkere. 



rr^?- 













/<^m>: 








"VvrV 




N^^- 




all/ng: Corns. VoUPLU7V. 









.. .. -. .., -y^ 







5i=^ 






















V.JL- 



DANISH AND NORSE KINGS IN NORTHUMBRIA. 
lialfdan. (G^uhed) CmL 
















^^2f;g^ CffmsMJPlIXV 














>/f^' 












^^jss^y 



^AnJ 



• << 






:ge^^ 



•^•s^/U^ 



'-<C^\ 







DANISH AND NORSE KINGS IN NORTHUMBRIA. 
(Gu()red)C^ut. Crmt and &'i£/red. 



Cat Eng'.ComsMI.FaTVl 





















^^^„^^^ 



DANISH AND NORSE KINGS IN NORTHUMBRIA. 
^iefred. 



CatEmamsJd/.P/ XXVE 






















DANISH AND NORSL KINGS IN NORTHUMBRIA. 
Siefred. Cnut orjS'ie/red!' 






~ - - J-^fr. 











r/; 



5?^ 



y: 



^ri„^-r 



i^^li^^^^^il^y^Zl^^ 




' ^ "'/ 









DANISH AND NORSE KINGS IN NORTHUMBRIA. 
^ar/ Si/itric. Almaid. Si/itncfGakpMe^nald. l/nctrlam(He^mMJ 



CalEng. Coin^. Vdl.Pl.IX/I. 









h 









^ 








DANISH AND NORSE KINGS IN NORTHUMBRIA. 



Cat.Enj.Coms.VoU.PLXXX. 








"::?; 



c^ -.'S ^"i ^^ ^^.-^f"^ 












7// ' " ' 4 



^: 



NORTHUMBRIA 



/ 



This book is DI .iuih^^k. oelow. 



CJ2490. B77C 



f''lf'""imijji 
3 riss'StfeilJff 



-^^- 



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